SAP MaxDB Deployment Guide for Linux

This deployment guide shows you how to deploy and connect to a Compute Engine virtual machine (VM) that is ready for the installation of SAP MaxDB on a Linux operating system.

The instructions in this guide use Cloud Deployment Manager to deploy and configure the VM, the Linux operating system, and the required disk volumes for SAP MaxDB.

For details on planning your deployment, see the SAP MaxDB Planning Guide.


If you require your SAP workload to run in compliance with data residency, access control, support personnel, or regulatory requirements, then you must create the required Assured Workloads folder. For more information, see Compliance and sovereign controls for SAP on Google Cloud.

If you do not already have a Google Cloud project with billing enabled, you must create one before you can deploy a VM for your SAP MaxDB installation.

To create a project:

  1. Sign in to your Google Cloud account. If you're new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how our products perform in real-world scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and deploy workloads.
  2. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud project.

  4. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  5. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud project.

Configuring the gcloud command environment

These instructions use Cloud Shell to enter gcloud commands that deploy or configure your Google Cloud resources. Cloud Shell is accessed through the Google Cloud console in your browser.

Cloud Shell runs on a VM that Google Cloud provisions each time you start Cloud Shell. The first time you use Cloud Shell, Google Cloud also creates a persistent $HOME directory for you, which is restored each time you open Cloud Shell.

The provisioned VM includes the latest Google Cloud CLI. Therefore, the gcloud commands that you use in Cloud Shell are the same as those you would use in a locally installed instance of the gcloud CLI.

If you have the gcloud CLI installed, you can issue the gcloud commands that are used in these instructions from your local machine. However, with a locally installed gcloud CLI you must always make sure that you are using the latest version of the gcloud CLI.

Whether you use Cloud Shell or gcloud CLI, you can set and change the properties of your gcloud command environment and save them as a configuration. Configurations are collections of key-value pairs that influence the behavior of the gcloud commands.

Some basic actions you can take with a configuration in Cloud Shell include:

  • Initialize a configuration:

    gcloud init
  • Check the settings of your current gcloud configuration:

    gcloud config list
  • Switch to the required Google Cloud project. Replace PROJECT_ID with your Google Cloud project ID.

    gcloud config set project PROJECT_ID
  • Set a default region. Replace REGION with a Google Cloud region.

    gcloud config set compute/region REGION
  • Set a default zone. Replace ZONE with a Google Cloud zone.

    gcloud config set compute/zone ZONE
  • Create a new configuration. Replace NAME with the name for the configuration.

    gcloud config configurations create NAME

For more information about working with configurations, see Managing gcloud CLI configurations.

Creating a network

For security purposes, create a new network. You can control who has access by adding firewall rules or by using another access control method.

If your project has a default VPC network, don't use it. Instead, create your own VPC network so that the only firewall rules in effect are those that you create explicitly.

During deployment, VM instances typically require access to the internet to download Google Cloud's Agent for SAP. If you are using one of the SAP-certified Linux images that are available from Google Cloud, the VM instance also requires access to the internet in order to register the license and to access OS vendor repositories. A configuration with a NAT gateway and with VM network tags supports this access, even if the target VMs do not have external IPs.

To set up networking:


  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the VPC networks page.

    Go to VPC networks

  2. Click Create VPC network.
  3. Enter a Name for the network.

    The name must adhere to the naming convention. VPC networks use the Compute Engine naming convention.

  4. For Subnet creation mode, choose Custom.
  5. In the New subnet section, specify the following configuration parameters for a subnet:
    1. Enter a Name for the subnet.
    2. For Region, select the Compute Engine region where you want to create the subnet.
    3. For IP stack type, select IPv4 (single-stack) and then enter an IP address range in the CIDR format, such as

      This is the primary IPv4 range for the subnet. If you plan to add more than one subnet, then assign non-overlapping CIDR IP ranges for each subnetwork in the network. Note that each subnetwork and its internal IP ranges are mapped to a single region.

    4. Click Done.
  6. To add more subnets, click Add subnet and repeat the preceding steps. You can add more subnets to the network after you have created the network.
  7. Click Create.


  1. Go to Cloud Shell.

    Go to Cloud Shell

  2. To create a new network in the custom subnetworks mode, run:
    gcloud compute networks create NETWORK_NAME --subnet-mode custom

    Replace NETWORK_NAME with the name of the new network. The name must adhere to the naming convention. VPC networks use the Compute Engine naming convention.

    Specify --subnet-mode custom to avoid using the default auto mode, which automatically creates a subnet in each Compute Engine region. For more information, see Subnet creation mode.

  3. Create a subnetwork, and specify the region and IP range:
    gcloud compute networks subnets create SUBNETWORK_NAME \
        --network NETWORK_NAME --region REGION --range RANGE

    Replace the following:

    • SUBNETWORK_NAME: the name of the new subnetwork
    • NETWORK_NAME: the name of the network you created in the previous step
    • REGION: the region where you want the subnetwork
    • RANGE: the IP address range, specified in CIDR format, such as

      If you plan to add more than one subnetwork, assign non-overlapping CIDR IP ranges for each subnetwork in the network. Note that each subnetwork and its internal IP ranges are mapped to a single region.

  4. Optionally, repeat the previous step and add additional subnetworks.

Setting up a NAT gateway

If you need to create one or more VMs without public IP addresses, you need to use network address translation (NAT) to enable the VMs to access the internet. Use Cloud NAT, a Google Cloud distributed, software-defined managed service that lets VMs send outbound packets to the internet and receive any corresponding established inbound response packets. Alternatively, you can set up a separate VM as a NAT gateway.

To create a Cloud NAT instance for your project, see Using Cloud NAT.

After you configure Cloud NAT for your project, your VM instances can securely access the internet without a public IP address.

Deploying a Linux VM for SAP MaxDB with Deployment Manager

The following instructions use Deployment Manager to deploy a VM instance with Linux and all of the persistent disks that SAP MaxDB requires.

About Deployment Manager

In these instructions, you define the resource options for your installation in a Deployment Manager configuration file template.

Deployment Manager treats all of the resources that are created for your SAP system as a single entity called a deployment. You can view and work with all of the deployments for your project on the Deployments page in the Google Cloud console.

Be aware of the following behaviors when using Deployment Manager:

  • Deleting a deployment deletes all of the resources associated with the deployment, including the VMs, the persistent disks, and any SAP systems that are installed on the VM.
  • By default, Deployment Manager uses the ACQUIRE resource creation policy. If you specify a VM name that is already in use by another VM in your project, Deployment Manager doesn't create a new VM, but instead adds the existing VM to your new deployment. If your original VM was created by a previous run of Deployment Manager, the VM is associated with two deployments.

    If you then delete the new deployment, the acquired VM is deleted from the deployment that originally created it. To avoid such a scenario, either set the Deployment Manager resource policy to CREATE, or make sure that you use unique resource names in your new deployment.

    For information about the policies you can use while creating resources with Deployment Manager and how to specify them, see the Deployment Manager documentation.

Deployment procedure

  1. Open the Cloud Shell.

    Go to the Cloud Shell

  2. Download the template.yaml configuration file template to your working directory by entering the following command in the Cloud Shell:

  3. Optionally, rename the template.yaml file to identify the configuration it defines.

  4. Open the template.yaml file in the Cloud Shell code editor.

    To open the Cloud Shell code editor, click the pencil icon in the upper right corner of the Cloud Shell terminal window.

  5. In the template.yaml file, update the following property values by replacing the brackets and their contents with the values for your installation.

    Property Data type Description
    type String

    Specifies the location, type, and version of the Deployment Manager template to use during deployment.

    The YAML file includes two type specifications, one of which is commented out. The type specification that is active by default specifies the template version as latest. The type specification that is commented out specifies a specific template version with a timestamp.

    If you need all of your deployments to use the same template version, use the type specification that includes the timestamp.

    instanceName String The name of the VM instance on which SAP MaxDB will be installed. The name must be 13 characters or less and be specified in lowercase letters, numbers, or hyphens.
    instanceType String The type of Compute Engine virtual machine on which SAP MaxDB will be installed. Specify a machine type with two or more vCPUs. For example, `n1-standard-4`. If you are running SAP MaxDB with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM, select a machine type that includes enough CPUs and memory to support both systems. See the SAP NetWeaver Planning Guide.
    zone String The zone in which you are deploying your SAP MaxDB. It must be in the same region that you selected for your subnetwork.
    subnetwork String The name of the subnetwork that you created in a previous step. If you are deploying to a shared VPC, specify this value as [SHAREDVPC_PROJECT]/[SUBNETWORK]. For example, myproject/network1.
    linuxImage String The name of the Linux operating- system image or image family that you are using with SAP MaxDB. To specify an image family, add the prefix family/ to the family name. For example, family/rhel-7 or family/sles-12-sp3-sap. To specify a specific image, specify only the image name. For the list of available image families, see the Images page in the Cloud console.
    linuxImageProject String The Google Cloud project that contains the image you are going to use. This project might be your own project or a Google Cloud image project, such as rhel-sap-cloud or suse-sap-cloud. For a list of Google Cloud image projects, see the Images page in the Compute Engine documentation.
    maxdbSID String The database instance ID.
    maxdbRootSize Integer The size in GB of /sapdb, which is the root directory of the database instance. The minimum and default values for maxdbRootSize are both 8 GB.
    maxdbDataSize Integer The size of /sapdb/[DBSID]/sapdata, which holds the database data files. The minimum and default values for maxdbDataSize are both 30 GB.
    maxdbLogSize Integer The size of /sapdb/[DBSID]saplog, which holds the database transaction logs. The minimum and default values for maxdbLogSize are both 8 GB.
    maxdbBackupSize Integer The size of the /maxdbbackup volume. This property is optional. If set to 0 or omitted, no disk is created.
    maxdbDataSSD boolean Specifies whether the data drive uses an SSD persistent disk (`Yes`) or an HDD persistent disk (`No`). `Yes` is the default.
    maxdbLogSSD boolean Specifies whether the log drive uses an SSD persistent disk (`Yes`) or an HDD persistent disk (`No`). `Yes` is the default. SSD is recommended for the log drive.
    usrsapSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP MaxDB to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.
    sapmntSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP MaxDB to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.
    swapSize Integer Required only if you are installing SAP MaxDB to run with SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance.

    The following configuration file creates a VM that is configured to run both the SAP MaxDB database server and SAP NetWeaver. The configuration file directs Deployment Manager to deploy an n1-standard-16 VM that is running a SLES 12 SP3 operating system. The VM includes all of the directories that are required to run SAP MaxDB with NetWeaver.

    - name: sap_maxdb
      # By default, this configuration file uses the latest release of the deployment
      # scripts for SAP on Google Cloud.  To fix your deployments to a specific release
      # of the scripts, comment out the type property above and uncomment the type property below.
      # type:
        instanceName: xmp-maxdb-lin
        instanceType: n1-standard-16
        zone: us-central1-f
        subnetwork: example-sub-network
        linuxImage: family/sles-12-sp3-sap
        linuxImageProject: suse-sap-cloud
        maxdbSID: MD1
        maxdbRootSize: 10
        maxdbDataSize: 50
        maxdbLogSize: 30
        maxdbBackupSize: 100
        maxdbDataSSD: Yes
        maxdbLogSSD: Yes
        usrsapSize: 15
        sapmntSize: 15
        swapSize: 24
  6. Create the VM instance:

    gcloud deployment-manager deployments create [DEPLOYMENT-NAME] --config [TEMPLATE-NAME].yaml

    The above command invokes the Deployment Manager, which deploys the VM according to the specifications in your template.yaml file. The process might take a few minutes. To check the progress of your deployment, follow the steps in the next section.

Verifying deployment

To verify deployment, you check the deployment logs in Cloud Logging and check the configuration of the VM.

Check the logs

  1. In the Google Cloud console, open Cloud Logging to monitor installation progress and check for errors.

    Go to Cloud Logging

  2. Filter the logs:

    Logs Explorer

    1. In the Logs Explorer page, go to the Query pane.

    2. From the Resource drop-down menu, select Global, and then click Add.

      If you don't see the Global option, then in the query editor, enter the following query:

    3. Click Run query.

    Legacy Logs Viewer

    • In the Legacy Logs Viewer page, from the basic selector menu, select Global as your logging resource.
  3. Analyze the filtered logs:

    • If "--- Finished" is displayed, then the deployment processing is complete and you can proceed to the next step.
    • If you see a quota error:

      1. On the IAM & Admin Quotas page, increase any of your quotas that do not meet the SAP MaxDB requirements that are listed in the SAP MaxDB planning guide.

      2. On the Deployment Manager Deployments page, delete the deployment to clean up the VMs and persistent disks from the failed installation.

      3. Rerun your deployment.

Check the configuration of the VM

  1. After the SAP MaxDB system deploys, connect to your VM by using SSH. From the Compute Engine VM instances page, you can click the SSH button for your VM instance, or you can use your preferred SSH method.

    SSH button on Compute Engine VM instances page.

  2. Change to the root user.

    sudo su -
  3. At the command prompt, enter df -h. Ensure that you see output similar to the following, such as the //sapdb/[DBSID]/sapdata directory.

    Data volumes created by the script.

  4. If you are installing SAP MaxDB on the same VM as SAP NetWeaver, confirm that the swap directory was created by entering the following command:

    cat /proc/meminfo | grep Swap

    You should see results similar to the following example:

    Example of terminal output when the swap directory exits.

If any of the validation steps show that the installation failed:

  1. Correct the error.
  2. On the Deployments page, delete the deployment to clean up the VMs and persistent disks from the failed installation.
  3. Rerun your deployment.

Installing the database

Now that your operating system is configured, you can install your SAP MaxDB database. MaxDB is typically installed with the SAP product that it is integrated with.

To install SAP MaxDB on your VM:

  1. Establish an SSH connection to your Linux-based VM.
  2. Download the SAP Software Provisioning Manager (SWPM), the SAP product installation media, and MaxDB installation Media according to SAP installation guides.
  3. Install your SAP product and SAP MaxDB database according to the SAP installation guides for your SAP product. For additional guidance, see the SAP MaxDB documentation.

SAP provides additional installation information in SAP Note 1020175 - FAQ: SAP MaxDB installation, upgrade or applying a patch.

Validate your installation of Google Cloud's Agent for SAP

After you have deployed a VM and installed your SAP system, validate that Google Cloud's Agent for SAP is functioning properly.

Verify that Google Cloud's Agent for SAP is running

To verify that the agent is running, follow these steps:

  1. Establish an SSH connection with your host VM instance.

  2. Run the following command:

    systemctl status google-cloud-sap-agent

    If the agent is functioning properly, then the output contains active (running). For example:

    google-cloud-sap-agent.service - Google Cloud Agent for SAP
    Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/google-cloud-sap-agent.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
    Active:  active (running)  since Fri 2022-12-02 07:21:42 UTC; 4 days ago
    Main PID: 1337673 (google-cloud-sa)
    Tasks: 9 (limit: 100427)
    Memory: 22.4 M (max: 1.0G limit: 1.0G)
    CGroup: /system.slice/google-cloud-sap-agent.service
           └─1337673 /usr/bin/google-cloud-sap-agent

If the agent isn't running, then restart the agent.

Verify that SAP Host Agent is receiving metrics

To verify that the infrastructure metrics are collected by Google Cloud's Agent for SAP and sent correctly to the SAP Host Agent, follow these steps:

  1. In your SAP system, enter transaction ST06.
  2. In the overview pane, check the availability and content of the following fields for the correct end-to-end setup of the SAP and Google monitoring infrastructure:

    • Cloud Provider: Google Cloud Platform
    • Enhanced Monitoring Access: TRUE
    • Enhanced Monitoring Details: ACTIVE

Performing post-deployment tasks

Before using your SAP MaxDB instance, we recommend that you perform the following post-deployment steps:

  1. Update your SAP MaxDB software with the latest patches, if available.
  2. Install any additional components.
  3. Configure and back up your new SAP MaxDB database.

For more information, see SAP MaxDB Database Administration.


This section contains information about how to correct common issues.

Troubleshooting connecting to your VM

If you are having issues connecting to your VM through SSH, ensure that you have created a firewall rule to open port 22 on the Google Cloud network you are using.

For other possible issues, see Known issues for SSH from the browser.