Metadata caching

This document describes how to use metadata caching with BigLake and object tables to improve query performance.

BigLake and object tables support caching metadata about files from external data sources such as Cloud Storage and Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). The metadata includes file names, partitioning information, and physical metadata from files such as row counts. You can choose whether or not to enable metadata caching on a table. Queries with a large number of files and with Hive partition filters benefit the most from metadata caching.

If you don't enable metadata caching, queries on the table must read the external data source to get object metadata which increases the query latency; listing millions of files from the external data source can take several minutes. If you enable metadata caching, queries can avoid listing files from the external data source and achieve faster partition and file pruning.

There are two properties that control this feature:

  • Maximum staleness, which controls when queries use cached metadata.
  • Metadata cache mode, which controls how the metadata is collected.

When you have metadata caching enabled, you specify the maximum interval of metadata staleness that is acceptable for operations against the table. For example, if you specify an interval of 1 hour, then operations against the table use cached metadata if it has been refreshed within the past hour. If the cached metadata is older than that, the operation falls back to retrieving metadata from Cloud Storage instead. You can specify a staleness interval between 30 minutes and 7 days.

You can choose to refresh the cache either automatically or manually:

  • For automatic refreshes, the cache is refreshed at a system defined interval, usually somewhere between 30 and 60 minutes. Refreshing the cache automatically is a good approach if the files in the external data source are added, deleted, or modified at random intervals. If you need to control the timing of the refresh, for example to trigger the refresh at the end of an extract-transform-load job, use manual refresh.
  • For manual refreshes, you run the BQ.REFRESH_EXTERNAL_METADATA_CACHE system procedure to refresh the metadata cache on whatever schedule you determine. Refreshing the cache manually is a good approach if the files in z are added, deleted, or modified at known intervals, for example as the output of a pipeline.

    If you issue multiple concurrent manual refreshes, only one will succeed.

The metadata cache expires after 7 days if it isn't refreshed.

You should consider how the staleness interval and metadata caching mode values will interact before you set them. Consider the following examples:

  • If you are manually refreshing the metadata cache for a table, and you set the staleness interval to 2 days, you must run the BQ.REFRESH_EXTERNAL_METADATA_CACHE system procedure every 2 days or less if you want operations against the table to use cached metadata.
  • If you are automatically refreshing the metadata cache for a table, and you set the staleness interval to 30 minutes, it is possible that some of your operations against the table will read from Cloud Storage if the metadata cache refresh takes on the longer side of the usual 30 to 60 minute window.

To find information about metadata refresh jobs, query the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.JOBS view, as shown in the following example:

SELECT *
FROM `region-us.INFORMATION_SCHEMA.JOBS_BY_PROJECT`
WHERE job_id LIKE '%metadata_cache_refresh%'
AND creation_time > TIMESTAMP_SUB(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(), INTERVAL 6 HOUR)
ORDER BY start_time DESC
LIMIT 10;

Metadata caching settings

There are two properties that control the behavior of this feature:

  • Maximum staleness specifies when queries use cached metadata.
  • Metadata cache mode specifies how the metadata is collected.

When you have metadata caching enabled, you specify the maximum interval of metadata staleness that is acceptable for operations against the table. For example, if you specify an interval of 1 hour, then operations against the table use cached metadata if it has been refreshed within the past hour. If the cached metadata is older than that, the operation falls back to retrieving metadata from Cloud Storage instead. You can specify a staleness interval between 30 minutes and 7 days.

You can choose to refresh the cache either automatically or manually:

  • For automatic refreshes, the cache is refreshed at a system defined interval, usually somewhere between 30 and 60 minutes. Refreshing the cache automatically is a good approach if the files in Cloud Storage are added, deleted, or modified at random intervals. If you need to control the timing of the refresh, for example to trigger the refresh at the end of an extract-transform-load job, use manual refresh.
  • For manual refreshes, you run the BQ.REFRESH_EXTERNAL_METADATA_CACHE system procedure to refresh the metadata cache on whatever schedule you determine. Refreshing the cache manually is a good approach if the files in Cloud Storage are added, deleted, or modified at known intervals, for example as the output of a pipeline.

Both manual and automatic cache refreshes are executed with INTERACTIVE query priority.

If you choose to use automatic refreshes, we recommend that you create a reservation, and then create an assignment with a BACKGROUND job type for the project that runs the metadata cache refresh jobs. This prevents the refresh jobs from competing with user queries for resources, and potentially failing if there aren't sufficient resources available for them.

You should consider how the staleness interval and metadata caching mode values will interact before you set them. Consider the following examples:

  • If a table's metadata cache is set to require manual refreshes, and the staleness interval is set to 2 days, you must run the BQ.REFRESH_EXTERNAL_METADATA_CACHE system procedure every 2 days or less if you want operations against the table to use cached metadata.
  • If a table's metadata cache is set to refresh automatically, and the staleness interval is set to 30 minutes, some of the operations against the table might read from Cloud Storage if the metadata cache refresh takes on the longer side of the usual 30 to 60 minute window.

To learn how to use metadata caching settings with BigLake tables, see Create BigLake tables on unpartitioned data. To learn how to use metadata caching settings with object tables, see Create object tables.

Get information on metadata cache refresh jobs

To find information about metadata cache refresh jobs, query the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.JOBS view, as shown in the following example:

SELECT *
FROM `region-us.INFORMATION_SCHEMA.JOBS`
WHERE job_id LIKE '%metadata_cache_refresh%'
AND creation_time > TIMESTAMP_SUB(CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(), INTERVAL 6 HOUR)
ORDER BY start_time DESC
LIMIT 10;

Use customer-managed encryption keys with cached metadata

Cached metadata is protected by the customer-managed encryption key (CMEK) used for the table that the cached metadata is associated with. This might be a CMEK applied directly to the table, or a CMEK that the table inherits from the dataset or project.

If a default CMEK is set for the project or dataset, or if the existing CMEK for the project or dataset is changed, this doesn't affect existing tables or their cached metadata. You must change the key for the table to apply the new key to both the table and its cached metadata.

CMEKs created in BigQuery don't apply to the Cloud Storage files that are used by BigLake and object tables. To obtain end-to-end CMEK encryption, configure CMEKs in Cloud Storage for those files.

Get information on metadata cache usage by query jobs

To get information about metadata cache usage for a query job, call the jobs.get method for that job and look at the MetadataCacheStatistics field in the JobStatistics2 section of the Job resource. This field provides information on which metadata cache-enabled tables were used by the query, whether the metadata cache was used by the query, and if not, the reason why not.

Table statistics

For BigLake tables that are based on Parquet files, table statistics are collected when the metadata cache is refreshed. Table statistic collection happens during both automatic and manual refreshes, and the statistics are kept for the same period as the metadata cache.

The table statistics collected include file information like row counts, physical and uncompressed file sizes, and cardinality of columns. When you run a query on a Parquet-based BigLake table, these statistics are supplied to the query optimizer to enable better query planning and potentially improve query performance for some types of queries. For example, a common query optimization is dynamic constraint propagation, where the query optimizer dynamically infers predicates on the larger fact tables in a join from the smaller dimension tables. While this optimization can speed up queries by using normalized table schemas, it requires accurate table statistics. The table statistics collected by metadata caching enable greater optimization of query plans in both BigQuery and Apache Spark.

Limitations

The following limitations apply to the metadata cache:

  • If you issue multiple concurrent manual refreshes, only one will succeed.
  • The metadata cache expires after 7 days if it isn't refreshed.
  • If you update the source URI for a table, the metadata cache is not automatically refreshed, and subsequent queries return data from the outdated cache. To avoid this, refresh the metadata cache manually. If the table's metadata cache is set to refresh automatically, you must change the table's refresh mode to manual, perform the manual refresh, then set the table's refresh mode back to automatic again.
  • If you are manually refreshing the metadata cache, and your target dataset and Cloud Storage bucket are in a regional location, you must explicitly specify this location when you run the BQ.REFRESH_EXTERNAL_METADATA_CACHE procedure call. You can do this one of the following ways:

    Console

    1. Go to the BigQuery page.

      Go to BigQuery

    2. Select a tab in the Editor.

    3. Click More, and then click Query settings.

    4. In the Advanced options section, unselect the Automatic location selection checkbox, and then specify the target region.

    5. Click Save.

    6. Run the query containing the BQ.REFRESH_EXTERNAL_METADATA_CACHE procedure call in that Editor tab.

    bq

    If you run the query containing the BQ.REFRESH_EXTERNAL_METADATA_CACHE procedure call by using bq query, be sure to specify the --location flag.

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