Terraform: Automated VM deployment for SAP ASE on Linux

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This deployment guide shows you how to deploy and connect to a Compute Engine virtual machine (VM) that is ready for the installation of SAP Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) on a Linux operating system.

The instructions in this guide use Terraform to deploy and configure the VM, the Linux operating system, the required disk volumes for SAP ASE, and install the Google Cloud monitoring agent for SAP NetWeaver.

For details on planning your deployment, see the SAP ASE planning guide. For an overview about automated deployment, see Automating SAP deployments on Google Cloud with Terraform.

Prerequisites

If you do not already have a Google Cloud project with billing enabled, then you must create one before you can deploy a VM for your SAP ASE installation.

Creating a project

  1. Sign in to your Google Cloud account. If you're new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how our products perform in real-world scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and deploy workloads.
  2. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Cloud project. Learn how to check if billing is enabled on a project.

  4. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  5. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Cloud project. Learn how to check if billing is enabled on a project.

Configuring the gcloud command environment

These instructions use Cloud Shell to enter gcloud commands that deploy or configure your Google Cloud resources. Cloud Shell is accessed through the Google Cloud console in your browser.

Cloud Shell runs on a VM that Google Cloud provisions each time you start Cloud Shell. The first time you use Cloud Shell, Google Cloud also creates a persistent $HOME directory for you, which is restored each time you open Cloud Shell.

The provisioned VM includes the latest Google Cloud CLI. Therefore, the gcloud commands that you use in Cloud Shell are the same as those you would use in a locally installed instance of the gcloud CLI.

If you have the gcloud CLI installed, you can issue the gcloud commands that are used in these instructions from your local machine. However, with a locally installed gcloud CLI you must always make sure that you are using the latest version of the gcloud CLI.

Whether you use Cloud Shell or gcloud CLI, you can set and change the properties of your gcloud command environment and save them as a configuration. Configurations are collections of key-value pairs that influence the behavior of the gcloud commands.

Some basic actions you can take with a configuration in Cloud Shell include:

  • Initialize a configuration:

    gcloud init
  • Check the settings of your current gcloud configuration:

    gcloud config list
  • Switch to the required Cloud project. Replace PROJECT_ID with your Google Cloud project ID.

    gcloud config set project PROJECT_ID
  • Set a default region. Replace REGION with a Google Cloud region.

    gcloud config set compute/region REGION
  • Set a default zone. Replace ZONE with a Google Cloud zone.

    gcloud config set compute/zone ZONE
  • Create a new configuration. Replace NAME with the name for the configuration.

    gcloud config configurations create NAME

For more information about working with configurations, see Managing gcloud CLI configurations.

Creating a network

For security purposes, create a new network. You can control who has access by adding firewall rules or by using another access control method.

If your project has a default VPC network, don't use it. Instead, create your own VPC network so that the only firewall rules in effect are those that you create explicitly.

During deployment, VM instances typically require access to the internet to download Google's monitoring agent. If you are using one of the SAP-certified Linux images that are available from Google Cloud, the VM instance also requires access to the internet in order to register the license and to access OS vendor repositories. A configuration with a NAT gateway and with VM network tags supports this access, even if the target VMs do not have external IPs.

To create a VPC network for your project, complete the following steps:

  1. Create a custom mode network. For more information, see Creating a custom mode network.

  2. Create a subnetwork, and specify the region and IP range. For more information, see Adding subnets.

Setting up a NAT gateway

If you need to create one or more VMs without public IP addresses, you need to use network address translation (NAT) to enable the VMs to access the internet. Use Cloud NAT, a Google Cloud distributed, software-defined managed service that lets VMs send outbound packets to the internet and receive any corresponding established inbound response packets. Alternatively, you can set up a separate VM as a NAT gateway.

To create a Cloud NAT instance for your project, see Using Cloud NAT.

After you configure Cloud NAT for your project, your VM instances can securely access the internet without a public IP address.

Adding firewall rules

By default, an implied firewall rule blocks incoming connections from outside your Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network. To allow incoming connections, set up a firewall rule for your VM. After an incoming connection is established with a VM, traffic is permitted in both directions over that connection.

You can also create a firewall rule to allow external access to specified ports, or to restrict access between VMs on the same network. If the default VPC network type is used, some additional default rules also apply, such as the default-allow-internal rule, which allows connectivity between VMs on the same network on all ports.

Depending on the IT policy that is applicable to your environment, you might need to isolate or otherwise restrict connectivity to your database host, which you can do by creating firewall rules.

Depending on your scenario, you can create firewall rules to allow access for:

  • ASE network listener for client connections. The default ASE port number is 5000.
  • The ports required by SAP ASE Cockpit. For a list of ports that ASE Cockpit uses, see the SAP ASE Cockpit documentation in the SAP Help Portal.
  • The default SAP ports that are listed in TCP/IP of All SAP Products.
  • Connections from your computer or your corporate network environment to your Compute Engine VM instance. If you are unsure of what IP address to use, talk to your company's network administrator.
  • SSH connections to your VM instance, including SSH-in-browser.
  • Connection to your VM by using a third-party tool in Linux. Create a rule to allow access for the tool through your firewall.

To create the firewall rules for your project, see Creating firewall rules.

Deploying a Linux VM for SAP ASE with Terraform

The following instructions use Terraform to deploy a VM instance with Linux and all of the persistent disks that SAP ASE requires. You define the values for the installation in a sap_ase.tf configuration file that Google Cloud provides.

The following instructions use Cloud Shell, but if you prefer, you can use Terraform in your local terminal instead.

  1. Open the Cloud Shell.

    Go to Cloud Shell

  2. Download the sap_ase.tf configuration file to your working directory by entering the following command in the Cloud Shell:

    wget https://storage.googleapis.com/cloudsapdeploy/terraform/latest/terraform/sap_ase/terraform/sap_ase.tf
  3. Open the sap_ase.tf file in the Cloud Shell code editor.

    To open the Cloud Shell code editor, click Open Editor.

  4. In the sap_ase.tf file, update the following argument values by replacing the content inside the double quotation marks with the values for your installation.

    Most optional arguments have a default value. When you don't specify an optional argument, the Terraform configuration uses that argument's default value, if any.

    Argument Data type Description
    source String

    Specifies the location and version of the Terraform module to use during deployment.

    The DEPLOYMENT_TYPE.tf configuration file includes two instances of the source argument: one that is active and one that is included as a comment. The source argument that is active by default specifies latest as the module version. The second instance of the source argument, which by default is deactivated by a leading # character, specifies a timestamp that identifies a module version.

    If you need all of your deployments to use the same module version, then remove the leading # character from the source argument that specifies the version timestamp and add it to the source argument that specifies latest.

    project_id String Specify the ID of your Google Cloud project in which you are deploying this system.
    zone String Specify the zone in which you are deploying your SAP system. The zone must be in the same region that you selected for your subnet.
    machine_type String Specify the type of Compute Engine virtual machine (VM) on which you need to run your SAP system. If you need a custom VM type, then specify a predefined VM type with a number of vCPUs that is closest to the number you need while still being larger. After deployment is complete, modify the number of vCPUs and the amount of memory.
    subnetwork String Specify the name of the subnetwork that you created in a previous step. If you are deploying to a shared VPC, then specify this value as SHARED_VPC_PROJECT_ID/SUBNETWORK. For example, myproject/network1.
    linux_image String Specify the name of the Linux operating system image on which you want to deploy your SAP system. For example, rhel-8-4-sap-ha or sles-15-sp3-sap. For the list of available operating system images, see the Images page in the Google Cloud console.
    linux_image_project String Specify the Google Cloud project that contains the image that you have specified for the argument linux_image. This project might be your own project or a Google Cloud image project. For a Compute Engine image, specify either rhel-sap-cloud or suse-sap-cloud. To find the image project for your operating system, see Operating system details.
    instance_name String Specify a name for the host VM instance. The name can contain lowercase letters, numbers, and hyphens. The VM instances for the worker and standby hosts use the same name with a w and the host number appended to the name.
    ase_sid String Specify the SID of your SAP ASE database instance. The ID must consist of three alpha-numeric characters and begin with a letter. All letters must be in uppercase.
    ase_sid_size Integer Optional. Specify the size in GB for /sybase/DBSID volume, which is the root directory of your SAP ASE database instance. The minimum size is 8 GB. The default value is 8.
    ase_diag_size Integer Optional. Specify the size in GB for the /sybase/DBSID/sapdiag volume, which holds the diagnostic tablespace for SAPTOOLS. The minimum size is 8 GB. The default value is 8.
    ase_sap_temp_size Integer Optional. Specify the size in GB for the /sybase/DBSID/saptmp volume, which holds the database instance's temporary tablespace. The minimum size is 8 GB. The default value is 8.
    ase_sap_data_size Integer Optional. Specify the size in GB for the /sybase/DBSID/sapdata volume, which holds the database data files. The minimum size is 30 GB. The default value is 30.
    ase_sap_data_ssd Boolean Optional. Specify true to provision an SSD persistent disk for the /sybase/DBSID/sapdata volume. If you specify false, then a balanced persistent disk is provisioned. The default value is true.
    ase_log_size Integer Optional. Specify the size in GB for the /sybase/DBSID/logdir volume, which holds the database transaction logs. The minimum size is 8 GB. The default value is 8.
    ase_log_ssd Boolean Optional. Specify true to provision an SSD persistent disk for the /sybase/DBSID/logdir volume. If you specify false, then a balanced persistent disk is provisioned. The default value is true.
    ase_backup_size Integer Optional. Specify the size in GB for the /sybasebackup volume. If you don't specify this argument or set its value to 0, then no disk is provisioned for the /sybasebackup volume.
    usr_sap_size Integer To run SAP ASE and SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance, specify the size of the /usr/sap disk in GB.

    If you don't specify this argument or set its value to 0, then no disk is provisioned for the /usr/sap volume.

    sap_mnt_size Integer To run SAP ASE and SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance, specify the size of the /sapmnt disk in GB.

    If you don't specify this argument or set its value to 0, then no disk is provisioned for the /sapmnt volume.

    swap_size Integer To run SAP ASE and SAP NetWeaver on the same VM instance, specify the size of the swap volume in GB.

    If you don't specify this argument or set its value to 0, then no disk is provisioned for the swap volume.

    network_tags String Optional. Specify one or more comma-separated network tags that you want to associate with your VM instances for firewall or routing purposes.

    If you specify public_ip = false and do not specify a network tag, then make sure to provide another means of access to the internet.

    public_ip Boolean Optional. Determines whether or not a public IP address is added to your VM instance. The default value is true.
    service_account String Optional. Specify the email address of a user-managed service account to be used by the host VMs and by the programs that run on the host VMs. For example, svc-acct-name@project-id.iam.gserviceaccount.com.

    If you specify this argument without a value, or omit it, then the installation script uses the Compute Engine default service account. For more information, see Identity and access management for SAP programs on Google Cloud.

    sap_deployment_debug Boolean Optional. Only when Cloud Customer Care asks you to enable debugging for your deployment, specify true, which makes the deployment generate verbose deployment logs. The default value is false.
    reservation_name String Optional. To use a specific Compute Engine VM reservation for this deployment, specify the name of the reservation. By default, the installation script selects any available Compute Engine reservation based on the following conditions.

    For a reservation to be usable, regardless of whether you specify a name or the installation script selects it automatically, the reservation must be set with the following:

    • The specificReservationRequired option is set to true or, in the Google Cloud console, the Select specific reservation option is selected.
    • Some Compute Engine machine types support CPU platforms that are not covered by the SAP certification of the machine type. If the target reservation is for any of the following machine types, then the reservation must specify the minimum CPU platforms as indicated:
      • n1-highmem-32: Intel Broadwell
      • n1-highmem-64: Intel Broadwell
      • n1-highmem-96: Intel Skylake
      • m1-megamem-96: Intel Skylake
    • The minimum CPU platforms for all of the other machine types that are certified by SAP for use on Google Cloud conform to the SAP minimum CPU requirement.

    The following example shows a completed configuration file, which creates a VM that is configured to run both the SAP ASE database server and SAP NetWeaver. The configuration file directs Terarform to deploy an n1-standard-16 VM that is running a SLES 15 SP3 operating system. The VM includes all of the directories that are required to run SAP ASE with SAP NetWeaver.

    #
    #...
    module "sap_ase" {
      source = https://storage.googleapis.com/cloudsapdeploy/terraform/latest/terraform/sap_ase/sap_ase_module.zip
      #
      # By default, this source file uses the latest release of the terraform module
      # for SAP on Google Cloud. To fix your deployments to a specific release
      # of the module, comment out the source property above and uncomment the source property below.
      #
      # source = "https://storage.googleapis.com/cloudsapdeploy/terraform/YYYYMMDDHHMM/terraform/sap_ase/sap_ase_module.zip"
      # ...
      project_id = "example-project-123456"
      zone = "us-central1-f"
      machine_type = "n1-standard-16"
      subnetwork = "example-subnet-us-central1"
      linux_image = "sles-15-sp3-sap"
      linux_image_project = "suse-sap-cloud"
      # ...
      instance_name = "ex-vm-ase-lin"
      # ...
      ase_sid = "AS1"
      ase_sid_size = 10
      ase_diag_size = 15
      ase_sap_temp_size = 20
      ase_sap_data_size = 50
      ase_sap_data_ssd = true
      ase_log_size = 30
      ase_log_ssd = true
      ase_backup_size = 100
      # ...
      usr_sap_size = 15
      sap_mnt_size = 15
      swap_size = 24
      # ...
    }
  5. To initialize your current working directory and download the Terraform provider plugin and module files for Google Cloud:

    terraform init

    The terraform init command prepares your working directory for other Terraform commands.

    To force a refresh of the provider plugin and configuration files in your working directory, specify the --upgrade flag. If the --upgrade flag is omitted and you don't make any changes in your working directory, Terraform uses the locally cached copies, even if latest is specified in the source URL.

    terraform init --upgrade 
  6. Optionally, to create the Terraform execution plan:

    terraform plan

    The terraform plan command shows the changes required by your current configuration. If you skip this step, the terraform apply command automatically creates a new plan and prompts you to approve it.

  7. To apply the execution plan:

    terraform apply

    When you are prompted to approve the actions, enter yes.

    The terraform apply command sets up the Google Cloud infrastructure according to the arguments defined in the Terraform configuration file. The process can take a few minutes. To check the progress of your deployment, follow the steps in the next section.

  8. After the VM instance deploys, if you need Compute Engine to save the boot disk in the event the VM instance is deleted, then follow these steps:

    1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Compute Engine VM instances page.

      Go to VM instances

    2. To open the VM instance details page for your VM instance, click the name of the VM instance.

    3. Click Edit.

    4. In the Boot disk section, for the Deletion rule, ensure that the Keep disk option is selected.

    5. Click Save.

Verifying deployment

To verify deployment, you check the deployment logs in Cloud Logging and check the configuration of the VM.

Check the logs

  1. In the Google Cloud console, open Cloud Logging to monitor installation progress and check for errors.

    Go to Cloud Logging

  2. Filter the logs:

    Logs Explorer

    1. In the Logs Explorer page, go to the Query pane.

    2. From the Resource drop-down menu, select Global, and then click Add.

      If you don't see the Global option, then in the query editor, enter the following query:

      resource.type="global"
      "Deployment"
      
    3. Click Run query.

    Legacy Logs Viewer

    • In the Legacy Logs Viewer page, from the basic selector menu, select Global as your logging resource.
  3. Analyze the filtered logs:

    • If "--- Finished" is displayed, then the deployment processing is complete and you can proceed to the next step.
    • If you see a quota error:

      1. On the IAM & Admin Quotas page, increase any of your quotas that do not meet the SAP ASE requirements that are listed in the SAP ASE planning guide.

      2. Open Cloud Shell.

        Go to Cloud Shell

      3. Go to your working directory and delete the deployment to clean up the VMs and persistent disks from the failed installation:

        terraform destroy

        When you are prompted to approve the action, enter yes.

      4. Rerun your deployment.

Check the configuration of the VM

  1. After the SAP ASE system deploys without errors, connect to your VM by using SSH. From the Compute Engine VM instances page, you can click the SSH button for your VM instance, or you can use your preferred SSH method.

    SSH button on Compute Engine VM instances page.

  2. Switch to the root user.

    sudo su -
  3. At the command prompt, enter df -h. Ensure that you see an output similar to the following, such as the //sybase/DBSID/sapdata directory.

    Filesystem                     Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    devtmpfs                       4.0M  8.0K  4.0M   1% /dev
    tmpfs                           30G     0   30G   0% /dev/shm
    tmpfs                           12G   18M   12G   1% /run
    tmpfs                          4.0M     0  4.0M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
    /dev/sda3                       30G  4.3G   26G  15% /
    /dev/sda2                       20M  2.9M   18M  15% /boot/efi
    tmpfs                          5.9G     0  5.9G   0% /run/user/0
    tmpfs                          5.9G     0  5.9G   0% /run/user/1000
    /dev/mapper/vg_asesid-vol       10G   43M   10G   1% /sybase/AS1
    /dev/mapper/vg_asesapdata-vol   50G   84M   50G   1% /sybase/AS1/sapdata_1
    /dev/mapper/vg_aselog-vol       30G   63M   30G   1% /sybase/AS1/saplog_1
    /dev/mapper/vg_asesaptemp-vol   20G   53M   20G   1% /sybase/AS1/saptemp
    /dev/mapper/vg_asesapdiag-vol   15G   48M   15G   1% /sybase/AS1/sapdiag
    /dev/mapper/vg_asebackup-vol   100G  135M  100G   1% /sybasebackup
    /dev/mapper/vg_usrsap-vol       15G   48M   15G   1% /usr/sap
    /dev/mapper/vg_sapmnt-vol       15G   48M   15G   1% /sapmnt
    
  4. Confirm that the swap directory was created by entering the following command:

    cat /proc/meminfo | grep Swap

    You should see results similar to the following example:

    SwapCached:            0 kB
    SwapTotal:      25161724 kB
    SwapFree:       25161724 kB
    

If any of the validation steps show that the installation failed, then complete the following steps:

  1. Resolve the errors.
  2. Open Cloud Shell.

    Go to Cloud Shell

  3. Go to your working directory and then delete your deployment:

    terraform destroy

    When you are prompted to approve the action, enter yes.

  4. Rerun your deployment.

Installing the database

Now that your operating system is configured, you can install your SAP ASE database instance.

To install SAP ASE on your Linux-based VM, follow these steps:

  1. Establish an SSH connection to your VM.
  2. Download or copy your SAP ASE installation media from SAP to your VM.
  3. Prepare your SAP ASE SySAM license file or license server for use with the installation.
  4. Install the SAP ASE database.

For additional installation guidance, see the SAP ASE Installation and Upgrade Guide for Linux.

Performing post-deployment tasks

Before using your SAP ASE instance, we recommend that you perform the following post-deployment steps:

  1. Update your SAP ASE software with the latest patches, if available.
  2. Install any additional components.
  3. Configure and back up your new SAP ASE database instance.

For additional post-deployment guidance, see the Post-installation Tasks section of the SAP ASE Installation and Upgrade Guide for Linux.

Validating your installation of the monitoring agent

After you have deployed a VM and installed your SAP system, validate that Google's monitoring agent is functioning properly with SAP's enhanced monitoring.

Verifying that Google's monitoring agent is running

To verify that the monitoring agent is running, follow these steps:

  1. Establish an SSH connection with your host VM.

  2. Issue the following command:

    sudo systemctl status google-sapnetweavermonitoring-agent 

    If Google's monitoring agent is functioning properly, then the output contains active (running). For example:

    google-sapnetweavermonitoring-agent.service - Google Cloud monitoring agent for SAP NetWeaver
    Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/google-sapnetweavermonitoring-agent.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
    Active:  active (running)  since Thu 2021-09-02 07:21:42 UTC; 742ms ago
    Main PID: 10723 (java)
    Tasks: 26 (limit: 512)
    CGroup: /system.slice/google-sapnetweavermonitoring-agent.service
           └─10723 /usr/sap/google-sapnetweavermonitoring-agent/jre/bin/java -Xms32m -Xmx64m -cp /usr/sap/google-sapnetweavermonitoring-age...
    

If the monitoring agent isn't running, then see the Operations Guide section about restarting Google's monitoring agent.

Verifying that SAP Host Agent is receiving metrics

To verify that the infrastructure metrics are collected and sent correctly to the SAP Host Agent, follow these steps:

  1. In your SAP system, enter transaction ST06.

  2. In the overview pane, check the availability and content of the following fields for the correct end-to-end setup of the SAP and Google monitoring infrastructure:

    • Cloud Provider: Google Cloud Platform
    • Enhanced Monitoring Access: TRUE
    • Enhanced Monitoring Details: ACTIVE

Troubleshooting

This section contains information about how to correct common issues.

Troubleshooting connecting to your VM

If you are having issues connecting to your VM through SSH, then make sure that you have created a firewall rule to open port 22 on the VPC network that you are using.

For other possible issues, see Known issues for SSH from the browser.

Troubleshooting Google's monitoring agent

To troubleshoot issues concerning the monitoring agent for SAP NetWeaver, see Troubleshooting monitoring.