インストール済みアプリのユーザー アカウントを使用した認証

このガイドでは、アプリがユーザーのマシンにインストールされているときに、BigQuery API へのアクセスについてユーザー アカウントを使用して認証する方法を説明します。

エンドユーザーが使用できる BigQuery テーブルのみにアプリがアクセスするようにするには、ユーザー認証情報を使用して認証します。ユーザー認証情報では、アプリのプロジェクトではなく、エンドユーザーの Google Cloud プロジェクトに対してのみクエリを実行できます。その結果、ユーザーはアプリではなくクエリに対して課金されます。

始める前に

  1. インストールされているアプリを表す Google Cloud プロジェクトを作成します。
  2. BigQuery クライアント ライブラリをインストールします。
  3. 必要なライブラリをインストールします。

    Java

    Maven を使用している場合は、pom ファイルに次の依存関係を含めます。
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.google.oauth-client</groupId>
      <artifactId>google-oauth-client-java6</artifactId>
      <version>1.31.0</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.google.oauth-client</groupId>
      <artifactId>google-oauth-client-jetty</artifactId>
      <version>1.31.0</version>
    </dependency>

    Python

    Google Auth と統合された oauthlib をインストールします。
    pip install --upgrade google-auth-oauthlib

    Node.js

    Google Auth と統合された oauthlib をインストールします。
    npm install google-auth-library
    npm install readline-promise

クライアント認証情報のセットアップ

次のボタンを使用してプロジェクトを選択し、必要な認証情報を作成します。

認証情報を取得

認証情報を手動で作成する

  1. Google Cloud Console の API の [認証情報] ページに移動します。
  2. OAuth 同意画面の必須フィールドに必要事項を入力します。
  3. [認証情報] ページで、[認証情報を作成] ボタンをクリックします。

    [OAuth クライアント ID] を選択します。

  4. アプリの種類として [デスクトップ] を選択し、[作成] をクリックします。
  5. [JSON をダウンロード] ボタンをクリックして、認証情報をダウンロードします。

    JSON をダウンロード。

    認証情報ファイルを client_secrets.json に保存します。このファイルはアプリとともに配布する必要があります。

API の認証と呼び出し

  1. クライアント認証情報を使用して OAuth 2.0 フローを実行します。

    Java

    import com.google.api.client.auth.oauth2.Credential;
    import com.google.api.client.extensions.java6.auth.oauth2.AuthorizationCodeInstalledApp;
    import com.google.api.client.extensions.jetty.auth.oauth2.LocalServerReceiver;
    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow;
    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleClientSecrets;
    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.javanet.GoogleNetHttpTransport;
    import com.google.api.client.json.JsonFactory;
    import com.google.api.client.json.jackson2.JacksonFactory;
    import com.google.api.client.util.store.FileDataStoreFactory;
    import com.google.api.gax.paging.Page;
    import com.google.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredentials;
    import com.google.auth.oauth2.UserCredentials;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQuery;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryException;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryOptions;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Dataset;
    import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableList;
    import java.io.File;
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.io.InputStream;
    import java.io.InputStreamReader;
    import java.nio.file.Files;
    import java.nio.file.Path;
    import java.nio.file.Paths;
    import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
    import java.util.List;
    
    // Sample to authenticate by using a user credential
    public class AuthUserFlow {
    
      private static final File DATA_STORE_DIR =
          new File(AuthUserFlow.class.getResource("/").getPath(), "credentials");
      private static final JsonFactory JSON_FACTORY = JacksonFactory.getDefaultInstance();
      // i.e redirect_uri http://localhost:61984/Callback
      private static final int LOCAL_RECEIVER_PORT = 61984;
    
      public static void runAuthUserFlow() {
        // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
        /**
         * Download your OAuth2 configuration from the Google Developers Console API Credentials page.
         * https://console.cloud.google.com/apis/credentials
         */
        Path credentialsPath = Paths.get("path/to/your/client_secret.json");
        List<String> scopes = ImmutableList.of("https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery");
        authUserFlow(credentialsPath, scopes);
      }
    
      public static void authUserFlow(Path credentialsPath, List<String> selectedScopes) {
        // Reading credentials file
        try (InputStream inputStream = Files.newInputStream(credentialsPath)) {
    
          // Load client_secret.json file
          GoogleClientSecrets clientSecrets =
              GoogleClientSecrets.load(JSON_FACTORY, new InputStreamReader(inputStream));
          String clientId = clientSecrets.getDetails().getClientId();
          String clientSecret = clientSecrets.getDetails().getClientSecret();
    
          // Generate the url that will be used for the consent dialog.
          GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow flow =
              new GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.Builder(
                      GoogleNetHttpTransport.newTrustedTransport(),
                      JSON_FACTORY,
                      clientSecrets,
                      selectedScopes)
                  .setDataStoreFactory(new FileDataStoreFactory(DATA_STORE_DIR))
                  .setAccessType("offline")
                  .setApprovalPrompt("auto")
                  .build();
    
          // Exchange an authorization code for  refresh token
          LocalServerReceiver receiver =
              new LocalServerReceiver.Builder().setPort(LOCAL_RECEIVER_PORT).build();
          Credential credential = new AuthorizationCodeInstalledApp(flow, receiver).authorize("user");
    
          // OAuth2 Credentials representing a user's identity and consent
          GoogleCredentials credentials =
              UserCredentials.newBuilder()
                  .setClientId(clientId)
                  .setClientSecret(clientSecret)
                  .setRefreshToken(credential.getRefreshToken())
                  .build();
    
          // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
          // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
          BigQuery bigquery =
              BigQueryOptions.newBuilder().setCredentials(credentials).build().getService();
    
          Page<Dataset> datasets = bigquery.listDatasets(BigQuery.DatasetListOption.pageSize(100));
          if (datasets == null) {
            System.out.println("Dataset does not contain any models");
            return;
          }
          datasets
              .iterateAll()
              .forEach(
                  dataset -> System.out.printf("Success! Dataset ID: %s ", dataset.getDatasetId()));
    
        } catch (BigQueryException | IOException | GeneralSecurityException ex) {
          System.out.println("Project does not contain any datasets \n" + ex.toString());
        }
      }
    }

    Python

    from google_auth_oauthlib import flow
    
    # TODO: Uncomment the line below to set the `launch_browser` variable.
    # launch_browser = True
    #
    # The `launch_browser` boolean variable indicates if a local server is used
    # as the callback URL in the auth flow. A value of `True` is recommended,
    # but a local server does not work if accessing the application remotely,
    # such as over SSH or from a remote Jupyter notebook.
    
    appflow = flow.InstalledAppFlow.from_client_secrets_file(
        "client_secrets.json", scopes=["https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery"]
    )
    
    if launch_browser:
        appflow.run_local_server()
    else:
        appflow.run_console()
    
    credentials = appflow.credentials

    Node.js

    const {OAuth2Client} = require('google-auth-library');
    const readline = require('readline-promise').default;
    
    function startRl() {
      const rl = readline.createInterface({
        input: process.stdin,
        output: process.stdout,
      });
    
      return rl;
    }
    
    /**
     * Download your OAuth2 configuration from the Google
     * Developers Console API Credentials page.
     * https://console.cloud.google.com/apis/credentials
     */
    const keys = require('./oauth2.keys.json');
    
    /**
     * Create a new OAuth2Client, and go through the OAuth2 content
     * workflow. Return the full client to the callback.
     */
    async function getRedirectUrl() {
      const rl = main.startRl();
      // Create an oAuth client to authorize the API call.  Secrets are kept in a `keys.json` file,
      // which should be downloaded from the Google Developers Console.
      const oAuth2Client = new OAuth2Client(
        keys.installed.client_id,
        keys.installed.client_secret,
        keys.installed.redirect_uris[0]
      );
    
      // Generate the url that will be used for the consent dialog.
      const authorizeUrl = oAuth2Client.generateAuthUrl({
        access_type: 'offline',
        scope: 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery',
        prompt: 'consent',
      });
    
      console.info(
        `Please visit this URL to authorize this application: ${authorizeUrl}`
      );
    
      const code = await rl.questionAsync('Enter the authorization code: ');
      const tokens = await main.exchangeCode(code);
      rl.close();
    
      return tokens;
    }
    
    // Exchange an authorization code for an access token
    async function exchangeCode(code) {
      const oAuth2Client = new OAuth2Client(
        keys.installed.client_id,
        keys.installed.client_secret,
        keys.installed.redirect_uris[0]
      );
    
      const r = await oAuth2Client.getToken(code);
      console.info(r.tokens);
      return r.tokens;
    }
    
    async function authFlow(projectId = 'project_id') {
      /**
       * TODO(developer):
       * Save Project ID as environment variable PROJECT_ID="project_id"
       * Uncomment the following line before running the sample.
       */
      // projectId = process.env.PROJECT_ID;
    
      const tokens = await main.getRedirectUrl();
    
      const credentials = {
        type: 'authorized_user',
        client_id: keys.installed.client_id,
        client_secret: keys.installed.client_secret,
        refresh_token: tokens.refresh_token,
      };
    
      return {
        projectId,
        credentials,
      };
    }
  2. 認証済みの認証情報を使用して BigQuery API に接続します。

    Java

    import com.google.api.client.auth.oauth2.Credential;
    import com.google.api.client.extensions.java6.auth.oauth2.AuthorizationCodeInstalledApp;
    import com.google.api.client.extensions.jetty.auth.oauth2.LocalServerReceiver;
    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow;
    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleClientSecrets;
    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.javanet.GoogleNetHttpTransport;
    import com.google.api.client.json.JsonFactory;
    import com.google.api.client.json.jackson2.JacksonFactory;
    import com.google.api.client.util.store.FileDataStoreFactory;
    import com.google.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredentials;
    import com.google.auth.oauth2.UserCredentials;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQuery;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryException;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryOptions;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.QueryJobConfiguration;
    import com.google.cloud.bigquery.TableResult;
    import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableList;
    import java.io.File;
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.io.InputStream;
    import java.io.InputStreamReader;
    import java.nio.file.Files;
    import java.nio.file.Path;
    import java.nio.file.Paths;
    import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
    import java.util.List;
    
    // Sample to query by using a user credential
    public class AuthUserQuery {
    
      private static final File DATA_STORE_DIR =
          new File(AuthUserQuery.class.getResource("/").getPath(), "credentials");
      private static final JsonFactory JSON_FACTORY = JacksonFactory.getDefaultInstance();
      // i.e redirect_uri http://localhost:61984/Callback
      private static final int LOCAL_RECEIVER_PORT = 61984;
    
      public static void runAuthUserQuery() {
        // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
        /**
         * Download your OAuth2 configuration from the Google Developers Console API Credentials page.
         * https://console.cloud.google.com/apis/credentials
         */
        Path credentialsPath = Paths.get("path/to/your/client_secret.json");
        List<String> scopes = ImmutableList.of("https://www.googleapis.com/auth/bigquery");
        String query =
            "SELECT name, SUM(number) as total"
                + "  FROM `bigquery-public-data.usa_names.usa_1910_current`"
                + "  WHERE name = 'William'"
                + "  GROUP BY name;";
        authUserQuery(credentialsPath, scopes, query);
      }
    
      public static void authUserQuery(
          Path credentialsPath, List<String> selectedScopes, String query) {
        // Reading credentials file
        try (InputStream inputStream = Files.newInputStream(credentialsPath)) {
    
          // Load client_secret.json file
          GoogleClientSecrets clientSecrets =
              GoogleClientSecrets.load(JSON_FACTORY, new InputStreamReader(inputStream));
          String clientId = clientSecrets.getDetails().getClientId();
          String clientSecret = clientSecrets.getDetails().getClientSecret();
    
          // Generate the url that will be used for the consent dialog.
          GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow flow =
              new GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.Builder(
                      GoogleNetHttpTransport.newTrustedTransport(),
                      JSON_FACTORY,
                      clientSecrets,
                      selectedScopes)
                  .setDataStoreFactory(new FileDataStoreFactory(DATA_STORE_DIR))
                  .setAccessType("offline")
                  .setApprovalPrompt("auto")
                  .build();
    
          // Exchange an authorization code for  refresh token
          LocalServerReceiver receiver =
              new LocalServerReceiver.Builder().setPort(LOCAL_RECEIVER_PORT).build();
          Credential credential = new AuthorizationCodeInstalledApp(flow, receiver).authorize("user");
    
          // OAuth2 Credentials representing a user's identity and consent
          GoogleCredentials credentials =
              UserCredentials.newBuilder()
                  .setClientId(clientId)
                  .setClientSecret(clientSecret)
                  .setRefreshToken(credential.getRefreshToken())
                  .build();
    
          // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
          // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
          BigQuery bigquery =
              BigQueryOptions.newBuilder().setCredentials(credentials).build().getService();
    
          QueryJobConfiguration queryConfig = QueryJobConfiguration.newBuilder(query).build();
    
          TableResult results = bigquery.query(queryConfig);
    
          results
              .iterateAll()
              .forEach(row -> row.forEach(val -> System.out.printf("%s,", val.toString())));
    
          System.out.println("Query performed successfully.");
    
        } catch (BigQueryException | IOException | GeneralSecurityException | InterruptedException ex) {
          System.out.println("Query not performed \n" + ex.toString());
        }
      }
    }

    Python

    from google.cloud import bigquery
    
    # TODO: Uncomment the line below to set the `project` variable.
    # project = 'user-project-id'
    #
    # The `project` variable defines the project to be billed for query
    # processing. The user must have the bigquery.jobs.create permission on
    # this project to run a query. See:
    # https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/access-control#permissions
    
    client = bigquery.Client(project=project, credentials=credentials)
    
    query_string = """SELECT name, SUM(number) as total
    FROM `bigquery-public-data.usa_names.usa_1910_current`
    WHERE name = 'William'
    GROUP BY name;
    """
    query_job = client.query(query_string)
    
    # Print the results.
    for row in query_job.result():  # Wait for the job to complete.
        print("{}: {}".format(row["name"], row["total"]))

    Node.js

    async function query() {
      const {BigQuery} = require('@google-cloud/bigquery');
    
      const credentials = await main.authFlow();
      const bigquery = new BigQuery(credentials);
    
      // Queries the U.S. given names dataset for the state of Texas.
      const query = `SELECT name, SUM(number) as total
      FROM \`bigquery-public-data.usa_names.usa_1910_current\`
      WHERE name = 'William'
      GROUP BY name;`;
    
      // For all options, see https://cloud.google.com/bigquery/docs/reference/rest/v2/jobs/query
      const options = {
        query: query,
      };
    
      // Run the query as a job
      const [job] = await bigquery.createQueryJob(options);
      console.log(`Job ${job.id} started.`);
    
      // Wait for the query to finish
      const [rows] = await job.getQueryResults();
    
      // Print the results
      console.log('Rows:');
      rows.forEach(row => console.log(row));
    
      return rows;
    }
    
    const main = {
      query,
      authFlow,
      exchangeCode,
      getRedirectUrl,
      startRl,
    };
    module.exports = {
      main,
    };
    
    if (module === require.main) {
      query().catch(console.error);
    }

サンプルコードを実行すると、クライアント シークレットに関連付けられているプロジェクトへのアクセスを要求するブラウザが起動されます。サンプルで BigQuery スコープが要求されたため、生成された認証情報を使用してユーザーの BigQuery リソースにアクセスできます。

次のステップ

  1. アプリを認証して BigQuery API にアクセスするその他の方法について学びます。
  2. すべての Cloud APIs のエンドユーザー認証情報を使用した認証について学びます。