创建和启动虚拟机实例

本文档介绍如何使用启动磁盘映像、启动磁盘快照或容器映像创建虚拟机 (VM) 实例。某些映像支持安全强化型虚拟机功能,这些功能提供了诸多安全功能,例如符合 UEFI 标准的固件、安全启动以及受 vTPM 保护的测量启动。在安全强化型虚拟机上,默认情况下会启用 vTPM 和完整性监控

在创建虚拟机时,您可为虚拟机创建一个或多个磁盘。也可以在创建虚拟机后为其添加更多磁盘。在您创建虚拟机实例后,Compute Engine 会自动将其启动。

创建虚拟机时,您还可以添加多个网络接口。为了缓解互联网给虚拟机造成的威胁,您可以在向实例添加网络接口时省略外部 IP 地址。在这种情况下,除非您配置了 Cloud NAT,否则只能从同一 VPC 网络或关联网络中的其他虚拟机访问该虚拟机。

如果您是首次创建虚拟机,请参阅《快速入门:使用 Linux 虚拟机》《快速入门:使用 Windows Server 虚拟机》

有关更具体或更复杂的虚拟机创建,请参阅以下资源:

如果自带现有许可,请参阅使用单租户节点自带许可

准备工作

通过映像创建虚拟机实例

本部分介绍如何使用公共操作系统映像自定义映像创建虚拟机。虚拟机包含引导加载程序、启动文件系统和操作系统映像。

查看 Compute Engine 上的可用公共映像列表

在使用公共映像创建虚拟机之前,请先查看 Compute Engine 上的可用公共映像列表。

如需详细了解每个公共映像提供的功能,请参阅按操作系统提供功能支持

控制台

  1. 在 Google Cloud Console 中,转到映像页面。

    转到“映像”

gcloud

  1. 运行以下命令:

    gcloud compute images list
  2. 请记下映像或映像系列的名称以及包含该映像的项目的名称。

  3. 可选:如需确定映像是否支持安全强化型虚拟机功能,请运行以下命令:

    gcloud compute images describe IMAGE_NAME \
        --project=IMAGE_PROJECT
    

    请替换以下内容:

    如果映像支持安全强化型虚拟机功能,则输出中会显示以下行:type: UEFI_COMPATIBLE

API

  1. 运行以下命令:

    GET https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/IMAGE_PROJECT/global/images/
    
  2. 请记下映像或映像系列的名称以及包含该映像的项目的名称。

  3. 可选:如需确定映像是否支持安全强化型虚拟机功能,请运行以下命令:

    GET https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/IMAGE_PROJECT/global/images/IMAGE_NAME
    

    请替换以下内容:

    如果映像支持安全强化型虚拟机功能,则输出中会显示以下行:type: UEFI_COMPATIBLE

C#


using Google.Cloud.Compute.V1;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class ListImagesAsyncSample
{
    public async Task ListImagesAsync(
        // TODO(developer): Set your own default values for these parameters or pass different values when calling this method.
        string projectId = "your-project-id")
    {
        // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
        // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
        ImagesClient client = await ImagesClient.CreateAsync();

        // Make the request to list all non-deprecated images in a project.
        ListImagesRequest request = new ListImagesRequest
        {
            Project = projectId,
            // Listing only non-deprecated images to reduce the size of the reply.
            Filter = "deprecated.state != DEPRECATED",
            // MaxResults indicates the maximum number of items that will be returned per page.
            MaxResults = 100
        };

        // Although the MaxResults parameter is specified in the request, the sequence returned
        // by the ListAsync() method hides the pagination mechanic. The library makes multiple
        // requests to the API for you, so you can simply iterate over all the images.
        await foreach (var image in client.ListAsync(request))
        {
            // The result is an Image collection.
            Console.WriteLine($"Image: {image.Name}");
        }
    }
}

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

// printImagesList prints a list of all non-deprecated image names available in given project.
func printImagesList(w io.Writer, projectID string) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	ctx := context.Background()
	imagesClient, err := compute.NewImagesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewImagesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer imagesClient.Close()

	// Listing only non-deprecated images to reduce the size of the reply.
	req := &computepb.ListImagesRequest{
		Project:    projectID,
		MaxResults: proto.Uint32(3),
		Filter:     proto.String("deprecated.state != DEPRECATED"),
	}

	// Although the `MaxResults` parameter is specified in the request, the iterator returned
	// by the `list()` method hides the pagination mechanic. The library makes multiple
	// requests to the API for you, so you can simply iterate over all the images.
	it := imagesClient.List(ctx, req)
	for {
		image, err := it.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			break
		}
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "- %s\n", image.GetName())
	}
	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Image;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.ImagesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.ImagesClient.ListPage;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.ListImagesRequest;
import java.io.IOException;
  // Prints a list of all non-deprecated image names available in given project.
  public static void listImages(String project) throws IOException {
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
    // once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After completing all of your requests, call
    // the `instancesClient.close()` method on the client to
    // safely clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (ImagesClient imagesClient = ImagesClient.create()) {

      // Listing only non-deprecated images to reduce the size of the reply.
      ListImagesRequest imagesRequest = ListImagesRequest.newBuilder()
          .setProject(project)
          .setMaxResults(100)
          .setFilter("deprecated.state != DEPRECATED")
          .build();

      // Although the `setMaxResults` parameter is specified in the request, the iterable returned
      // by the `list()` method hides the pagination mechanic. The library makes multiple
      // requests to the API for you, so you can simply iterate over all the images.
      int imageCount = 0;
      for (Image image : imagesClient.list(imagesRequest).iterateAll()) {
        imageCount++;
        System.out.println(image.getName());
      }
      System.out.printf("Image count in %s is: %s", project, imageCount);
    }
  }

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');

async function listImages() {
  const imagesClient = new compute.ImagesClient();

  // Listing only non-deprecated images to reduce the size of the reply.
  const images = imagesClient.listAsync({
    project: projectId,
    maxResults: 3,
    filter: 'deprecated.state != DEPRECATED',
  });

  // Although the `maxResults` parameter is specified in the request, the iterable returned
  // by the `listAsync()` method hides the pagination mechanic. The library makes multiple
  // requests to the API for you, so you can simply iterate over all the images.
  for await (const image of images) {
    console.log(` - ${image.name}`);
  }
}

listImages();

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\ImagesClient;

/**
 * Prints a list of all non-deprecated image names available in given project.
 *
 * @param string $projectId Project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to list images from.
 *
 * @throws \Google\ApiCore\ApiException if the remote call fails.
 */
function list_all_images(string $projectId)
{
    $imagesClient = new ImagesClient();
    // Listing only non-deprecated images to reduce the size of the reply.
    $optionalArgs = ['maxResults' => 100, 'filter' => 'deprecated.state != DEPRECATED'];

    /**
     * Although the maxResults parameter is specified in the request, the iterateAllElements() method
     * hides the pagination mechanic. The library makes multiple requests to the API for you,
     * so you can simply iterate over all the images.
     */
    $pagedResponse = $imagesClient->list($projectId, $optionalArgs);
    print('=================== Flat list of images ===================' . PHP_EOL);
    foreach ($pagedResponse->iterateAllElements() as $element) {
        printf(' - %s' . PHP_EOL, $element->getName());
    }
}

Python

import google.cloud.compute_v1 as compute_v1

def print_images_list(project: str) -> str:
    """
    Prints a list of all non-deprecated image names available in given project.

    Args:
        project: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to list images from.

    Returns:
        The output as a string.
    """
    images_client = compute_v1.ImagesClient()
    # Listing only non-deprecated images to reduce the size of the reply.
    images_list_request = compute_v1.ListImagesRequest(
        project=project, max_results=100, filter="deprecated.state != DEPRECATED"
    )
    output = []

    # Although the `max_results` parameter is specified in the request, the iterable returned
    # by the `list()` method hides the pagination mechanic. The library makes multiple
    # requests to the API for you, so you can simply iterate over all the images.
    for img in images_client.list(request=images_list_request):
        print(f" -  {img.name}")
        output.append(f" -  {img.name}")
    return "\n".join(output)

Ruby


require "google/cloud/compute/v1"

# Prints a list of all non-deprecated image names available in given project.
#
# @param [String] project project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to list images from.
def print_images_list project:
  client = ::Google::Cloud::Compute::V1::Images::Rest::Client.new

  # Make the request to list all non-deprecated images in a project.
  request = {
    project: project,
    # max_results indicates the maximum number of items that will be returned per page.
    max_results: 100,
    # Listing only non-deprecated images to reduce the size of the reply.
    filter: "deprecated.state != DEPRECATED"
  }

  # Although the `max_results` parameter is specified in the request, the iterable returned
  # by the `list` method hides the pagination mechanic. The library makes multiple
  # requests to the API for you, so you can simply iterate over all the images.
  client.list(request).each do |image|
    puts " - #{image.name}"
  end
end

通过公共映像创建虚拟机实例

Google、开源社区及第三方供应商会提供和维护公共操作系统映像。默认情况下,所有 Google Cloud 项目都可以从公共操作系统映像创建虚拟机。但是,如果您的 Cloud 项目有一个定义的可信映像列表,则您只能使用该列表中的映像来创建虚拟机。

如果您使用本地 SSD 创建安全强化型虚拟机映像,则无法使用完整性监控虚拟可信平台模块 (vTPM)

控制台

  1. 在 Google Cloud Console 中,转到虚拟机实例页面。

    转到虚拟机实例

  2. 选择您的项目并点击继续

  3. 点击创建实例

  4. 为您的虚拟机指定名称。如需了解详情,请参阅资源命名惯例

  5. 可选操作:更改此虚拟机的可用区。Compute Engine 会随机列出每个区域内的可用区,以鼓励跨多个可用区使用。

  6. 为您的虚拟机选择机器配置

  7. 启动磁盘部分,点击更改,然后执行以下操作:

    1. 公共映像标签页中,选择以下内容:
      • 操作系统
      • 操作系统版本
      • 启动磁盘类型
      • 启动磁盘大小
    2. 可选:对于高级配置选项,点击显示高级配置
    3. 如需确认您的启动磁盘选项,请点击选择
  8. 防火墙部分中,如需允许 HTTP 或 HTTPS 流量流向虚拟机,请选择允许 HTTP 流量允许 HTTPS 流量。选择其中一项后,Compute Engine 会向您的虚拟机添加一个网络标记,以将防火墙规则与该虚拟机相关联。然后,Compute Engine 会创建相应的入站防火墙规则,该规则允许 tcp:80 (HTTP) 或 tcp:443 (HTTPS) 上的所有传入流量。

  9. 可选操作:如果您选择了支持安全强化型虚拟机功能的操作系统映像,则可以修改安全强化型虚拟机设置:如需修改安全强化型虚拟机设置,请展开网络、磁盘、安全、管理、单独租用部分中的安全部分,然后根据需要执行以下操作:

  10. 要创建并启动该虚拟机,请点击创建

gcloud

  1. 选择公共映像。请记下映像或映像系列的名称以及包含该映像的项目的名称。
  2. 使用 gcloud compute instances create 命令从映像系列或操作系统映像的特定版本创建虚拟机。

    如果您指定可选的 --shielded-secure-boot 标志,则 Compute Engine 会创建一个启用了以下所有三项安全强化型虚拟机功能的虚拟机:

    在 Compute Engine 启动您的虚拟机后,您必须停止该虚拟机以修改安全强化型虚拟机选项。

    gcloud compute instances create VM_NAME \
        [--image=IMAGE | --image-family=IMAGE_FAMILY] \
        --image-project=IMAGE_PROJECT
        --machine-type=MACHINE_TYPE

    请替换以下内容:

    • VM_NAME:新虚拟机的名称
    • IMAGEIMAGE_FAMILY:指定以下其中一项:

      • IMAGE:公共映像的特定版本

        例如 --image=debian-10-buster-v20200309

      • IMAGE_FAMILY映像系列

        此项表示通过最新的未弃用的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。例如,如果您指定 --image-family=debian-10,则 Compute Engine 会通过 Debian 10 映像系列中最新版本的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。

    • IMAGE_PROJECT:包含映像的项目

    • MACHINE_TYPE:新虚拟机的预定义自定义机器类型

      如需获取可用区中可用的机器类型列表,请使用带有 --zones 标志的 gcloud compute machine-types list 命令

  3. 验证 Compute Engine 是否已创建该虚拟机:

    gcloud compute instances describe VM_NAME
    

    VM_NAME 替换为虚拟机名称。

API

  1. 选择公共映像。请记下映像或映像系列的名称以及包含该映像的项目的名称。
  2. 使用 instances.insert 方法从映像系列或操作系统映像的特定版本创建虚拟机:

    POST https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/zones/ZONE/instances
    
    {
     "machineType": "zones/MACHINE_TYPE_ZONE/machineTypes/MACHINE_TYPE",
     "name": "VM_NAME",
     "disks": [
       {
         "initializeParams": {
           "sourceImage": "projects/IMAGE_PROJECT/global/images/IMAGE"
         },
         "boot": true
       }
     ],
     "shieldedInstanceConfig": {
       "enableSecureBoot": ENABLE_SECURE_BOOT
     }
    }
    

    请替换以下内容:

    • PROJECT_ID:要在其中创建虚拟机的项目的 ID
    • ZONE:要在其中创建虚拟机的可用区
    • MACHINE_TYPE_ZONE:包含新虚拟机将使用的机器类型的可用区
    • MACHINE_TYPE:新虚拟机的预定义自定义机器类型
    • VM_NAME:新虚拟机的名称
    • IMAGE_PROJECT:包含映像的项目

      例如,如果您将 debian-10 指定为映像系列,请将 debian-cloud 指定为映像项目。

    • IMAGEIMAGE_FAMILY:指定以下其中一项:

      • IMAGE:公共映像的特定版本

        例如:"sourceImage": "projects/debian-cloud/global/images/debian-10-buster-v20200309"

      • IMAGE_FAMILY映像系列

        此项表示通过最新的未弃用的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。例如,如果您指定 "sourceImage": "projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10",则 Compute Engine 会通过 Debian 10 映像系列中最新版本的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。

    • ENABLE_SECURE_BOOT(可选):如果您选择了支持安全强化型虚拟机功能的映像,则 Compute Engine 会默认启用虚拟可信平台模块 (vTPM)完整性监控。默认情况下,Compute Engine 不会启用安全启动

      如果为 enableSecureBoot 指定 true,则 Compute Engine 会创建一个启用了所有三项安全强化型虚拟机功能的虚拟机。在 Compute Engine 启动您的虚拟机后,如需修改安全强化型虚拟机选项,您必须停止该虚拟机。

C#


using Google.Cloud.Compute.V1;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class CreateInstanceAsyncSample
{
    public async Task CreateInstanceAsync(
        // TODO(developer): Set your own default values for these parameters or pass different values when calling this method.
        string projectId = "your-project-id",
        string zone = "us-central1-a",
        string machineName = "test-machine",
        string machineType = "n1-standard-1",
        string diskImage = "projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10",
        long diskSizeGb = 10,
        string networkName = "default")
    {
        Instance instance = new Instance
        {
            Name = machineName,
            // See https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/machine-types for more information on machine types.
            MachineType = $"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{machineType}",
            // Instance creation requires at least one persistent disk.
            Disks =
            {
                new AttachedDisk
                {
                    AutoDelete = true,
                    Boot = true,
                    Type = ComputeEnumConstants.AttachedDisk.Type.Persistent,
                    InitializeParams = new AttachedDiskInitializeParams
                    {
                        // See https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images for more information on available images.
                        SourceImage = diskImage,
                        DiskSizeGb = diskSizeGb
                    }
                }
            },
            NetworkInterfaces = { new NetworkInterface { Name = networkName } }
        };

        // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
        // once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
        InstancesClient client = await InstancesClient.CreateAsync();

        // Insert the instance in the specified project and zone.
        var instanceCreation = await client.InsertAsync(projectId, zone, instance);

        // Wait for the operation to complete using client-side polling.
        // The server-side operation is not affected by polling,
        // and might finish successfully even if polling times out.
        await instanceCreation.PollUntilCompletedAsync();
    }
}

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

// createInstance sends an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and waits for it to complete.
func createInstance(w io.Writer, projectID, zone, instanceName, machineType, sourceImage, networkName string) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	// zone := "europe-central2-b"
	// instanceName := "your_instance_name"
	// machineType := "n1-standard-1"
	// sourceImage := "projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10"
	// networkName := "global/networks/default"

	ctx := context.Background()
	instancesClient, err := compute.NewInstancesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewInstancesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer instancesClient.Close()

	req := &computepb.InsertInstanceRequest{
		Project: projectID,
		Zone:    zone,
		InstanceResource: &computepb.Instance{
			Name: proto.String(instanceName),
			Disks: []*computepb.AttachedDisk{
				{
					InitializeParams: &computepb.AttachedDiskInitializeParams{
						DiskSizeGb:  proto.Int64(10),
						SourceImage: proto.String(sourceImage),
					},
					AutoDelete: proto.Bool(true),
					Boot:       proto.Bool(true),
					Type:       proto.String(computepb.AttachedDisk_PERSISTENT.String()),
				},
			},
			MachineType: proto.String(fmt.Sprintf("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s", zone, machineType)),
			NetworkInterfaces: []*computepb.NetworkInterface{
				{
					Name: proto.String(networkName),
				},
			},
		},
	}

	op, err := instancesClient.Insert(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to create instance: %v", err)
	}

	if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Instance created\n")

	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.api.gax.longrunning.OperationFuture;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk.Type;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InsertInstanceRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Instance;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InstancesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.NetworkInterface;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Operation;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;

public class CreateInstance {

  public static void main(String[] args)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String project = "your-project-id";
    String zone = "zone-name";
    String instanceName = "instance-name";
    createInstance(project, zone, instanceName);
  }

  // Create a new instance with the provided "instanceName" value in the specified project and zone.
  public static void createInstance(String project, String zone, String instanceName)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    // Below are sample values that can be replaced.
    // machineType: machine type of the VM being created.
    // *   This value uses the format zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}.
    // *   For a list of machine types, see https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/machine-types
    // sourceImage: path to the operating system image to mount.
    // *   For details about images you can mount, see https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images
    // diskSizeGb: storage size of the boot disk to attach to the instance.
    // networkName: network interface to associate with the instance.
    String machineType = String.format("zones/%s/machineTypes/n1-standard-1", zone);
    String sourceImage = String
        .format("projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/%s", "debian-11");
    long diskSizeGb = 10L;
    String networkName = "default";

    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
    // once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After completing all of your requests, call
    // the `instancesClient.close()` method on the client to safely
    // clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (InstancesClient instancesClient = InstancesClient.create()) {
      // Instance creation requires at least one persistent disk and one network interface.
      AttachedDisk disk =
          AttachedDisk.newBuilder()
              .setBoot(true)
              .setAutoDelete(true)
              .setType(Type.PERSISTENT.toString())
              .setDeviceName("disk-1")
              .setInitializeParams(
                  AttachedDiskInitializeParams.newBuilder()
                      .setSourceImage(sourceImage)
                      .setDiskSizeGb(diskSizeGb)
                      .build())
              .build();

      // Use the network interface provided in the networkName argument.
      NetworkInterface networkInterface = NetworkInterface.newBuilder()
          .setName(networkName)
          .build();

      // Bind `instanceName`, `machineType`, `disk`, and `networkInterface` to an instance.
      Instance instanceResource =
          Instance.newBuilder()
              .setName(instanceName)
              .setMachineType(machineType)
              .addDisks(disk)
              .addNetworkInterfaces(networkInterface)
              .build();

      System.out.printf("Creating instance: %s at %s %n", instanceName, zone);

      // Insert the instance in the specified project and zone.
      InsertInstanceRequest insertInstanceRequest = InsertInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
          .setProject(project)
          .setZone(zone)
          .setInstanceResource(instanceResource)
          .build();

      OperationFuture<Operation, Operation> operation = instancesClient.insertAsync(
          insertInstanceRequest);

      // Wait for the operation to complete.
      Operation response = operation.get();

      if (response.hasError()) {
        System.out.println("Instance creation failed ! ! " + response);
        return;
      }
      System.out.println("Operation Status: " + response.getStatus());
    }
  }
}

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';
// const zone = 'europe-central2-b'
// const instanceName = 'YOUR_INSTANCE_NAME'
// const machineType = 'n1-standard-1';
// const sourceImage = 'projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10';
// const networkName = 'global/networks/default';

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');

// Create a new instance with the values provided above in the specified project and zone.
async function createInstance() {
  const instancesClient = new compute.InstancesClient();

  console.log(`Creating the ${instanceName} instance in ${zone}...`);

  const [response] = await instancesClient.insert({
    instanceResource: {
      name: instanceName,
      disks: [
        {
          // Describe the size and source image of the boot disk to attach to the instance.
          initializeParams: {
            diskSizeGb: '10',
            sourceImage,
          },
          autoDelete: true,
          boot: true,
          type: 'PERSISTENT',
        },
      ],
      machineType: `zones/${zone}/machineTypes/${machineType}`,
      networkInterfaces: [
        {
          // Use the network interface provided in the networkName argument.
          name: networkName,
        },
      ],
    },
    project: projectId,
    zone,
  });
  let operation = response.latestResponse;
  const operationsClient = new compute.ZoneOperationsClient();

  // Wait for the create operation to complete.
  while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
    [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
      operation: operation.name,
      project: projectId,
      zone: operation.zone.split('/').pop(),
    });
  }

  console.log('Instance created.');
}

createInstance();

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\InstancesClient;
use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\AttachedDisk;
use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\AttachedDiskInitializeParams;
use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\Instance;
use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\NetworkInterface;

/**
 * To correctly handle string enums in Cloud Compute library
 * use constants defined in the Enums subfolder.
 */
use Google\Cloud\Compute\V1\Enums\AttachedDisk\Type;

/**
 * Creates an instance in the specified project and zone.
 *
 * @param string $projectId Project ID of the Cloud project to create the instance in.
 * @param string $zone Zone to create the instance in (like "us-central1-a").
 * @param string $instanceName Unique name for this Compute Engine instance.
 * @param string $machineType Machine type of the instance being created.
 * @param string $sourceImage Boot disk image name or family.
 * @param string $networkName Network interface to associate with the instance.
 *
 * @throws \Google\ApiCore\ApiException if the remote call fails.
 * @throws \Google\ApiCore\ValidationException if local error occurs before remote call.
 */
function create_instance(
    string $projectId,
    string $zone,
    string $instanceName,
    string $machineType = 'n1-standard-1',
    string $sourceImage = 'projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10',
    string $networkName = 'global/networks/default'
) {
    // Set the machine type using the specified zone.
    $machineTypeFullName = sprintf('zones/%s/machineTypes/%s', $zone, $machineType);

    // Describe the source image of the boot disk to attach to the instance.
    $diskInitializeParams = (new AttachedDiskInitializeParams())
        ->setSourceImage($sourceImage);
    $disk = (new AttachedDisk())
        ->setBoot(true)
        ->setAutoDelete(true)
        ->setType(Type::PERSISTENT)
        ->setInitializeParams($diskInitializeParams);

    // Use the network interface provided in the $networkName argument.
    $network = (new NetworkInterface())
        ->setName($networkName);

    // Create the Instance object.
    $instance = (new Instance())
        ->setName($instanceName)
        ->setDisks([$disk])
        ->setMachineType($machineTypeFullName)
        ->setNetworkInterfaces([$network]);

    // Insert the new Compute Engine instance using InstancesClient.
    $instancesClient = new InstancesClient();
    $operation = $instancesClient->insert($instance, $projectId, $zone);

    // Wait for the operation to complete.
    $operation->pollUntilComplete();
    if ($operation->operationSucceeded()) {
        printf('Created instance %s' . PHP_EOL, $instanceName);
    } else {
        $error = $operation->getError();
        printf('Instance creation failed: %s' . PHP_EOL, $error->getMessage());
    }
}

Python

import re
import sys
from typing import Any, List

from google.api_core.extended_operation import ExtendedOperation
from google.cloud import compute_v1

def get_image_from_family(project: str, family: str) -> compute_v1.Image:
    """
    Retrieve the newest image that is part of a given family in a project.

    Args:
        project: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to get image from.
        family: name of the image family you want to get image from.

    Returns:
        An Image object.
    """
    image_client = compute_v1.ImagesClient()
    # List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details
    newest_image = image_client.get_from_family(project=project, family=family)
    return newest_image

def disk_from_image(
    disk_type: str,
    disk_size_gb: int,
    boot: bool,
    source_image: str,
    auto_delete: bool = True,
) -> compute_v1.AttachedDisk:
    """
    Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the
    source for the new disk.

    Args:
         disk_type: the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
            "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)".
            For example: "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
        disk_size_gb: size of the new disk in gigabytes
        boot: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an instance
        source_image: source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to this disk. This can be one
            of the publicly available images or an image from one of your projects.
            This value uses the following format: "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
        auto_delete: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be deleted with the VM that uses it

    Returns:
        AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
    """
    boot_disk = compute_v1.AttachedDisk()
    initialize_params = compute_v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams()
    initialize_params.source_image = source_image
    initialize_params.disk_size_gb = disk_size_gb
    initialize_params.disk_type = disk_type
    boot_disk.initialize_params = initialize_params
    # Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
    # your VM instance.
    boot_disk.auto_delete = auto_delete
    boot_disk.boot = boot
    return boot_disk

def wait_for_extended_operation(
    operation: ExtendedOperation, verbose_name: str = "operation", timeout: int = 300
) -> Any:
    """
    This method will wait for the extended (long-running) operation to
    complete. If the operation is successful, it will return its result.
    If the operation ends with an error, an exception will be raised.
    If there were any warnings during the execution of the operation
    they will be printed to sys.stderr.

    Args:
        operation: a long-running operation you want to wait on.
        verbose_name: (optional) a more verbose name of the operation,
            used only during error and warning reporting.
        timeout: how long (in seconds) to wait for operation to finish.
            If None, wait indefinitely.

    Returns:
        Whatever the operation.result() returns.

    Raises:
        This method will raise the exception received from `operation.exception()`
        or RuntimeError if there is no exception set, but there is an `error_code`
        set for the `operation`.

        In case of an operation taking longer than `timeout` seconds to complete,
        a `concurrent.futures.TimeoutError` will be raised.
    """
    result = operation.result(timeout=timeout)

    if operation.error_code:
        print(
            f"Error during {verbose_name}: [Code: {operation.error_code}]: {operation.error_message}",
            file=sys.stderr,
        )
        print(f"Operation ID: {operation.name}")
        raise operation.exception() or RuntimeError(operation.error_message)

    if operation.warnings:
        print(f"Warnings during {verbose_name}:\n", file=sys.stderr)
        for warning in operation.warnings:
            print(f" - {warning.code}: {warning.message}", file=sys.stderr)

    return result

def create_instance(
    project_id: str,
    zone: str,
    instance_name: str,
    disks: List[compute_v1.AttachedDisk],
    machine_type: str = "n1-standard-1",
    network_link: str = "global/networks/default",
    subnetwork_link: str = None,
    internal_ip: str = None,
    external_access: bool = False,
    external_ipv4: str = None,
    accelerators: List[compute_v1.AcceleratorConfig] = None,
    preemptible: bool = False,
    custom_hostname: str = None,
    delete_protection: bool = False,
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        disks: a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks
            you want to attach to your new instance.
        machine_type: machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the
            following format: "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
            For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
        network_link: name of the network you want the new instance to use.
            For example: "global/networks/default" represents the network
            named "default", which is created automatically for each project.
        subnetwork_link: name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use.
            This value uses the following format:
            "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
        internal_ip: internal IP address you want to assign to the new instance.
            By default, a free address from the pool of available internal IP addresses of
            used subnet will be used.
        external_access: boolean flag indicating if the instance should have an external IPv4
            address assigned.
        external_ipv4: external IPv4 address to be assigned to this instance. If you specify
            an external IP address, it must live in the same region as the zone of the instance.
            This setting requires `external_access` to be set to True to work.
        accelerators: a list of AcceleratorConfig objects describing the accelerators that will
            be attached to the new instance.
        preemptible: boolean value indicating if the new instance should be preemptible
            or not.
        custom_hostname: Custom hostname of the new VM instance.
            Custom hostnames must conform to RFC 1035 requirements for valid hostnames.
        delete_protection: boolean value indicating if the new virtual machine should be
            protected against deletion or not.
    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    instance_client = compute_v1.InstancesClient()

    # Use the network interface provided in the network_link argument.
    network_interface = compute_v1.NetworkInterface()
    network_interface.name = network_link
    if subnetwork_link:
        network_interface.subnetwork = subnetwork_link

    if internal_ip:
        network_interface.network_i_p = internal_ip

    if external_access:
        access = compute_v1.AccessConfig()
        access.type_ = compute_v1.AccessConfig.Type.ONE_TO_ONE_NAT.name
        access.name = "External NAT"
        access.network_tier = access.NetworkTier.PREMIUM.name
        if external_ipv4:
            access.nat_i_p = external_ipv4
        network_interface.access_configs = [access]

    # Collect information into the Instance object.
    instance = compute_v1.Instance()
    instance.name = instance_name
    instance.disks = disks
    if re.match(r"^zones/[a-z\d\-]+/machineTypes/[a-z\d\-]+$", machine_type):
        instance.machine_type = machine_type
    else:
        instance.machine_type = f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{machine_type}"

    if accelerators:
        instance.guest_accelerators = accelerators

    instance.network_interfaces = [network_interface]

    if preemptible:
        # Set the preemptible setting
        instance.scheduling = compute_v1.Scheduling()
        instance.scheduling.preemptible = True

    if custom_hostname is not None:
        # Set the custom hostname for the instance
        instance.hostname = custom_hostname

    if delete_protection:
        # Set the delete protection bit
        instance.deletion_protection = True

    # Prepare the request to insert an instance.
    request = compute_v1.InsertInstanceRequest()
    request.zone = zone
    request.project = project_id
    request.instance_resource = instance

    # Wait for the create operation to complete.
    print(f"Creating the {instance_name} instance in {zone}...")

    operation = instance_client.insert(request=request)

    wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "instance creation")

    print(f"Instance {instance_name} created.")
    return instance_client.get(project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name)

Ruby


require "google/cloud/compute/v1"

# Sends an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and waits for it to complete.
#
# @param [String] project project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
# @param [String] zone name of the zone you want to use. For example: "us-west3-b"
# @param [String] instance_name name of the new virtual machine.
# @param [String] machine_type machine type of the VM being created. For example: "e2-standard-2"
#         See https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/machine-types for more information
#         on machine types.
# @param [String] source_image path to the operating system image to mount on your boot
#         disk. This can be one of the public images
#         (like "projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10")
#         or a private image you have access to.
#         See https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images for more information on available images.
# @param [String] network_name name of the network you want the new instance to use.
#         For example: "global/networks/default" represents the `default`
#         network interface, which is created automatically for each project.
def create_instance project:, zone:, instance_name:,
                    machine_type: "n2-standard-2",
                    source_image: "projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10",
                    network_name: "global/networks/default"
  # Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
  # once, and can be reused for multiple requests.
  client = ::Google::Cloud::Compute::V1::Instances::Rest::Client.new

  # Construct the instance object.
  # It can be either a hash or ::Google::Cloud::Compute::V1::Instance instance.
  instance = {
    name: instance_name,
    machine_type: "zones/#{zone}/machineTypes/#{machine_type}",
    # Instance creation requires at least one persistent disk.
    disks: [{
      auto_delete: true,
      boot: true,
      type: :PERSISTENT,
      initialize_params: {
        source_image: source_image,
        disk_size_gb: 10
      }
    }],
    network_interfaces: [{ name: network_name }]
  }

  # Prepare a request to create the instance in the specified project and zone.
  request = { project: project, zone: zone, instance_resource: instance }

  puts "Creating the #{instance_name} instance in #{zone}..."
  begin
    # Send the insert request.
    operation = client.insert request
    # Wait for the create operation to complete.
    operation = wait_until_done operation: operation.operation, project: project

    if operation.error.nil?
      warn "Warning during creation:", operation.warnings unless operation.warnings.empty?
      puts "Instance #{instance_name} created."
    else
      warn "Error during creation:", operation.error
    end
  rescue ::Google::Cloud::Error => e
    warn "Exception during creation:", e
  end
end

通过自定义映像创建虚拟机

自定义映像仅属于您的项目。如需使用自定义映像创建虚拟机,您必须先创建自定义映像(如果尚未创建)。

控制台

  1. 在 Google Cloud Console 中,转到虚拟机实例页面。

    转到虚拟机实例

  2. 选择您的项目并点击继续

  3. 点击创建实例

  4. 为您的虚拟机指定名称。如需了解详情,请参阅资源命名惯例

  5. 可选操作:更改此虚拟机的可用区。Compute Engine 会随机列出每个区域内的可用区,以鼓励跨多个可用区使用。

  6. 为您的虚拟机选择机器配置

  7. 启动磁盘部分,点击更改,然后执行以下操作:

    1. 选择自定义映像标签。
    2. 要选择映像项目,请点击选择项目,然后执行以下操作:
      1. 选择包含该映像的项目。
      2. 点击打开
    3. 映像列表中,点击要导入的映像。
    4. 选择启动磁盘的类型和大小。
    5. 可选:对于高级配置选项,点击显示高级配置
    6. 如需确认您的启动磁盘选项,请点击选择
  8. 防火墙部分中,如需允许 HTTP 或 HTTPS 流量流向虚拟机,请选择允许 HTTP 流量允许 HTTPS 流量

    Cloud Console 会向虚拟机添加网络标记,并创建对应的入站防火墙规则,该规则允许 tcp:80 (HTTP) 或 tcp:443 (HTTPS) 上的所有传入流量。网络标记可将防火墙规则与虚拟机相关联。如需了解详情,请参阅虚拟私有云文档中的防火墙规则概览

  9. 要创建并启动该虚拟机,请点击创建

gcloud

运行 gcloud compute instances create 命令以使用自定义映像创建虚拟机:

gcloud compute instances create VM_NAME \
    --image-project IMAGE_PROJECT \
    [--image IMAGE | --image-family IMAGE_FAMILY]

请替换以下内容:

  • VM_NAME:虚拟机的名称
  • IMAGE_PROJECT:包含映像的项目的名称
  • IMAGEIMAGE_FAMILY:指定以下其中一项:
    • IMAGE:您的自定义映像的名称

      例如 --image=my-debian-image-v2

    • IMAGE_FAMILY:如果您在自定义映像系列中创建了自定义映像,请指定该自定义映像系列。

      此项表示通过自定义映像系列中最新的未弃用的操作系统映像操作系统版本创建虚拟机。例如,如果您指定 --image-family=my-debian-family,则 Compute Engine 会通过自定义 my-debian-family 映像系列中最新的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。

API

在 API 中使用自定义映像创建虚拟机的过程与使用公开可用映像创建虚拟机的过程相同。

如需从自定义映像创建虚拟机,请使用 instances.insert 方法

POST https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/zones/ZONE/instances

{
 "machineType": "zones/MACHINE_TYPE_ZONE/machineTypes/MACHINE_TYPE",
 "name": "VM_NAME",
 "disks": [
   {
     "initializeParams": {
       "sourceImage": "projects/IMAGE_PROJECT/global/images/IMAGE"
     },
     "boot": true
   }
 ],
 .....
}

请替换以下内容:

  • PROJECT_ID:要在其中创建虚拟机的项目的 ID
  • ZONE:要在其中创建虚拟机的可用区
  • MACHINE_TYPE_ZONE:包含新虚拟机将使用的机器类型的可用区
  • MACHINE_TYPE:新虚拟机的预定义自定义机器类型
  • VM_NAME:新虚拟机的名称
  • IMAGE_PROJECT:包含自定义映像的项目的名称
  • IMAGEIMAGE_FAMILY:指定以下其中一项:

    • IMAGE:您的自定义映像的名称

      例如 "sourceImage": "projects/my-project-1234/global/images/my-debian-image-v2"

    • IMAGE_FAMILY:如果您在自定义映像系列中创建了自定义映像,请指定该自定义映像系列。

      此项表示通过自定义映像系列中最新的未弃用的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。例如,如果您指定 "sourceImage": "projects/my-project-1234/global/images/family/my-debian-family",则 Compute Engine 会通过自定义 my-debian-family 映像系列中最新版本的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

// createInstance sends an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and waits for it to complete.
func createInstance(w io.Writer, projectID, zone, instanceName, machineType, sourceImage, networkName string) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	// zone := "europe-central2-b"
	// instanceName := "your_instance_name"
	// machineType := "n1-standard-1"
	// sourceImage := "projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10"
	// networkName := "global/networks/default"

	ctx := context.Background()
	instancesClient, err := compute.NewInstancesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewInstancesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer instancesClient.Close()

	req := &computepb.InsertInstanceRequest{
		Project: projectID,
		Zone:    zone,
		InstanceResource: &computepb.Instance{
			Name: proto.String(instanceName),
			Disks: []*computepb.AttachedDisk{
				{
					InitializeParams: &computepb.AttachedDiskInitializeParams{
						DiskSizeGb:  proto.Int64(10),
						SourceImage: proto.String(sourceImage),
					},
					AutoDelete: proto.Bool(true),
					Boot:       proto.Bool(true),
					Type:       proto.String(computepb.AttachedDisk_PERSISTENT.String()),
				},
			},
			MachineType: proto.String(fmt.Sprintf("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s", zone, machineType)),
			NetworkInterfaces: []*computepb.NetworkInterface{
				{
					Name: proto.String(networkName),
				},
			},
		},
	}

	op, err := instancesClient.Insert(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to create instance: %v", err)
	}

	if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Instance created\n")

	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.api.gax.longrunning.OperationFuture;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk.Type;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Image;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.ImagesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InsertInstanceRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Instance;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InstancesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.NetworkInterface;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Operation;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Vector;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;

public class CreateInstancesAdvanced {

  /**
   * Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the source
   * for the new disk.
   *
   * @param diskType the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
   * "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)". For example:
   * "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
   * @param diskSizeGb size of the new disk in gigabytes
   * @param boot boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an
   * instance
   * @param sourceImage source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to
   * this disk. This can be one of the publicly available images or an image from one of your
   * projects. This value uses the following format:
   * "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
   * @return AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
   */
  private static AttachedDisk diskFromImage(String diskType, int diskSizeGb, boolean boot,
      String sourceImage) {
    AttachedDisk disk =
        AttachedDisk.newBuilder()
            .setBoot(boot)
            // Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when
            // you delete your VM instance.
            .setAutoDelete(true)
            .setType(Type.PERSISTENT.toString())
            .setInitializeParams(
                AttachedDiskInitializeParams.newBuilder()
                    .setSourceImage(sourceImage)
                    .setDiskSizeGb(diskSizeGb)
                    .setDiskType(diskType)
                    .build())
            .build();
    return disk;
  }

  /**
   * Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.
   *
   * @param project project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
   * @param zone name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
   * @param instanceName name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
   * @param disks a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks you want to attach
   * to your new instance.
   * @param machineType machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the following format:
   * "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
   * For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
   * @param network name of the network you want the new instance to use. For example:
   * "global/networks/default" represents the network named "default", which is created
   * automatically for each project.
   * @param subnetwork name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use. This value uses the
   * following format: "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
   * @return Instance object.
   */
  private static Instance createWithDisks(String project, String zone, String instanceName,
      Vector<AttachedDisk> disks, String machineType, String network, String subnetwork)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    try (InstancesClient instancesClient = InstancesClient.create()) {
      // Use the network interface provided in the networkName argument.
      NetworkInterface networkInterface;
      if (subnetwork != null) {
        networkInterface = NetworkInterface.newBuilder()
            .setName(network).setSubnetwork(subnetwork)
            .build();
      } else {
        networkInterface = NetworkInterface.newBuilder()
            .setName(network).build();
      }

      machineType = String.format("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s", zone, machineType);

      // Bind `instanceName`, `machineType`, `disk`, and `networkInterface` to an instance.
      Instance instanceResource =
          Instance.newBuilder()
              .setName(instanceName)
              .setMachineType(machineType)
              .addAllDisks(disks)
              .addNetworkInterfaces(networkInterface)
              .build();

      System.out.printf("Creating instance: %s at %s ", instanceName, zone);

      // Insert the instance in the specified project and zone.
      InsertInstanceRequest insertInstanceRequest = InsertInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
          .setProject(project)
          .setZone(zone)
          .setInstanceResource(instanceResource).build();

      OperationFuture<Operation, Operation> operation = instancesClient.insertAsync(
          insertInstanceRequest);

      // Wait for the operation to complete.
      Operation response = operation.get();

      if (response.hasError()) {
        System.out.println("Instance creation failed ! ! " + response);
        return null;
      }
      System.out.println("Operation Status: " + response.getStatus());

      return instancesClient.get(project, zone, instanceName);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Create a new VM instance with custom image used as its boot disk.
   *
   * @param project project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
   * @param zone name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
   * @param instanceName name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
   * @param customImage link to the custom image you want to use in the form of:
   * "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
   * @return Instance object.
   */
  public static Instance createFromCustomImage(String project, String zone, String instanceName,
      String customImage)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    String diskType = String.format("zones/%s/diskTypes/pd-standard", zone);
    Vector<AttachedDisk> disks = new Vector<>();
    disks.add(diskFromImage(diskType, 10, true, customImage));
    return createWithDisks(project, zone, instanceName, disks, "n1-standard-1",
        "global/networks/default", null);
  }

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';
// const zone = 'europe-central2-b';
// const instanceName = 'YOUR_INSTANCE_NAME';
// const customImageLink = 'projects/YOUR_PROJECT/global/images/YOUR_IMAGE_NAME';

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');

// Creates a new VM instance with custom image used as its boot disk.
async function createInstanceFromCustomImage() {
  const instancesClient = new compute.InstancesClient();

  const [response] = await instancesClient.insert({
    project: projectId,
    zone,
    instanceResource: {
      name: instanceName,
      disks: [
        {
          initializeParams: {
            diskSizeGb: '10',
            sourceImage: customImageLink,
            diskType: `zones/${zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard`,
          },
          autoDelete: true,
          boot: true,
          type: 'PERSISTENT',
        },
      ],
      machineType: `zones/${zone}/machineTypes/n1-standard-1`,
      networkInterfaces: [
        {
          name: 'global/networks/default',
        },
      ],
    },
  });
  let operation = response.latestResponse;
  const operationsClient = new compute.ZoneOperationsClient();

  // Wait for the create operation to complete.
  while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
    [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
      operation: operation.name,
      project: projectId,
      zone: operation.zone.split('/').pop(),
    });
  }

  console.log('Instance created.');
}

createInstanceFromCustomImage();

Python

import re
import sys
from typing import Any, List

from google.api_core.extended_operation import ExtendedOperation
from google.cloud import compute_v1

def get_image_from_family(project: str, family: str) -> compute_v1.Image:
    """
    Retrieve the newest image that is part of a given family in a project.

    Args:
        project: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to get image from.
        family: name of the image family you want to get image from.

    Returns:
        An Image object.
    """
    image_client = compute_v1.ImagesClient()
    # List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details
    newest_image = image_client.get_from_family(project=project, family=family)
    return newest_image

def disk_from_image(
    disk_type: str,
    disk_size_gb: int,
    boot: bool,
    source_image: str,
    auto_delete: bool = True,
) -> compute_v1.AttachedDisk:
    """
    Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the
    source for the new disk.

    Args:
         disk_type: the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
            "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)".
            For example: "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
        disk_size_gb: size of the new disk in gigabytes
        boot: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an instance
        source_image: source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to this disk. This can be one
            of the publicly available images or an image from one of your projects.
            This value uses the following format: "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
        auto_delete: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be deleted with the VM that uses it

    Returns:
        AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
    """
    boot_disk = compute_v1.AttachedDisk()
    initialize_params = compute_v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams()
    initialize_params.source_image = source_image
    initialize_params.disk_size_gb = disk_size_gb
    initialize_params.disk_type = disk_type
    boot_disk.initialize_params = initialize_params
    # Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
    # your VM instance.
    boot_disk.auto_delete = auto_delete
    boot_disk.boot = boot
    return boot_disk

def wait_for_extended_operation(
    operation: ExtendedOperation, verbose_name: str = "operation", timeout: int = 300
) -> Any:
    """
    This method will wait for the extended (long-running) operation to
    complete. If the operation is successful, it will return its result.
    If the operation ends with an error, an exception will be raised.
    If there were any warnings during the execution of the operation
    they will be printed to sys.stderr.

    Args:
        operation: a long-running operation you want to wait on.
        verbose_name: (optional) a more verbose name of the operation,
            used only during error and warning reporting.
        timeout: how long (in seconds) to wait for operation to finish.
            If None, wait indefinitely.

    Returns:
        Whatever the operation.result() returns.

    Raises:
        This method will raise the exception received from `operation.exception()`
        or RuntimeError if there is no exception set, but there is an `error_code`
        set for the `operation`.

        In case of an operation taking longer than `timeout` seconds to complete,
        a `concurrent.futures.TimeoutError` will be raised.
    """
    result = operation.result(timeout=timeout)

    if operation.error_code:
        print(
            f"Error during {verbose_name}: [Code: {operation.error_code}]: {operation.error_message}",
            file=sys.stderr,
        )
        print(f"Operation ID: {operation.name}")
        raise operation.exception() or RuntimeError(operation.error_message)

    if operation.warnings:
        print(f"Warnings during {verbose_name}:\n", file=sys.stderr)
        for warning in operation.warnings:
            print(f" - {warning.code}: {warning.message}", file=sys.stderr)

    return result

def create_instance(
    project_id: str,
    zone: str,
    instance_name: str,
    disks: List[compute_v1.AttachedDisk],
    machine_type: str = "n1-standard-1",
    network_link: str = "global/networks/default",
    subnetwork_link: str = None,
    internal_ip: str = None,
    external_access: bool = False,
    external_ipv4: str = None,
    accelerators: List[compute_v1.AcceleratorConfig] = None,
    preemptible: bool = False,
    custom_hostname: str = None,
    delete_protection: bool = False,
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        disks: a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks
            you want to attach to your new instance.
        machine_type: machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the
            following format: "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
            For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
        network_link: name of the network you want the new instance to use.
            For example: "global/networks/default" represents the network
            named "default", which is created automatically for each project.
        subnetwork_link: name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use.
            This value uses the following format:
            "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
        internal_ip: internal IP address you want to assign to the new instance.
            By default, a free address from the pool of available internal IP addresses of
            used subnet will be used.
        external_access: boolean flag indicating if the instance should have an external IPv4
            address assigned.
        external_ipv4: external IPv4 address to be assigned to this instance. If you specify
            an external IP address, it must live in the same region as the zone of the instance.
            This setting requires `external_access` to be set to True to work.
        accelerators: a list of AcceleratorConfig objects describing the accelerators that will
            be attached to the new instance.
        preemptible: boolean value indicating if the new instance should be preemptible
            or not.
        custom_hostname: Custom hostname of the new VM instance.
            Custom hostnames must conform to RFC 1035 requirements for valid hostnames.
        delete_protection: boolean value indicating if the new virtual machine should be
            protected against deletion or not.
    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    instance_client = compute_v1.InstancesClient()

    # Use the network interface provided in the network_link argument.
    network_interface = compute_v1.NetworkInterface()
    network_interface.name = network_link
    if subnetwork_link:
        network_interface.subnetwork = subnetwork_link

    if internal_ip:
        network_interface.network_i_p = internal_ip

    if external_access:
        access = compute_v1.AccessConfig()
        access.type_ = compute_v1.AccessConfig.Type.ONE_TO_ONE_NAT.name
        access.name = "External NAT"
        access.network_tier = access.NetworkTier.PREMIUM.name
        if external_ipv4:
            access.nat_i_p = external_ipv4
        network_interface.access_configs = [access]

    # Collect information into the Instance object.
    instance = compute_v1.Instance()
    instance.name = instance_name
    instance.disks = disks
    if re.match(r"^zones/[a-z\d\-]+/machineTypes/[a-z\d\-]+$", machine_type):
        instance.machine_type = machine_type
    else:
        instance.machine_type = f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{machine_type}"

    if accelerators:
        instance.guest_accelerators = accelerators

    instance.network_interfaces = [network_interface]

    if preemptible:
        # Set the preemptible setting
        instance.scheduling = compute_v1.Scheduling()
        instance.scheduling.preemptible = True

    if custom_hostname is not None:
        # Set the custom hostname for the instance
        instance.hostname = custom_hostname

    if delete_protection:
        # Set the delete protection bit
        instance.deletion_protection = True

    # Prepare the request to insert an instance.
    request = compute_v1.InsertInstanceRequest()
    request.zone = zone
    request.project = project_id
    request.instance_resource = instance

    # Wait for the create operation to complete.
    print(f"Creating the {instance_name} instance in {zone}...")

    operation = instance_client.insert(request=request)

    wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "instance creation")

    print(f"Instance {instance_name} created.")
    return instance_client.get(project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name)

def create_from_custom_image(
    project_id: str, zone: str, instance_name: str, custom_image_link: str
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Create a new VM instance with custom image used as its boot disk.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        custom_image_link: link to the custom image you want to use in the form of:
            "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"

    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    disk_type = f"zones/{zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard"
    disks = [disk_from_image(disk_type, 10, True, custom_image_link, True)]
    instance = create_instance(project_id, zone, instance_name, disks)
    return instance

创建具有额外的非启动磁盘的虚拟机实例

控制台

  1. 在 Google Cloud Console 中,转到虚拟机实例页面。

    转到虚拟机实例

  2. 选择您的项目并点击继续

  3. 点击创建实例

  4. 为您的虚拟机指定名称。如需了解详情,请参阅资源命名惯例

  5. 可选操作:更改此虚拟机的可用区。Compute Engine 会随机列出每个区域内的可用区,以鼓励跨多个可用区使用。

  6. 为您的虚拟机选择机器配置

  7. 启动磁盘部分,点击更改,然后执行以下操作:

    1. 公共映像标签页中,选择以下内容:
      • 操作系统
      • 操作系统版本
      • 启动磁盘类型
      • 启动磁盘大小
    2. 可选:对于高级配置选项,点击显示高级配置
    3. 如需确认您的启动磁盘选项,请点击选择
  8. 防火墙部分中,如需允许 HTTP 或 HTTPS 流量流向虚拟机,请选择允许 HTTP 流量允许 HTTPS 流量。选择其中一项后,Compute Engine 会向您的虚拟机添加一个网络标记,以将防火墙规则与该虚拟机相关联。然后,Compute Engine 会创建相应的入站防火墙规则,该规则允许 tcp:80 (HTTP) 或 tcp:443 (HTTPS) 上的所有传入流量。

  9. 如需将非启动磁盘添加到您的虚拟机,请展开网络、磁盘、安全、管理、单独租用部分,然后执行以下操作:

    1. 展开磁盘部分。
    2. 点击添加新磁盘,然后执行以下操作:
      1. 指定磁盘名称类型来源类型大小
      2. 挂接设置部分中,选择磁盘的挂接模式删除规则。如需详细了解如何添加新磁盘,请参阅向虚拟机添加永久性磁盘
      3. 点击保存
  10. 要创建并启动该虚拟机,请点击创建

gcloud

运行 gcloud compute instances create 命令以使用其他非启动磁盘创建虚拟机。

创建虚拟机时,您最多可以添加 128 个非启动磁盘。为您创建的每个非启动磁盘指定 --create-disk 标志。

如需通过公共映像或库存映像创建非启动磁盘,请使用 --create-disk 标志指定 imageimage-familyimage-project 属性。如需创建空白磁盘,请勿包含这些属性。您可以选择为磁盘 sizetype 添加属性。

gcloud compute instances create VM_NAME \
    [--image=IMAGE | --image-family=IMAGE_FAMILY] \
    --image-project=IMAGE_PROJECT \
    --create-disk [image=DISK_IMAGE | image-family=DISK_IMAGE_FAMILY ],image-project=DISK_IMAGE_PROJECT,size=SIZE_GB,type=DISK_TYPE

请替换以下内容:

  • VM_NAME:新虚拟机的名称
  • IMAGEIMAGE_FAMILY。 指定以下其中一项:

    • IMAGE:公共映像的特定版本

      例如 --image=debian-10-buster-v20200309

    • IMAGE_FAMILY映像系列

      此项表示通过最新的未弃用的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。 例如,如果您指定 --image-family=debian-10,则 Compute Engine 会通过 Debian 10 映像系列中最新版本的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。

  • IMAGE_PROJECT:包含映像的项目

  • 对于额外的磁盘,请替换以下内容:

    • DISK_IMAGEDISK_IMAGE_FAMILY:指定以下其中一项:
      • DISK_IMAGE:要用作非启动磁盘的映像的名称
      • DISK_IMAGE_FAMILY:要用作非启动磁盘的映像系列
    • DISK_IMAGE_PROJECT:磁盘映像所属的映像项目
    • SIZE_GB(可选):非启动磁盘的大小
    • DISK_TYPE(可选):永久性磁盘类型的完整或部分网址

      例如 https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/zones/ZONE/diskTypes/pd-ssd。如需查看可用磁盘类型,请运行 gcloud compute disk-types list 命令

    对于空白磁盘,请勿指定 DISK_IMAGEDISK_IMAGE_FAMILYDISK_IMAGE_PROJECT 参数。

API

通过对每个额外磁盘使用 initializeParams 属性,您可以在创建虚拟机时创建多达 128 个非启动磁盘。使用公共映像或私有映像创建额外磁盘。 如需添加空白磁盘,请定义不带 sourceImage 值的 initializeParams 条目。

POST https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/zones/ZONE/instances

{
 "machineType": "zones/MACHINE_TYPE_ZONE/machineTypes/MACHINE_TYPE",
 "name": "VM_NAME",
 "disks": [
   {
     "initializeParams": {
       "sourceImage": "projects/IMAGE_PROJECT/global/images/IMAGE"
     },
     "boot": true
   },
   {
     "initializeParams": {
       "diskSizeGb": "SIZE_GB",
       "sourceImage": "projects/DISK_IMAGE_PROJECT/global/images/DISK_IMAGE",
       "diskType": "DISK_TYPE"
   },
   {
     "initializeParams": {
     "diskSizeGb": "SIZE_GB",
     "diskType": "DISK_TYPE"
   }
    }...]

请替换以下内容:

  • PROJECT_ID:要在其中创建虚拟机的项目的 ID
  • ZONE:要在其中创建虚拟机的可用区
  • MACHINE_TYPE_ZONE:包含新虚拟机将使用的机器类型的可用区
  • MACHINE_TYPE:新虚拟机的预定义自定义机器类型
  • VM_NAME:新虚拟机的名称
  • IMAGE_PROJECT:包含自定义映像的项目的名称
  • IMAGEIMAGE_FAMILY:指定以下其中一项:

    • IMAGE:您的自定义映像的名称

      例如 "sourceImage": "projects/my-project-1234/global/images/my-debian-image-v2"

    • IMAGE_FAMILY:如果您在自定义映像系列中创建了自定义映像,请指定该自定义映像系列。

      此项表示通过自定义映像系列中最新的未弃用的操作系统映像操作系统版本创建虚拟机。例如,如果您指定 "sourceImage": "projects/my-project-1234/global/images/family/my-debian-family",则 Compute Engine 会通过自定义 my-debian-family 映像系列中最新版本的操作系统映像创建虚拟机。

  • 对于额外的磁盘,请替换以下内容:

    • SIZE_GB:磁盘大小
    • DISK_IMAGEDISK_IMAGE_FAMILY:为非启动磁盘指定来源映像或映像系列:

      • DISK_IMAGE:要用作非启动磁盘的映像的名称

        例如 "sourceImage": "projects/DISK_IMAGE_PROJECT/global/images/DISK_IMAGE"

      • DISK_IMAGE_FAMILY:要用作非启动磁盘的映像系列

        例如 "sourceImage": "projects/DISK_IMAGE_PROJECT/global/images/family/DISK_IMAGE_FAMILY"

    • DISK_TYPE:永久性磁盘类型的完整或部分网址

    例如 https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/zones/ZONE/diskTypes/pd-ssd

    对于空白磁盘,请勿指定 DISK_IMAGEDISK_IMAGE_FAMILYDISK_IMAGE_PROJECT 参数。

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

// createWithAdditionalDisk create a new VM instance with Debian 10 operating system and a 11 GB additional empty disk.
func createWithAdditionalDisk(w io.Writer, projectID, zone, instanceName string) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	// zone := "europe-central2-b"
	// instanceName := "your_instance_name"

	ctx := context.Background()
	instancesClient, err := compute.NewInstancesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewInstancesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer instancesClient.Close()

	imagesClient, err := compute.NewImagesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewImagesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer imagesClient.Close()

	// List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details.
	newestDebianReq := &computepb.GetFromFamilyImageRequest{
		Project: "debian-cloud",
		Family:  "debian-10",
	}
	newestDebian, err := imagesClient.GetFromFamily(ctx, newestDebianReq)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to get image from family: %v", err)
	}

	req := &computepb.InsertInstanceRequest{
		Project: projectID,
		Zone:    zone,
		InstanceResource: &computepb.Instance{
			Name: proto.String(instanceName),
			Disks: []*computepb.AttachedDisk{
				{
					InitializeParams: &computepb.AttachedDiskInitializeParams{
						DiskSizeGb:  proto.Int64(10),
						SourceImage: newestDebian.SelfLink,
						DiskType:    proto.String(fmt.Sprintf("zones/%s/diskTypes/pd-standard", zone)),
					},
					AutoDelete: proto.Bool(true),
					Boot:       proto.Bool(true),
					Type:       proto.String(computepb.AttachedDisk_PERSISTENT.String()),
				},
				{
					InitializeParams: &computepb.AttachedDiskInitializeParams{
						DiskSizeGb: proto.Int64(11),
						DiskType:   proto.String(fmt.Sprintf("zones/%s/diskTypes/pd-standard", zone)),
					},
					AutoDelete: proto.Bool(true),
					Boot:       proto.Bool(false),
					Type:       proto.String(computepb.AttachedDisk_PERSISTENT.String()),
				},
			},
			MachineType: proto.String(fmt.Sprintf("zones/%s/machineTypes/n1-standard-1", zone)),
			NetworkInterfaces: []*computepb.NetworkInterface{
				{
					Name: proto.String("global/networks/default"),
				},
			},
		},
	}

	op, err := instancesClient.Insert(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to create instance: %v", err)
	}

	if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Instance created\n")

	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.api.gax.longrunning.OperationFuture;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk.Type;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Image;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.ImagesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InsertInstanceRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Instance;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InstancesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.NetworkInterface;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Operation;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Vector;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;

public class CreateInstancesAdvanced {

  /**
   * Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the source
   * for the new disk.
   *
   * @param diskType the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
   * "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)". For example:
   * "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
   * @param diskSizeGb size of the new disk in gigabytes
   * @param boot boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an
   * instance
   * @param sourceImage source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to
   * this disk. This can be one of the publicly available images or an image from one of your
   * projects. This value uses the following format:
   * "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
   * @return AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
   */
  private static AttachedDisk diskFromImage(String diskType, int diskSizeGb, boolean boot,
      String sourceImage) {
    AttachedDisk disk =
        AttachedDisk.newBuilder()
            .setBoot(boot)
            // Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when
            // you delete your VM instance.
            .setAutoDelete(true)
            .setType(Type.PERSISTENT.toString())
            .setInitializeParams(
                AttachedDiskInitializeParams.newBuilder()
                    .setSourceImage(sourceImage)
                    .setDiskSizeGb(diskSizeGb)
                    .setDiskType(diskType)
                    .build())
            .build();
    return disk;
  }

  /**
   * Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. The created disk contains no
   * data and requires formatting before it can be used.
   *
   * @param diskType the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
   * "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)". For example:
   * "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
   * @param diskSizeGb size of the new disk in gigabytes
   * @return AttachedDisk object configured to be created as an empty disk.
   */
  private static AttachedDisk emptyDisk(String diskType, int diskSizeGb) {
    AttachedDisk disk =
        AttachedDisk.newBuilder()
            .setBoot(false)
            // Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when
            // you delete your VM instance.
            .setAutoDelete(true)
            .setType(Type.PERSISTENT.toString())
            .setInitializeParams(
                AttachedDiskInitializeParams.newBuilder()
                    .setDiskSizeGb(diskSizeGb)
                    .setDiskType(diskType)
                    .build())
            .build();
    return disk;
  }

  /**
   * Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.
   *
   * @param project project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
   * @param zone name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
   * @param instanceName name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
   * @param disks a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks you want to attach
   * to your new instance.
   * @param machineType machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the following format:
   * "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
   * For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
   * @param network name of the network you want the new instance to use. For example:
   * "global/networks/default" represents the network named "default", which is created
   * automatically for each project.
   * @param subnetwork name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use. This value uses the
   * following format: "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
   * @return Instance object.
   */
  private static Instance createWithDisks(String project, String zone, String instanceName,
      Vector<AttachedDisk> disks, String machineType, String network, String subnetwork)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    try (InstancesClient instancesClient = InstancesClient.create()) {
      // Use the network interface provided in the networkName argument.
      NetworkInterface networkInterface;
      if (subnetwork != null) {
        networkInterface = NetworkInterface.newBuilder()
            .setName(network).setSubnetwork(subnetwork)
            .build();
      } else {
        networkInterface = NetworkInterface.newBuilder()
            .setName(network).build();
      }

      machineType = String.format("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s", zone, machineType);

      // Bind `instanceName`, `machineType`, `disk`, and `networkInterface` to an instance.
      Instance instanceResource =
          Instance.newBuilder()
              .setName(instanceName)
              .setMachineType(machineType)
              .addAllDisks(disks)
              .addNetworkInterfaces(networkInterface)
              .build();

      System.out.printf("Creating instance: %s at %s ", instanceName, zone);

      // Insert the instance in the specified project and zone.
      InsertInstanceRequest insertInstanceRequest = InsertInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
          .setProject(project)
          .setZone(zone)
          .setInstanceResource(instanceResource).build();

      OperationFuture<Operation, Operation> operation = instancesClient.insertAsync(
          insertInstanceRequest);

      // Wait for the operation to complete.
      Operation response = operation.get();

      if (response.hasError()) {
        System.out.println("Instance creation failed ! ! " + response);
        return null;
      }
      System.out.println("Operation Status: " + response.getStatus());

      return instancesClient.get(project, zone, instanceName);
    }
  }

  /**
   * Create a new VM instance with Debian 10 operating system and a 11 GB additional empty disk.
   *
   * @param project project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
   * @param zone name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
   * @param instanceName name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
   * @return Instance object.
   */
  public static Instance createWithAdditionalDisk(String project, String zone, String instanceName)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    try (ImagesClient imagesClient = ImagesClient.create()) {
      // List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details
      Image image = imagesClient.getFromFamily("debian-cloud", "debian-10");
      String diskType = String.format("zones/%s/diskTypes/pd-standard", zone);
      Vector<AttachedDisk> disks = new Vector<>();
      disks.add(diskFromImage(diskType, 10, true, image.getSelfLink()));
      disks.add(emptyDisk(diskType, 11));
      return createWithDisks(project, zone, instanceName, disks, "n1-standard-1",
          "global/networks/default", null);
    }
  }

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';
// const zone = 'europe-central2-b';
// const instanceName = 'YOUR_INSTANCE_NAME';

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');

// Create a new VM instance with Debian 10 operating system and a 11 GB additional empty disk.
async function createWithAdditionalDisk() {
  const instancesClient = new compute.InstancesClient();
  const imagesClient = new compute.ImagesClient();

  // List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details.
  const [newestDebian] = await imagesClient.getFromFamily({
    project: 'debian-cloud',
    family: 'debian-10',
  });

  const [response] = await instancesClient.insert({
    project: projectId,
    zone,
    instanceResource: {
      name: instanceName,
      disks: [
        {
          initializeParams: {
            diskSizeGb: '10',
            sourceImage: newestDebian.selfLink,
            diskType: `zones/${zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard`,
          },
          autoDelete: true,
          boot: true,
          type: 'PERSISTENT',
        },
        {
          initializeParams: {
            diskSizeGb: '11',
            diskType: `zones/${zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard`,
          },
          autoDelete: true,
          boot: false,
          type: 'PERSISTENT',
        },
      ],
      machineType: `zones/${zone}/machineTypes/n1-standard-1`,
      networkInterfaces: [
        {
          name: 'global/networks/default',
        },
      ],
    },
  });
  let operation = response.latestResponse;
  const operationsClient = new compute.ZoneOperationsClient();

  // Wait for the create operation to complete.
  while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
    [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
      operation: operation.name,
      project: projectId,
      zone: operation.zone.split('/').pop(),
    });
  }

  console.log('Instance created.');
}

createWithAdditionalDisk();

Python

import re
import sys
from typing import Any, List

from google.api_core.extended_operation import ExtendedOperation
from google.cloud import compute_v1

def get_image_from_family(project: str, family: str) -> compute_v1.Image:
    """
    Retrieve the newest image that is part of a given family in a project.

    Args:
        project: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to get image from.
        family: name of the image family you want to get image from.

    Returns:
        An Image object.
    """
    image_client = compute_v1.ImagesClient()
    # List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details
    newest_image = image_client.get_from_family(project=project, family=family)
    return newest_image

def disk_from_image(
    disk_type: str,
    disk_size_gb: int,
    boot: bool,
    source_image: str,
    auto_delete: bool = True,
) -> compute_v1.AttachedDisk:
    """
    Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the
    source for the new disk.

    Args:
         disk_type: the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
            "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)".
            For example: "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
        disk_size_gb: size of the new disk in gigabytes
        boot: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an instance
        source_image: source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to this disk. This can be one
            of the publicly available images or an image from one of your projects.
            This value uses the following format: "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
        auto_delete: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be deleted with the VM that uses it

    Returns:
        AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
    """
    boot_disk = compute_v1.AttachedDisk()
    initialize_params = compute_v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams()
    initialize_params.source_image = source_image
    initialize_params.disk_size_gb = disk_size_gb
    initialize_params.disk_type = disk_type
    boot_disk.initialize_params = initialize_params
    # Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
    # your VM instance.
    boot_disk.auto_delete = auto_delete
    boot_disk.boot = boot
    return boot_disk

def empty_disk(
    disk_type: str, disk_size_gb: int, boot: bool = False, auto_delete: bool = True
) -> compute_v1.AttachedDisk():
    """
    Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. The created disk contains
    no data and requires formatting before it can be used.

    Args:
         disk_type: the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
            "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)".
            For example: "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
        disk_size_gb: size of the new disk in gigabytes
        boot: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an instance
        auto_delete: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be deleted with the VM that uses it

    Returns:
        AttachedDisk object configured to be created as an empty disk.
    """
    disk = compute_v1.AttachedDisk()
    initialize_params = compute_v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams()
    initialize_params.disk_type = disk_type
    initialize_params.disk_size_gb = disk_size_gb
    disk.initialize_params = initialize_params
    # Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
    # your VM instance.
    disk.auto_delete = auto_delete
    disk.boot = boot
    return disk

def wait_for_extended_operation(
    operation: ExtendedOperation, verbose_name: str = "operation", timeout: int = 300
) -> Any:
    """
    This method will wait for the extended (long-running) operation to
    complete. If the operation is successful, it will return its result.
    If the operation ends with an error, an exception will be raised.
    If there were any warnings during the execution of the operation
    they will be printed to sys.stderr.

    Args:
        operation: a long-running operation you want to wait on.
        verbose_name: (optional) a more verbose name of the operation,
            used only during error and warning reporting.
        timeout: how long (in seconds) to wait for operation to finish.
            If None, wait indefinitely.

    Returns:
        Whatever the operation.result() returns.

    Raises:
        This method will raise the exception received from `operation.exception()`
        or RuntimeError if there is no exception set, but there is an `error_code`
        set for the `operation`.

        In case of an operation taking longer than `timeout` seconds to complete,
        a `concurrent.futures.TimeoutError` will be raised.
    """
    result = operation.result(timeout=timeout)

    if operation.error_code:
        print(
            f"Error during {verbose_name}: [Code: {operation.error_code}]: {operation.error_message}",
            file=sys.stderr,
        )
        print(f"Operation ID: {operation.name}")
        raise operation.exception() or RuntimeError(operation.error_message)

    if operation.warnings:
        print(f"Warnings during {verbose_name}:\n", file=sys.stderr)
        for warning in operation.warnings:
            print(f" - {warning.code}: {warning.message}", file=sys.stderr)

    return result

def create_instance(
    project_id: str,
    zone: str,
    instance_name: str,
    disks: List[compute_v1.AttachedDisk],
    machine_type: str = "n1-standard-1",
    network_link: str = "global/networks/default",
    subnetwork_link: str = None,
    internal_ip: str = None,
    external_access: bool = False,
    external_ipv4: str = None,
    accelerators: List[compute_v1.AcceleratorConfig] = None,
    preemptible: bool = False,
    custom_hostname: str = None,
    delete_protection: bool = False,
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        disks: a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks
            you want to attach to your new instance.
        machine_type: machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the
            following format: "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
            For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
        network_link: name of the network you want the new instance to use.
            For example: "global/networks/default" represents the network
            named "default", which is created automatically for each project.
        subnetwork_link: name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use.
            This value uses the following format:
            "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
        internal_ip: internal IP address you want to assign to the new instance.
            By default, a free address from the pool of available internal IP addresses of
            used subnet will be used.
        external_access: boolean flag indicating if the instance should have an external IPv4
            address assigned.
        external_ipv4: external IPv4 address to be assigned to this instance. If you specify
            an external IP address, it must live in the same region as the zone of the instance.
            This setting requires `external_access` to be set to True to work.
        accelerators: a list of AcceleratorConfig objects describing the accelerators that will
            be attached to the new instance.
        preemptible: boolean value indicating if the new instance should be preemptible
            or not.
        custom_hostname: Custom hostname of the new VM instance.
            Custom hostnames must conform to RFC 1035 requirements for valid hostnames.
        delete_protection: boolean value indicating if the new virtual machine should be
            protected against deletion or not.
    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    instance_client = compute_v1.InstancesClient()

    # Use the network interface provided in the network_link argument.
    network_interface = compute_v1.NetworkInterface()
    network_interface.name = network_link
    if subnetwork_link:
        network_interface.subnetwork = subnetwork_link

    if internal_ip:
        network_interface.network_i_p = internal_ip

    if external_access:
        access = compute_v1.AccessConfig()
        access.type_ = compute_v1.AccessConfig.Type.ONE_TO_ONE_NAT.name
        access.name = "External NAT"
        access.network_tier = access.NetworkTier.PREMIUM.name
        if external_ipv4:
            access.nat_i_p = external_ipv4
        network_interface.access_configs = [access]

    # Collect information into the Instance object.
    instance = compute_v1.Instance()
    instance.name = instance_name
    instance.disks = disks
    if re.match(r"^zones/[a-z\d\-]+/machineTypes/[a-z\d\-]+$", machine_type):
        instance.machine_type = machine_type
    else:
        instance.machine_type = f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{machine_type}"

    if accelerators:
        instance.guest_accelerators = accelerators

    instance.network_interfaces = [network_interface]

    if preemptible:
        # Set the preemptible setting
        instance.scheduling = compute_v1.Scheduling()
        instance.scheduling.preemptible = True

    if custom_hostname is not None:
        # Set the custom hostname for the instance
        instance.hostname = custom_hostname

    if delete_protection:
        # Set the delete protection bit
        instance.deletion_protection = True

    # Prepare the request to insert an instance.
    request = compute_v1.InsertInstanceRequest()
    request.zone = zone
    request.project = project_id
    request.instance_resource = instance

    # Wait for the create operation to complete.
    print(f"Creating the {instance_name} instance in {zone}...")

    operation = instance_client.insert(request=request)

    wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "instance creation")

    print(f"Instance {instance_name} created.")
    return instance_client.get(project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name)

def create_with_additional_disk(
    project_id: str, zone: str, instance_name: str
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Create a new VM instance with Debian 10 operating system on a 20 GB disk
    and a 25 GB additional empty disk.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.

    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    newest_debian = get_image_from_family(project="debian-cloud", family="debian-10")
    disk_type = f"zones/{zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard"
    disks = [
        disk_from_image(disk_type, 20, True, newest_debian.self_link),
        empty_disk(disk_type, 25),
    ]
    instance = create_instance(project_id, zone, instance_name, disks)
    return instance

在使用磁盘之前,格式化并装载磁盘

通过共享映像创建虚拟机实例

如果其他用户与您共享映像,您可以使用该映像创建虚拟机。

控制台

  1. 在 Google Cloud Console 中,转到创建实例页面。

    转到“创建实例”

  2. 为您的虚拟机指定名称。如需了解详情,请参阅资源命名惯例
  3. 可选操作:更改此虚拟机的可用区。Compute Engine 会随机列出每个区域内的可用区,以支持跨多个可用区使用。
  4. 为您的虚拟机选择机器配置
  5. 启动磁盘部分,点击更改以配置您的启动磁盘,然后执行以下操作:
    1. 选择自定义映像标签。
    2. 要选择映像项目,请点击选择项目,然后执行以下操作:
      1. 选择包含该映像的项目。
      2. 点击打开
    3. 映像列表中,点击要导入的映像。
    4. 选择启动磁盘的类型和大小。
    5. 如需确认您的启动磁盘选项,请点击选择
  6. 如需允许 HTTP 或 HTTPS 流量流向虚拟机,请在防火墙部分中选择允许 HTTP 流量允许 HTTPS 流量

    Cloud Console 会向虚拟机添加网络标记,并创建对应的入站防火墙规则,该规则允许 tcp:80 (HTTP) 或 tcp:443 (HTTPS) 上的所有传入流量。网络标记可将防火墙规则与虚拟机相关联。如需了解详情,请参阅 Virtual Private Cloud 文档中的防火墙规则概览

  7. 如需启动并创建虚拟机,请点击创建

gcloud

使用 gcloud compute instances create command 创建虚拟机,并使用 --image--image-project 标志指定映像名称和映像所在的项目:

 gcloud compute instances create VM_NAME \
        --image=IMAGE \
        --image-project=IMAGE_PROJECT
    

请替换以下内容:

  • VM_NAME:新虚拟机的名称
  • IMAGE:映像的名称
  • IMAGE_PROJECT:映像所属的项目

如果命令成功,gcloud 将返回新虚拟机的属性作为响应:

    Created [https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/myproject/zones/us-central1-b/instances/example-instance].
    NAME                 ZONE           MACHINE_TYPE   PREEMPTIBLE  INTERNAL_IP  EXTERNAL_IP    STATUS
    example-instance     us-central1-b  e2-standard-2               10.240.0.4   104.198.53.60  RUNNING

API

按照 API 说明通过公共映像创建虚拟机,但在请求正文中指定 image 字段。如需添加空白磁盘,请勿指定映像来源。您可以选择指定 diskSizeGbdiskTypelabels 属性。

    [...
    image: "projects/PROJECT_ID/global/images/IMAGE_NAME
    {
     "initializeParams": {
        "diskSizeGb": "SIZE_GB",
        "sourceImage": "IMAGE"
           }
     }
     ...]

请替换以下内容:

  • PROJECT_ID:包含映像的项目
  • IMAGE_NAME:来源映像
  • SIZE_GB:磁盘大小
  • IMAGE:非启动磁盘的来源映像
  • 对于空白磁盘,请勿指定映像来源

从快照创建虚拟机

您可以通过以下方式从快照创建新虚拟机:

如需使用相同的启动磁盘快速创建多个虚拟机,请创建自定义映像,然后从该映像创建虚拟机,而不是使用快照创建虚拟机。

从容器映像创建虚拟机实例

如需在 Compute Engine 虚拟机上部署和启动容器,请在创建虚拟机时指定容器映像名称和可选配置参数。Compute Engine 使用最新版本的 Container-optimized OS 公共映像创建虚拟机,该映像安装了 Docker。然后,Compute Engine 会在虚拟机启动时启动容器。如需了解详情,请参阅在虚拟机上部署容器

如需通过容器映像创建虚拟机,您必须使用 Cloud Console 或 gcloud

控制台

  1. 在 Google Cloud Console 中,转到虚拟机实例页面。

    转到虚拟机实例

  2. 选择您的项目并点击继续

  3. 点击创建实例

  4. 为您的虚拟机指定名称。如需了解详情,请参阅资源命名惯例

  5. 容器部分中,点击部署容器

    1. 指定要使用的容器映像。 例如:

      • 如需从 Cloud Launcher 中选择 NGINX 1.12 容器映像,请运行以下命令:

        gcr.io/cloud-marketplace/google/nginx1:1.12

      • 如需从 Docker Hub 部署 Apache 容器映像,请始终指定完整的 Docker 映像名称:

        docker.io/httpd:2.4

    2. 可选操作:点击高级容器选项。如需了解详情,请参阅配置选项以便运行容器

  6. 如需创建虚拟机、启动虚拟机和启动容器,请点击创建

gcloud

运行 gcloud compute instances create-with-container 命令

gcloud compute instances create-with-container VM_NAME \
    --container-image=CONTAINER_IMAGE

请替换以下内容:

  • VM_NAME:新虚拟机的名称
  • CONTAINER_IMAGE:容器映像的名称。

例如,以下命令会创建名为 nginx-vm 的虚拟机,它会启动并运行容器映像:

gcr.io/cloud-marketplace/google/nginx1:1.12

gcloud compute instances create-with-container nginx-vm \
    --container-image=gcr.io/cloud-marketplace/google/nginx1:1.12

如需从 Docker Hub 部署 Apache 容器映像,请始终指定完整的 Docker 映像名称:

docker.io/httpd:2.4

创建可访问其他 Google Cloud 服务的虚拟机实例

如果您计划在需要访问其他 Google Cloud 服务的虚拟机上运行应用,请在创建虚拟机之前创建服务帐号,然后 将虚拟机设置为以服务帐号的身份运行。服务帐号是一个特殊帐号,您可以在应用代码中使用其凭据来访问其他 Google Cloud 服务。

如需了解详情,请参阅服务帐号

在特定子网中创建虚拟机实例

默认情况下,Google Cloud 会为每个项目创建一个名为 default自动模式 VPC 网络。如需使用其他网络或者您在自动模式或自定义模式 VPC 网络中手动创建的子网,您必须在创建虚拟机时指定子网。

在子网中创建虚拟机时,请考虑以下规则:

  • 如果您没有指定网络或子网,Compute Engine 会使用默认 VPC 网络和与虚拟机位于同一区域的自动子网。
  • 如果您未指定网络,Compute Engine 会根据指定的子网推断网络。
  • 如果您指定了网络,则必须指定子网,并且此子网必须属于同一个网络。否则,虚拟机创建会失败。

控制台

  1. 在 Google Cloud Console 中,转到虚拟机实例页面。

    转到虚拟机实例

  2. 选择您的项目并点击继续

  3. 点击创建实例

  4. 为您的虚拟机指定名称。如需了解详情,请参阅资源命名惯例

  5. 可选操作:更改此虚拟机的可用区。Compute Engine 会随机列出每个区域内的可用区,以鼓励跨多个可用区使用。

  6. 防火墙部分中,如需允许 HTTP 或 HTTPS 流量流向虚拟机,请选择允许 HTTP 流量允许 HTTPS 流量

    Cloud Console 会向虚拟机添加网络标记,并创建对应的入站防火墙规则,该规则允许 tcp:80 (HTTP) 或 tcp:443 (HTTPS) 上的所有传入流量。网络标记可将防火墙规则与虚拟机相关联。如需了解详情,请参阅虚拟私有云文档中的防火墙规则概览

  7. 展开网络、磁盘、安全、管理、单独租用部分。

    1. 展开网络部分。
    2. 对于网络接口,请指定网络详细信息:
      1. 网络字段中,选择包含您创建的子网的 VPC 网络。
      2. 子网字段中,选择实例将使用的子网。
      3. 点击完成
  8. 要创建并启动该虚拟机,请点击创建

gcloud

使用 Google Cloud CLI,按照从映像创建虚拟机从快照创建虚拟机的相同说明操作,并将在运行 gcloud compute instances create 命令时添加 --subnet=SUBNET_NAME--zone=ZONE 标志:

gcloud compute instances create VM_NAME \
    --network=NETWORK_NAME \
    --subnet=SUBNET_NAME \
    --zone=ZONE

请替换以下内容:

  • VM_NAME:虚拟机的名称
  • NETWORK_NAME(可选):网络的名称
  • SUBNET_NAME:子网的名称

    如需查看网络中的子网列表,请使用 gcloud compute networks subnets list 命令。

  • ZONE:在其中创建虚拟机的可用区,例如 europe-west1-b

    虚拟机的区域是根据可用区推断出来的。

API

按照使用映像创建虚拟机使用快照创建虚拟机的 API 说明执行操作,但在请求正文中指定 subnet 字段。如需添加空白磁盘,请勿添加来源映像。您可以选择指定 diskSizeGbdiskTypelabels 属性。

...
"networkInterfaces": [
{
  "network": "global/networks/NETWORK_NAME",
  "subnetwork": "regions/REGION/subnetworks/SUBNET_NAME",
  "accessConfigs":
    {
      "name": "External NAT",
      "type": "ONE_TO_ONE_NAT"
    }
    {
      "initializeParams": {
         "diskSizeGb": "SIZE_GB",
         "sourceImage": "IMAGE"
    {
      "initializeParams": {
      "diskSizeGb": "SIZE_GB"
     }
 }...]

请替换以下内容:

  • NETWORK_NAME(可选):网络的名称
  • REGION:指定子网所在的区域
  • SUBNET_NAME:子网的名称
  • SIZE_GB:磁盘大小
  • IMAGE:非启动磁盘的来源映像

    对于空白磁盘,请勿指定映像来源

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

// createInstanceWithSubnet creates a new VM instance with Debian 10 operating system in specified network and subnetwork.
func createInstanceWithSubnet(w io.Writer, projectID, zone, instanceName, networkLink, subnetworkLink string) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	// zone := "europe-central2-b"
	// instanceName := "your_instance_name"
	// networkLink := "global/networks/default"
	// subnetworkLink := "regions/region/subnetworks/subnetwork_name"

	ctx := context.Background()
	instancesClient, err := compute.NewInstancesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewInstancesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer instancesClient.Close()

	imagesClient, err := compute.NewImagesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewImagesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer imagesClient.Close()

	// List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details.
	newestDebianReq := &computepb.GetFromFamilyImageRequest{
		Project: "debian-cloud",
		Family:  "debian-10",
	}
	newestDebian, err := imagesClient.GetFromFamily(ctx, newestDebianReq)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to get image from family: %v", err)
	}

	req := &computepb.InsertInstanceRequest{
		Project: projectID,
		Zone:    zone,
		InstanceResource: &computepb.Instance{
			Name: proto.String(instanceName),
			Disks: []*computepb.AttachedDisk{
				{
					InitializeParams: &computepb.AttachedDiskInitializeParams{
						DiskSizeGb:  proto.Int64(10),
						SourceImage: newestDebian.SelfLink,
						DiskType:    proto.String(fmt.Sprintf("zones/%s/diskTypes/pd-standard", zone)),
					},
					AutoDelete: proto.Bool(true),
					Boot:       proto.Bool(true),
					Type:       proto.String(computepb.AttachedDisk_PERSISTENT.String()),
				},
			},
			MachineType: proto.String(fmt.Sprintf("zones/%s/machineTypes/n1-standard-1", zone)),
			NetworkInterfaces: []*computepb.NetworkInterface{
				{
					Name:       proto.String(networkLink),
					Subnetwork: proto.String(subnetworkLink),
				},
			},
		},
	}

	op, err := instancesClient.Insert(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to create instance: %v", err)
	}

	if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Instance created\n")

	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.api.gax.longrunning.OperationFuture;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk.Type;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Image;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.ImagesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InsertInstanceRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Instance;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InstancesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.NetworkInterface;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Operation;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Vector;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;

public class CreateInstancesAdvanced {

  /**
   * Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the source
   * for the new disk.
   *
   * @param diskType the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
   * "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)". For example:
   * "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
   * @param diskSizeGb size of the new disk in gigabytes
   * @param boot boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an
   * instance
   * @param sourceImage source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to
   * this disk. This can be one of the publicly available images or an image from one of your
   * projects. This value uses the following format:
   * "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
   * @return AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
   */
  private static AttachedDisk diskFromImage(String diskType, int diskSizeGb, boolean boot,
      String sourceImage) {
    AttachedDisk disk =
        AttachedDisk.newBuilder()
            .setBoot(boot)
            // Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when
            // you delete your VM instance.
            .setAutoDelete(true)
            .setType(Type.PERSISTENT.toString())
            .setInitializeParams(
                AttachedDiskInitializeParams.newBuilder()
                    .setSourceImage(sourceImage)
                    .setDiskSizeGb(diskSizeGb)
                    .setDiskType(diskType)
                    .build())
            .build();
    return disk;
  }

  /**
   * Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.
   *
   * @param project project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
   * @param zone name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
   * @param instanceName name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
   * @param disks a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks you want to attach
   * to your new instance.
   * @param machineType machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the following format:
   * "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
   * For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
   * @param network name of the network you want the new instance to use. For example:
   * "global/networks/default" represents the network named "default", which is created
   * automatically for each project.
   * @param subnetwork name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use. This value uses the
   * following format: "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
   * @return Instance object.
   */
  private static Instance createWithDisks(String project, String zone, String instanceName,
      Vector<AttachedDisk> disks, String machineType, String network, String subnetwork)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    try (InstancesClient instancesClient = InstancesClient.create()) {
      // Use the network interface provided in the networkName argument.
      NetworkInterface networkInterface;
      if (subnetwork != null) {
        networkInterface = NetworkInterface.newBuilder()
            .setName(network).setSubnetwork(subnetwork)
            .build();
      } else {
        networkInterface = NetworkInterface.newBuilder()
            .setName(network).build();
      }

      machineType = String.format("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s", zone, machineType);

      // Bind `instanceName`, `machineType`, `disk`, and `networkInterface` to an instance.
      Instance instanceResource =
          Instance.newBuilder()
              .setName(instanceName)
              .setMachineType(machineType)
              .addAllDisks(disks)
              .addNetworkInterfaces(networkInterface)
              .build();

      System.out.printf("Creating instance: %s at %s ", instanceName, zone);

      // Insert the instance in the specified project and zone.
      InsertInstanceRequest insertInstanceRequest = InsertInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
          .setProject(project)
          .setZone(zone)
          .setInstanceResource(instanceResource).build();

      OperationFuture<Operation, Operation> operation = instancesClient.insertAsync(
          insertInstanceRequest);

      // Wait for the operation to complete.
      Operation response = operation.get();

      if (response.hasError()) {
        System.out.println("Instance creation failed ! ! " + response);
        return null;
      }
      System.out.println("Operation Status: " + response.getStatus());

      return instancesClient.get(project, zone, instanceName);
    }
  }

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';
// const zone = 'europe-central2-b';
// const instanceName = 'YOUR_INSTANCE_NAME';
// const networkLink = 'global/networks/default';
// const subnetworkLink = 'regions/europe-central2/subnetworks/default';

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');

// Creates a new VM instance with Debian 10 operating system in specified network and subnetwork.
async function createInstanceWithSubnet() {
  const instancesClient = new compute.InstancesClient();
  const imagesClient = new compute.ImagesClient();

  // List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details.
  const [newestDebian] = await imagesClient.getFromFamily({
    project: 'debian-cloud',
    family: 'debian-10',
  });

  const [response] = await instancesClient.insert({
    project: projectId,
    zone,
    instanceResource: {
      name: instanceName,
      disks: [
        {
          initializeParams: {
            diskSizeGb: '10',
            sourceImage: newestDebian.selfLink,
            diskType: `zones/${zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard`,
          },
          autoDelete: true,
          boot: true,
          type: 'PERSISTENT',
        },
      ],
      machineType: `zones/${zone}/machineTypes/n1-standard-1`,
      networkInterfaces: [
        {
          name: networkLink,
          subnetwork: subnetworkLink,
        },
      ],
    },
  });
  let operation = response.latestResponse;
  const operationsClient = new compute.ZoneOperationsClient();

  // Wait for the create operation to complete.
  while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
    [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
      operation: operation.name,
      project: projectId,
      zone: operation.zone.split('/').pop(),
    });
  }

  console.log('Instance created.');
}

createInstanceWithSubnet();

Python

import re
import sys
from typing import Any, List

from google.api_core.extended_operation import ExtendedOperation
from google.cloud import compute_v1

def get_image_from_family(project: str, family: str) -> compute_v1.Image:
    """
    Retrieve the newest image that is part of a given family in a project.

    Args:
        project: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to get image from.
        family: name of the image family you want to get image from.

    Returns:
        An Image object.
    """
    image_client = compute_v1.ImagesClient()
    # List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details
    newest_image = image_client.get_from_family(project=project, family=family)
    return newest_image

def disk_from_image(
    disk_type: str,
    disk_size_gb: int,
    boot: bool,
    source_image: str,
    auto_delete: bool = True,
) -> compute_v1.AttachedDisk:
    """
    Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the
    source for the new disk.

    Args:
         disk_type: the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
            "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)".
            For example: "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
        disk_size_gb: size of the new disk in gigabytes
        boot: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an instance
        source_image: source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to this disk. This can be one
            of the publicly available images or an image from one of your projects.
            This value uses the following format: "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
        auto_delete: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be deleted with the VM that uses it

    Returns:
        AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
    """
    boot_disk = compute_v1.AttachedDisk()
    initialize_params = compute_v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams()
    initialize_params.source_image = source_image
    initialize_params.disk_size_gb = disk_size_gb
    initialize_params.disk_type = disk_type
    boot_disk.initialize_params = initialize_params
    # Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
    # your VM instance.
    boot_disk.auto_delete = auto_delete
    boot_disk.boot = boot
    return boot_disk

def wait_for_extended_operation(
    operation: ExtendedOperation, verbose_name: str = "operation", timeout: int = 300
) -> Any:
    """
    This method will wait for the extended (long-running) operation to
    complete. If the operation is successful, it will return its result.
    If the operation ends with an error, an exception will be raised.
    If there were any warnings during the execution of the operation
    they will be printed to sys.stderr.

    Args:
        operation: a long-running operation you want to wait on.
        verbose_name: (optional) a more verbose name of the operation,
            used only during error and warning reporting.
        timeout: how long (in seconds) to wait for operation to finish.
            If None, wait indefinitely.

    Returns:
        Whatever the operation.result() returns.

    Raises:
        This method will raise the exception received from `operation.exception()`
        or RuntimeError if there is no exception set, but there is an `error_code`
        set for the `operation`.

        In case of an operation taking longer than `timeout` seconds to complete,
        a `concurrent.futures.TimeoutError` will be raised.
    """
    result = operation.result(timeout=timeout)

    if operation.error_code:
        print(
            f"Error during {verbose_name}: [Code: {operation.error_code}]: {operation.error_message}",
            file=sys.stderr,
        )
        print(f"Operation ID: {operation.name}")
        raise operation.exception() or RuntimeError(operation.error_message)

    if operation.warnings:
        print(f"Warnings during {verbose_name}:\n", file=sys.stderr)
        for warning in operation.warnings:
            print(f" - {warning.code}: {warning.message}", file=sys.stderr)

    return result

def create_instance(
    project_id: str,
    zone: str,
    instance_name: str,
    disks: List[compute_v1.AttachedDisk],
    machine_type: str = "n1-standard-1",
    network_link: str = "global/networks/default",
    subnetwork_link: str = None,
    internal_ip: str = None,
    external_access: bool = False,
    external_ipv4: str = None,
    accelerators: List[compute_v1.AcceleratorConfig] = None,
    preemptible: bool = False,
    custom_hostname: str = None,
    delete_protection: bool = False,
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        disks: a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks
            you want to attach to your new instance.
        machine_type: machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the
            following format: "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
            For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
        network_link: name of the network you want the new instance to use.
            For example: "global/networks/default" represents the network
            named "default", which is created automatically for each project.
        subnetwork_link: name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use.
            This value uses the following format:
            "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
        internal_ip: internal IP address you want to assign to the new instance.
            By default, a free address from the pool of available internal IP addresses of
            used subnet will be used.
        external_access: boolean flag indicating if the instance should have an external IPv4
            address assigned.
        external_ipv4: external IPv4 address to be assigned to this instance. If you specify
            an external IP address, it must live in the same region as the zone of the instance.
            This setting requires `external_access` to be set to True to work.
        accelerators: a list of AcceleratorConfig objects describing the accelerators that will
            be attached to the new instance.
        preemptible: boolean value indicating if the new instance should be preemptible
            or not.
        custom_hostname: Custom hostname of the new VM instance.
            Custom hostnames must conform to RFC 1035 requirements for valid hostnames.
        delete_protection: boolean value indicating if the new virtual machine should be
            protected against deletion or not.
    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    instance_client = compute_v1.InstancesClient()

    # Use the network interface provided in the network_link argument.
    network_interface = compute_v1.NetworkInterface()
    network_interface.name = network_link
    if subnetwork_link:
        network_interface.subnetwork = subnetwork_link

    if internal_ip:
        network_interface.network_i_p = internal_ip

    if external_access:
        access = compute_v1.AccessConfig()
        access.type_ = compute_v1.AccessConfig.Type.ONE_TO_ONE_NAT.name
        access.name = "External NAT"
        access.network_tier = access.NetworkTier.PREMIUM.name
        if external_ipv4:
            access.nat_i_p = external_ipv4
        network_interface.access_configs = [access]

    # Collect information into the Instance object.
    instance = compute_v1.Instance()
    instance.name = instance_name
    instance.disks = disks
    if re.match(r"^zones/[a-z\d\-]+/machineTypes/[a-z\d\-]+$", machine_type):
        instance.machine_type = machine_type
    else:
        instance.machine_type = f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{machine_type}"

    if accelerators:
        instance.guest_accelerators = accelerators

    instance.network_interfaces = [network_interface]

    if preemptible:
        # Set the preemptible setting
        instance.scheduling = compute_v1.Scheduling()
        instance.scheduling.preemptible = True

    if custom_hostname is not None:
        # Set the custom hostname for the instance
        instance.hostname = custom_hostname

    if delete_protection:
        # Set the delete protection bit
        instance.deletion_protection = True

    # Prepare the request to insert an instance.
    request = compute_v1.InsertInstanceRequest()
    request.zone = zone
    request.project = project_id
    request.instance_resource = instance

    # Wait for the create operation to complete.
    print(f"Creating the {instance_name} instance in {zone}...")

    operation = instance_client.insert(request=request)

    wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "instance creation")

    print(f"Instance {instance_name} created.")
    return instance_client.get(project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name)

def create_with_subnet(
    project_id: str, zone: str, instance_name: str, network_link: str, subnet_link: str
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Create a new VM instance with Debian 10 operating system in specified network and subnetwork.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        network_link: name of the network you want the new instance to use.
            For example: "global/networks/default" represents the network
            named "default", which is created automatically for each project.
        subnetwork_link: name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use.
            This value uses the following format:
            "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"

    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    newest_debian = get_image_from_family(project="debian-cloud", family="debian-10")
    disk_type = f"zones/{zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard"
    disks = [disk_from_image(disk_type, 10, True, newest_debian.self_link)]
    instance = create_instance(
        project_id,
        zone,
        instance_name,
        disks,
        network_link=network_link,
        subnetwork_link=subnet_link,
    )
    return instance

问题排查

如需查找解决常见虚拟机创建错误的方法,请参阅排查虚拟机创建问题

后续步骤

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