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Running jobs programmatically

To run a BigQuery job programmatically using the REST API or client libraries, you:

  1. Call the jobs.insert method.
  2. Periodically request the job resource and examine the status property to learn when the job is complete.
  3. Check to see whether the job finished successfully.

Before you begin

Grant Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles that give users the necessary permissions to perform each task in this document.

Required permissions

To run a BigQuery job, you need the bigquery.jobs.create IAM permission.

Each of the following predefined IAM roles includes the permissions that you need in order to run a job:

  • roles/bigquery.user
  • roles/bigquery.jobUser
  • roles/bigquery.admin

Additionally, when you create a job, you are automatically granted the following permissions for that job:

  • bigquery.jobs.get
  • bigquery.jobs.update

For more information on IAM roles and permissions in BigQuery, see Predefined roles and permissions.

Running jobs

To run a job programmatically:

  1. Start the job by calling the jobs.insert method. When you call the jobs.insert method, include a job resource representation.

  2. In the configuration section of the job resource, include a child property that specifies the job type — load, query, extract, or copy.

  3. After calling the jobs.insert method, check the job status by calling jobs.get with the job ID and location, and check the status.state value to learn the job status. When status.state is DONE, the job has stopped running; however, a DONE status does not mean that the job completed successfully, only that it is no longer running.

  4. Check for job success. If the job has an errorResult property, the job has failed. The status.errorResult property holds information describing what went wrong in a failed job. If status.errorResult is absent, the job finished successfully, although there might have been some nonfatal errors, such as problems importing a few rows in a load job. Nonfatal errors are returned in the job's status.errors list.

Running jobs using client libraries

To create and run a job using the Cloud Client Libraries for BigQuery:

C#

Before trying this sample, follow the C# setup instructions in the BigQuery quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery C# API reference documentation.


using Google.Cloud.BigQuery.V2;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class BigQueryCreateJob
{
    public BigQueryJob CreateJob(string projectId = "your-project-id")
    {
        string query = @"
            SELECT country_name from `bigquery-public-data.utility_us.country_code_iso";

        // Initialize client that will be used to send requests.
        BigQueryClient client = BigQueryClient.Create(projectId);

        QueryOptions queryOptions = new QueryOptions
        {
            JobLocation = "us",
            JobIdPrefix = "code_sample_",
            Labels = new Dictionary<string, string>
            {
                ["example-label"] = "example-value"
            },
            MaximumBytesBilled = 1000000
        };

        BigQueryJob queryJob = client.CreateQueryJob(
            sql: query,
            parameters: null,
            options: queryOptions);

        Console.WriteLine($"Started job: {queryJob.Reference.JobId}");
        return queryJob;
    }
}

Java

Before trying this sample, follow the Java setup instructions in the BigQuery quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Java API reference documentation.

import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQuery;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryException;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.BigQueryOptions;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.Job;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.JobId;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.JobInfo;
import com.google.cloud.bigquery.QueryJobConfiguration;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableMap;
import java.util.UUID;

// Sample to create a job
public class CreateJob {

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String query = "SELECT country_name from `bigquery-public-data.utility_us.country_code_iso`";
    createJob(query);
  }

  public static void createJob(String query) {
    try {
      // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
      // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
      BigQuery bigquery = BigQueryOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

      // Specify a job configuration to set optional job resource properties.
      QueryJobConfiguration queryConfig =
          QueryJobConfiguration.newBuilder(query)
              .setLabels(ImmutableMap.of("example-label", "example-value"))
              .build();

      // The location and job name are optional,
      // if both are not specified then client will auto-create.
      String jobName = "jobId_" + UUID.randomUUID().toString();
      JobId jobId = JobId.newBuilder().setLocation("us").setJob(jobName).build();

      // Create a job with job ID
      bigquery.create(JobInfo.of(jobId, queryConfig));

      // Get a job that was just created
      Job job = bigquery.getJob(jobId);
      if (job.getJobId().getJob().equals(jobId.getJob())) {
        System.out.print("Job created successfully." + job.getJobId().getJob());
      } else {
        System.out.print("Job was not created");
      }
    } catch (BigQueryException e) {
      System.out.print("Job was not created. \n" + e.toString());
    }
  }
}

Python

Before trying this sample, follow the Python setup instructions in the BigQuery quickstart using client libraries. For more information, see the BigQuery Python API reference documentation.

from google.cloud import bigquery

# Construct a BigQuery client object.
client = bigquery.Client()

query_job = client.query(
    "SELECT country_name from `bigquery-public-data.utility_us.country_code_iso`",
    # Explicitly force job execution to be routed to a specific processing
    # location.
    location="US",
    # Specify a job configuration to set optional job resource properties.
    job_config=bigquery.QueryJobConfig(
        labels={"example-label": "example-value"}, maximum_bytes_billed=1000000
    ),
    # The client libraries automatically generate a job ID. Override the
    # generated ID with either the job_id_prefix or job_id parameters.
    job_id_prefix="code_sample_",
)  # Make an API request.

print("Started job: {}".format(query_job.job_id))

Adding job labels

Labels can be added to query jobs through the command line by using the bq command-line tool's --label flag. The bq tool supports adding labels only to query jobs.

You can also add a label to a job when it's submitted through the API by specifying the labels property in the job configuration when you call the jobs.insert method. The API can be used to add labels to any job type.

You cannot add labels to or update labels on pending, running, or completed jobs.

When you add a label to a job, the label is included in your billing data.

For more information, see Adding job labels.

What's next

  • See Running queries for a code example that starts and polls a query job.
  • For more information on creating a job resource representation, see the Jobs overview page in the API reference.