Criar uma VM com um tipo de máquina personalizado

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O Compute Engine oferece tipos de máquina predefinidos que você pode usar ao criar uma instância de VM. Um tipo de máquina predefinido tem um número predefinido de vCPUs e uma quantidade de memória, mas é cobrado um preço fixo.

Se os tipos de VMs predefinidos não atenderem às suas necessidades, crie uma instância de VM com configurações personalizadas de hardware virtualizado. Especificamente, é possível criar uma instância de VM com um número personalizado de vCPUs e quantidade de memória, usando efetivamente um tipo de máquina personalizado. Os tipos de máquina personalizados estão disponíveis na família de máquinas de uso geral. Ao criar uma VM personalizada, você está implantando uma VM personalizada da família de máquinas E2, N2, N2D ou N1.

As VMs personalizadas são ideais nos seguintes cenários:

  • Cargas de trabalho que não são adequadas para os tipos de máquina virtual predefinidos.
  • Cargas de trabalho que exigem mais poder de processamento ou mais memória, mas não precisam de todos os upgrades fornecidos pelo próximo nível de tipo de máquina.

Antes de começar

Preços

O Google cobra por VMs personalizadas com base no número de vCPUs e nas horas de memória que a VM usa. Isso é diferente de como tipos de máquinas predefinidos são cobrados. Consulte Preços de VM para mais detalhes.

As VMs personalizadas estão sujeitas à mesma cobrança mínima de um minuto que qualquer outra instância, mas descontos por uso prolongado para tipos de máquinas personalizados são calculados de maneira diferente. Para mais informações, consulte descontos por uso prolongado para VMs personalizadas.

Expressar memória em GB ou MB

Para a documentação e ferramentas do Google Cloud, a memória do tipo de máquina é calculada em gigabytes (GB), sendo que 1 GB equivale a 2 30 bytes. Essa unidade de medida também é conhecida como gibibyte (GiB). Ao converter a memória de GB para MB, 1 GB = 1.024 MB.

Na API, sempre forneça memória em megabytes. Se você usa a CLI do Google Cloud, é possível fornecer a memória total para uma VM em gigabytes ou megabytes. No entanto, a CLI gcloud espera que o valor da memória seja um número inteiro, portanto não é possível fornecer um valor flutuante. Por exemplo, para expressar 5,75 GB, converta 5,75 GB em MB. Nesse caso, 5,75 GB são 5.888 MB.

Criar uma VM com um tipo de máquina personalizado

Antes de criar uma instância de VM, leia e entenda as especificações personalizadas para criar esse tipo de máquina.

Console

  1. No console do Google Cloud, acesse a página Criar uma instância.

    Acesse "Criar uma instância"

  2. Na lista Zona, selecione a zona em que você quer hospedar esta VM. A lista Série é filtrada para incluir apenas as famílias de tipo de máquina disponíveis na zona selecionada.

  3. Na seção Configuração da máquina, selecione Uso geral.

    1. Na lista Série, clique em N1 em Primeira geração para tipos de máquinas personalizados N1 ou E2, N2 ou N2D para os tipos de máquina personalizados de segunda geração.
    2. Na lista Tipo de máquina, selecione Personalizado.
    3. Para especificar o número de vCPUs e a quantidade de memória da instância de VM, arraste os controles deslizantes ou insira os valores nas caixas de texto. O console exibe um custo estimado para a VM à medida que você altera o número de vCPUs e a memória.
  4. Continue a criar a VM.

gcloud

O comando gcloud para tipos de máquinas personalizados é um pouco diferente, dependendo da família de tipos de máquinas.

Para tipos de máquinas N1, use o comando gcloud compute instances create e inclua uma das seguintes opções:

  • As sinalizações --custom-cpu e --custom-memory
  • A sinalização --machine-type=custom-[NUMBER_OF_CPUS]-[NUMBER_OF_MB]

Por exemplo, o comando a seguir criaria uma instância que executa um tipo de máquina N1 com 4 vCPUs e 5 GB de memória total:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance \
    --custom-cpu=4 --custom-memory=5

Para os tipos de máquina N2, use o comando gcloud compute instances create e inclua uma das seguintes opções:

  • As sinalizações --custom-cpu, --custom-memory e --custom-vm-type
  • A sinalização --machine-type=n2-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-NUMBER_OF_MB

Se usar a sinalização --custom-memory, especifique a quantidade total de memória em GB ou em MB. A propriedade precisa ser um número inteiro. Portanto, se você quiser especificar incrementos de 0,25 GB em memória, converta esse valor em MB.

Para especificar um valor incremental, como 2,5 GB de memória, converta o valor em MB e forneça o valor seguido do sufixo MB: O exemplo a seguir cria uma instância que executa um tipo de máquina N2:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance \
    --custom-cpu=6 --custom-memory=3072MB --custom-vm-type=n2

Como alternativa, use este formato para especificar um tipo de máquina personalizado:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance \
    --machine-type n2-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-NUMBER_OF_MB

Substitua estes itens:

  • NUMBER_OF_CPUS: o número de CPUs necessárias
  • NUMBER_OF_MB: a quantidade de memória, em MB.

Exemplo:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance --machine-type=n2-custom-6-3072

Para os tipos de máquina N2D ou E2, use o comando gcloud compute instances create e inclua uma das seguintes opções:

  • As sinalizações --custom-cpu, --custom-memory e --custom-vm-type
  • A sinalização --machine-type=n2d-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-NUMBER_OF_MB
  • A sinalização --machine-type=e2-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-NUMBER_OF_MB

Para tipos de máquina personalizados E2 com núcleo compartilhado, use o mesmo comando gcloud compute instances create e inclua o tamanho da máquina com núcleo compartilhado: micro, small ou medium.

  • A sinalização --machine-type=e2-custom SHARED_CORE_MACHINE_SIZE-NUMBER_OF_MB

Exemplo:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance \
    --machine-type=e2-custom-medium-NUMBER_OF_MB

Ao usar a sinalização --custom-memory, especifique a quantidade total de memória em GB ou em MB. A propriedade precisa ser um número inteiro. Então, se você quiser especificar incrementos de 0,25 GB em memória, converta o valor em MB.

Para especificar um valor incremental, como 2,5 GB de memória, converta o valor em MB e forneça o valor seguido do sufixo MB. O exemplo a seguir cria uma instância que executa um tipo de máquina E2:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance \
    --custom-cpu=6 --custom-memory=3072MB --custom-vm-type=e2

Como alternativa, use este formato para especificar um tipo de máquina personalizado:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance \
    --machine-type=e2-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-NUMBER_OF_MB

Substitua:

  • NUMBER_OF_CPUS: o número de CPUs necessárias
  • NUMBER_OF_MB: a quantidade de memória, em MB.

Exemplo:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance --machine-type=e2-custom-6-3072

API

Na API, gere sua solicitação de criação de instância como faria normalmente, mas, ao especificar um valor de machineType, use um dos formatos a seguir. Substitua NUMBER_OF_CPUS pelo número de CPUs e AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY_MB pela quantidade de memória que você quer usar. Forneça a memória em unidades de MB.

  • Para tipos de máquinas N1, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY_MB
    
  • Para tipos de máquinas N2, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/n2-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY_MB
    
  • Para tipos de máquinas N2D, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/n2d-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY_MB
    
  • Para tipos de máquina E2, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/e2-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY_MB
    
  • Para os tipos de máquina personalizados com núcleo compartilhado E2, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/e2-custom-SHARED_CORE_MACHINE_SIZE-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY_MB
    

    Por exemplo, o seguinte URL criaria uma instância com 4 vCPUs e 5 GB (5.120 MB) de memória:

    zones/us-central1-f/machineTypes/custom-4-5120

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

func customMachineTypeURI(zone, cpuSeries string, coreCount, memory int) (string, error) {
	const (
		n1       = "custom"
		n2       = "n2-custom"
		n2d      = "n2d-custom"
		e2       = "e2-custom"
		e2Micro  = "e2-custom-micro"
		e2Small  = "e2-custom-small"
		e2Medium = "e2-custom-medium"
	)

	type typeLimit struct {
		allowedCores     []int
		minMemPerCore    int
		maxMemPerCore    int
		allowExtraMemory bool
		extraMemoryLimit int
	}

	makeRange := func(start, end, step int) []int {
		if step <= 0 || end < start {
			return []int{}
		}
		s := make([]int, 0, 1+(end-start)/step)
		for start <= end {
			s = append(s, start)
			start += step
		}
		return s
	}

	containsString := func(s []string, str string) bool {
		for _, v := range s {
			if v == str {
				return true
			}
		}

		return false
	}

	containsInt := func(nums []int, n int) bool {
		for _, v := range nums {
			if v == n {
				return true
			}
		}

		return false
	}

	var (
		cpuSeriesE2Limit = typeLimit{
			allowedCores:  makeRange(2, 33, 2),
			minMemPerCore: 512,
			maxMemPerCore: 8192,
		}
		cpuSeriesE2MicroLimit  = typeLimit{minMemPerCore: 1024, maxMemPerCore: 2048}
		cpuSeriesE2SmallLimit  = typeLimit{minMemPerCore: 2048, maxMemPerCore: 4096}
		cpuSeriesE2MeidumLimit = typeLimit{minMemPerCore: 4096, maxMemPerCore: 8192}
		cpuSeriesN2Limit       = typeLimit{
			allowedCores:  append(makeRange(2, 33, 2), makeRange(36, 129, 4)...),
			minMemPerCore: 512, maxMemPerCore: 8192,
			allowExtraMemory: true,
			extraMemoryLimit: 624 << 10,
		}
		cpuSeriesN2DLimit = typeLimit{
			allowedCores:  []int{2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96},
			minMemPerCore: 512, maxMemPerCore: 8192,
			allowExtraMemory: true,
			extraMemoryLimit: 768 << 10,
		}
		cpuSeriesN1Limit = typeLimit{
			allowedCores:     append([]int{1}, makeRange(2, 97, 2)...),
			minMemPerCore:    922,
			maxMemPerCore:    6656,
			allowExtraMemory: true,
			extraMemoryLimit: 624 << 10,
		}
	)

	typeLimitsMap := map[string]typeLimit{
		n1:       cpuSeriesN1Limit,
		n2:       cpuSeriesN2Limit,
		n2d:      cpuSeriesN2DLimit,
		e2:       cpuSeriesE2Limit,
		e2Micro:  cpuSeriesE2MicroLimit,
		e2Small:  cpuSeriesE2SmallLimit,
		e2Medium: cpuSeriesE2MeidumLimit,
	}

	if !containsString([]string{e2, n1, n2, n2d}, cpuSeries) {
		return "", fmt.Errorf("incorrect cpu type: %v", cpuSeries)
	}

	tl := typeLimitsMap[cpuSeries]

	// Check whether the requested parameters are allowed.
	// Find more information about limitations of custom machine types at:
	// https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/general-purpose-machines#custom_machine_types

	// Check the number of cores
	if len(tl.allowedCores) > 0 && !containsInt(tl.allowedCores, coreCount) {
		return "", fmt.Errorf(
			"invalid number of cores requested. Allowed number of cores for %v is: %v",
			cpuSeries,
			tl.allowedCores,
		)
	}

	// Memory must be a multiple of 256 MB
	if memory%256 != 0 {
		return "", fmt.Errorf("requested memory must be a multiple of 256 MB")
	}

	// Check if the requested memory isn't too little
	if memory < coreCount*tl.minMemPerCore {
		return "", fmt.Errorf(
			"requested memory is too low. Minimal memory for %v is %v MB per core",
			cpuSeries,
			tl.minMemPerCore,
		)
	}

	// Check if the requested memory isn't too much
	if memory > coreCount*tl.maxMemPerCore && !tl.allowExtraMemory {
		return "", fmt.Errorf(
			"requested memory is too large.. Maximum memory allowed for %v is %v MB per core",
			cpuSeries,
			tl.maxMemPerCore,
		)
	}
	if memory > tl.extraMemoryLimit && tl.allowExtraMemory {
		return "", fmt.Errorf(
			"requested memory is too large.. Maximum memory allowed for %v is %v MB",
			cpuSeries,
			tl.extraMemoryLimit,
		)
	}

	// Return the custom machine type in form of a string acceptable by Compute Engine API.
	if containsString([]string{e2Small, e2Micro, e2Medium}, cpuSeries) {
		return fmt.Sprintf("zones/%v/machineTypes/%v-%v", zone, cpuSeries, memory), nil
	}

	if memory > coreCount*tl.maxMemPerCore {
		return fmt.Sprintf(
			"zones/%v/machineTypes/%v-%v-%v-ext",
			zone,
			cpuSeries,
			coreCount,
			memory,
		), nil
	}

	return fmt.Sprintf("zones/%v/machineTypes/%v-%v-%v", zone, cpuSeries, coreCount, memory), nil
}

// createInstanceWithCustomMachineTypeWithHelper creates a new VM instance with a custom machine type.
func createInstanceWithCustomMachineTypeWithHelper(
	w io.Writer,
	projectID, zone, instanceName, cpuSeries string,
	coreCount, memory int,
) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	// zone := "europe-central2-b"
	// instanceName := "your_instance_name"
	// cpuSeries := "e2-custom-micro" // the type of CPU you want to use"
	// coreCount := 2 // number of CPU cores you want to use.
	// memory := 256 // the amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.

	machineType, err := customMachineTypeURI(zone, cpuSeries, coreCount, memory)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to create custom machine type string: %v", err)
	}

	ctx := context.Background()
	instancesClient, err := compute.NewInstancesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewInstancesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer instancesClient.Close()

	req := &computepb.InsertInstanceRequest{
		Project: projectID,
		Zone:    zone,
		InstanceResource: &computepb.Instance{
			Name: proto.String(instanceName),
			Disks: []*computepb.AttachedDisk{
				{
					InitializeParams: &computepb.AttachedDiskInitializeParams{
						DiskSizeGb: proto.Int64(10),
						SourceImage: proto.String(
							"projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10",
						),
					},
					AutoDelete: proto.Bool(true),
					Boot:       proto.Bool(true),
				},
			},
			MachineType: proto.String(machineType),
			NetworkInterfaces: []*computepb.NetworkInterface{
				{
					Name: proto.String("global/networks/default"),
				},
			},
		},
	}

	op, err := instancesClient.Insert(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to create instance: %v", err)
	}

	if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Instance created\n")

	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InsertInstanceRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Instance;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InstancesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.NetworkInterface;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Operation;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableMap;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Objects;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;
import java.util.stream.IntStream;

public class CreateWithHelper {

  // This class defines the configurable parameters for a custom VM.
  static final class TypeLimits {

    int[] allowedCores;
    int minMemPerCore;
    int maxMemPerCore;
    int extraMemoryLimit;
    boolean allowExtraMemory;

    TypeLimits(int[] allowedCores, int minMemPerCore, int maxMemPerCore, boolean allowExtraMemory,
        int extraMemoryLimit) {
      this.allowedCores = allowedCores;
      this.minMemPerCore = minMemPerCore;
      this.maxMemPerCore = maxMemPerCore;
      this.allowExtraMemory = allowExtraMemory;
      this.extraMemoryLimit = extraMemoryLimit;
    }
  }

  public enum CpuSeries {
    N1("custom"),
    N2("n2-custom"),
    N2D("n2d-custom"),
    E2("e2-custom"),
    E2_MICRO("e2-custom-micro"),
    E2_SMALL("e2-custom-small"),
    E2_MEDIUM("e2-custom-medium");

    private static final Map<String, CpuSeries> ENUM_MAP;

    static {
      ENUM_MAP = init();
    }

    // Build an immutable map of String name to enum pairs.
    public static Map<String, CpuSeries> init() {
      Map<String, CpuSeries> map = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();
      for (CpuSeries instance : CpuSeries.values()) {
        map.put(instance.getCpuSeries(), instance);
      }
      return Collections.unmodifiableMap(map);
    }

    private final String cpuSeries;

    CpuSeries(String cpuSeries) {
      this.cpuSeries = cpuSeries;
    }

    public static CpuSeries get(String name) {
      return ENUM_MAP.get(name);
    }

    public String getCpuSeries() {
      return this.cpuSeries;
    }
  }

  // This enum correlates a machine type with its limits.
  // The limits for various CPU types are described in:
  // https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/general-purpose-machines
  enum Limits {
    CPUSeries_E2(new TypeLimits(getNumsInRangeWithStep(2, 33, 2), 512, 8192, false, 0)),
    CPUSeries_E2MICRO(new TypeLimits(new int[]{}, 1024, 2048, false, 0)),
    CPUSeries_E2SMALL(new TypeLimits(new int[]{}, 2048, 4096, false, 0)),
    CPUSeries_E2MEDIUM(new TypeLimits(new int[]{}, 4096, 8192, false, 0)),
    CPUSeries_N2(
        new TypeLimits(concat(getNumsInRangeWithStep(2, 33, 2), getNumsInRangeWithStep(36, 129, 4)),
            512, 8192, true, gbToMb(624))),
    CPUSeries_N2D(
        new TypeLimits(new int[]{2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96}, 512, 8192, true, gbToMb(768))),
    CPUSeries_N1(
        new TypeLimits(concat(new int[]{1}, getNumsInRangeWithStep(2, 97, 2)), 922, 6656, true,
            gbToMb(624)));

    private final TypeLimits typeLimits;

    Limits(TypeLimits typeLimits) {
      this.typeLimits = typeLimits;
    }

    public TypeLimits getTypeLimits() {
      return typeLimits;
    }
  }

  static ImmutableMap<String, Limits> typeLimitsMap = ImmutableMap.<String, Limits>builder()
      .put("N1", Limits.CPUSeries_N1)
      .put("N2", Limits.CPUSeries_N2)
      .put("N2D", Limits.CPUSeries_N2D)
      .put("E2", Limits.CPUSeries_E2)
      .put("E2_MICRO", Limits.CPUSeries_E2MICRO)
      .put("E2_SMALL", Limits.CPUSeries_E2SMALL)
      .put("E2_MEDIUM", Limits.CPUSeries_E2SMALL)
      .build();

  // Returns the array of integers within the given range, incremented by the specified step.
  // start (inclusive): starting number of the range
  // stop (inclusive): ending number of the range
  // step : increment value
  static int[] getNumsInRangeWithStep(int start, int stop, int step) {
    return IntStream.range(start, stop).filter(x -> (x - start) % step == 0).toArray();
  }

  static int gbToMb(int value) {
    return value << 10;
  }

  static int[] concat(int[] a, int[] b) {
    int[] result = new int[a.length + b.length];
    System.arraycopy(a, 0, result, 0, a.length);
    System.arraycopy(b, 0, result, a.length, b.length);
    return result;
  }

  public static void main(String[] args)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    // Project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
    String projectId = "your-google-cloud-project-id";
    // Name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b".
    String zone = "google-cloud-zone";
    // Name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
    String instanceName = "instance-name";
    String cpuSeries = "N1";
    // Number of CPU cores you want to use.
    int coreCount = 2;
    // The amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.
    int memory = 256;

    createInstanceWithCustomMachineTypeWithHelper(
        projectId, zone, instanceName, cpuSeries, coreCount, memory);
  }

  // Create a VM instance with a custom machine type.
  public static void createInstanceWithCustomMachineTypeWithHelper(
      String project, String zone, String instanceName, String cpuSeries, int coreCount, int memory)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
    // Construct the URI string identifying the machine type.
    String machineTypeUri = customMachineTypeUri(zone, cpuSeries, coreCount, memory);

    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
    // once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After completing all of your requests, call
    // the `instancesClient.close()` method on the client to safely
    // clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (InstancesClient instancesClient = InstancesClient.create()) {

      AttachedDisk attachedDisk = AttachedDisk.newBuilder()
          .setInitializeParams(
              // Describe the size and source image of the boot disk to attach to the instance.
              // The list of public images available in Compute Engine can be found here:
              // https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images#list_of_public_images_available_on
              AttachedDiskInitializeParams.newBuilder()
                  .setSourceImage(
                      String.format("projects/%s/global/images/family/%s", "debian-cloud",
                          "debian-11"))
                  .setDiskSizeGb(10)
                  .build()
          )
          // Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
          // your VM instance.
          .setAutoDelete(true)
          .setBoot(true)
          .build();

      // Create the Instance object with the relevant information.
      Instance instance = Instance.newBuilder()
          .setName(instanceName)
          .addDisks(attachedDisk)
          .setMachineType(machineTypeUri)
          .addNetworkInterfaces(
              NetworkInterface.newBuilder().setName("global/networks/default").build())
          .build();

      // Create the insert instance request object.
      InsertInstanceRequest insertInstanceRequest = InsertInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
          .setProject(project)
          .setZone(zone)
          .setInstanceResource(instance)
          .build();

      // Invoke the API with the request object and wait for the operation to complete.
      Operation response = instancesClient.insertAsync(insertInstanceRequest)
          .get(3, TimeUnit.MINUTES);

      // Check for errors.
      if (response.hasError()) {
        throw new Error("Instance creation failed!!" + response);
      }
      System.out.printf("Instance created : %s", instanceName);
      System.out.println("Operation Status: " + response.getStatus());
    }
  }

  public static String customMachineTypeUri(String zone, String cpuSeries, int coreCount,
      int memory) {

    if (!Arrays.asList(CpuSeries.E2.cpuSeries, CpuSeries.N1.cpuSeries, CpuSeries.N2.cpuSeries,
        CpuSeries.N2D.cpuSeries).contains(cpuSeries)) {
      throw new Error(String.format("Incorrect cpu type: %s", cpuSeries));
    }

    TypeLimits typeLimit = Objects.requireNonNull(
        typeLimitsMap.get(CpuSeries.get(cpuSeries).name())).typeLimits;

    // Perform the following checks to verify if the requested parameters are allowed.
    // Find more information about limitations of custom machine types at:
    // https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/general-purpose-machines#custom_machine_types

    // 1. Check the number of cores and if the coreCount is present in allowedCores.
    if (typeLimit.allowedCores.length > 0 && Arrays.stream(typeLimit.allowedCores)
        .noneMatch(x -> x == coreCount)) {
      throw new Error(String.format(
          "Invalid number of cores requested. "
              + "Number of cores requested for CPU %s should be one of: %s",
          cpuSeries,
          Arrays.toString(typeLimit.allowedCores)));
    }

    // 2. Memory must be a multiple of 256 MB
    if (memory % 256 != 0) {
      throw new Error("Requested memory must be a multiple of 256 MB");
    }

    // 3. Check if the requested memory isn't too little
    if (memory < coreCount * typeLimit.minMemPerCore) {
      throw new Error(
          String.format("Requested memory is too low. Minimum memory for %s is %s MB per core",
              cpuSeries, typeLimit.minMemPerCore));
    }

    // 4. Check if the requested memory isn't too much
    if (memory > coreCount * typeLimit.maxMemPerCore && !typeLimit.allowExtraMemory) {
      throw new Error(String.format(
          "Requested memory is too large.. Maximum memory allowed for %s is %s MB per core",
          cpuSeries, typeLimit.extraMemoryLimit));
    }

    // 5. Check if the requested memory isn't too large
    if (memory > typeLimit.extraMemoryLimit && typeLimit.allowExtraMemory) {
      throw new Error(
          String.format("Requested memory is too large.. Maximum memory allowed for %s is %s MB",
              cpuSeries, typeLimit.extraMemoryLimit));
    }

    // Check if the CPU Series is E2 and return the custom machine type in the form of a string
    // acceptable by Compute Engine API.
    if (Arrays.asList(CpuSeries.E2_SMALL.cpuSeries, CpuSeries.E2_MICRO.cpuSeries,
        CpuSeries.E2_MEDIUM.cpuSeries).contains(cpuSeries)) {
      return String.format("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s-%s", zone, cpuSeries, memory);
    }

    // Check if extended memory was requested and return the extended custom machine type
    // in the form of a string acceptable by Compute Engine API.
    if (memory > coreCount * typeLimit.maxMemPerCore) {
      return String.format("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s-%s-%s-ext", zone, cpuSeries, coreCount,
          memory);
    }

    // Return the custom machine type in the form of a standard string
    // acceptable by Compute Engine API.
    return String.format("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s-%s-%s", zone, cpuSeries, coreCount, memory);
  }
}

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';
// const zone = 'europe-central2-b';
// const instanceName = 'YOUR_INSTANCE_NAME';
// const cpuSeries = 'N1';
// const coreCount = 2
// const memory = 256

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');

function range(from, to, step) {
  return [...Array(Math.floor((to - from) / step) + 1)].map(
    (_, i) => from + i * step
  );
}

class CustomMachineType {
  constructor(zone, cpuSeries, coreCount, memory) {
    this.zone = zone;
    this.cpuSeries = cpuSeries;
    this.coreCount = coreCount;
    this.memory = memory;

    this.N1 = 'custom';
    this.N2 = 'n2-custom';
    this.N2D = 'n2d-custom';
    this.E2 = 'e2-custom';
    this.E2Micro = 'e2-custom-micro';
    this.E2Small = 'e2-custom-small';
    this.E2Medium = 'e2-custom-medium';

    this.CpuSeriesE2Limit = {
      allowedCores: range(2, 33, 2),
      minMemPerCore: 512,
      maxMemPerCore: 8192,
      allowExtraMemory: false,
      extraMemoryLimit: 0,
    };

    this.CpuSeriesE2MicroLimit = {
      allowedCores: [],
      minMemPerCore: 1024,
      maxMemPerCore: 2048,
      allowExtraMemory: false,
      extraMemoryLimit: 0,
    };

    this.CpuSeriesE2SmallLimit = {
      allowedCores: [],
      minMemPerCore: 2048,
      maxMemPerCore: 4096,
      allowExtraMemory: false,
      extraMemoryLimit: 0,
    };

    this.CpuSeriesE2MediumLimit = {
      allowedCores: [],
      minMemPerCore: 4096,
      maxMemPerCore: 8192,
      allowExtraMemory: false,
      extraMemoryLimit: 0,
    };

    this.CpuSeriesN2Limit = {
      allowedCores: [...range(2, 33, 2), ...range(36, 129, 4)],
      minMemPerCore: 512,
      maxMemPerCore: 8192,
      allowExtraMemory: true,
      extraMemoryLimit: 624 << 10,
    };

    this.CpuSeriesN2DLimit = {
      allowedCores: [2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96],
      minMemPerCore: 512,
      maxMemPerCore: 8192,
      allowExtraMemory: true,
      extraMemoryLimit: 768 << 10,
    };

    this.CpuSeriesN1Limit = {
      allowedCores: [1, range(2, 97, 2)],
      minMemPerCore: 922,
      maxMemPerCore: 6656,
      allowExtraMemory: true,
      extraMemoryLimit: 624 << 10,
    };

    this.TYPE_LIMITS = {
      [this.N1]: this.CpuSeriesN1Limit,
      [this.N2]: this.CpuSeriesN2Limit,
      [this.N2D]: this.CpuSeriesN2DLimit,
      [this.E2]: this.CpuSeriesE2Limit,
      [this.E2Micro]: this.CpuSeriesE2MicroLimit,
      [this.E2Small]: this.CpuSeriesE2SmallLimit,
      [this.E2Medium]: this.CpuSeriesE2MediumLimit,
    };

    if (![this.E2, this.N1, this.N2, this.N2D].includes(cpuSeries)) {
      throw new Error(`Incorrect CPU type: ${this.cpuSeries}`);
    }

    this.typeLimit = this.TYPE_LIMITS[this.cpuSeries];

    // Check whether the requested parameters are allowed.
    // Find more information about limitations of custom machine types at:
    // https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/general-purpose-machines#custom_machine_types

    // Check the number of cores
    if (
      this.typeLimit.allowedCores.length > 0 &&
      !this.typeLimit.allowedCores.includes(coreCount)
    ) {
      throw new Error(
        `Invalid number of cores requested. Allowed number of cores for ${this.cpuSeries} is: ${this.typeLimit.allowedCores}`
      );
    }

    // Memory must be a multiple of 256 MB
    if (this.memory % 256 !== 0) {
      throw new Error('Requested memory must be a multiple of 256 MB');
    }

    // Check if the requested memory isn't too little
    if (this.memory < this.coreCount * this.typeLimit.minMemPerCore) {
      throw new Error(
        `Requested memory is too low. Minimal memory for ${this.cpuSeries} is ${this.typeLimit.minMemPerCore} MB per core`
      );
    }

    // Check if the requested memory isn't too much
    if (
      this.memory > this.coreCount * this.typeLimit.maxMemPerCore &&
      !this.typeLimit.allowExtraMemory
    ) {
      throw new Error(
        `Requested memory is too large.. Maximum memory allowed for ${this.cpuSeries} is ${this.typeLimit.maxMemPerCore} MB per core`
      );
    }

    if (
      this.memory > this.typeLimit.extraMemoryLimit &&
      this.typeLimit.allowExtraMemory
    ) {
      throw new Error(
        `Requested memory is too large.. Maximum memory allowed for ${this.cpuSeries} is ${this.typeLimit.extraMemoryLimit} MB`
      );
    }
  }

  // Returns the custom machine type in form of a string acceptable by Compute Engine API.
  getMachineTypeURI() {
    if (
      [this.E2Small, this.E2Micro, this.E2Medium].includes(this.cpuSeries)
    ) {
      return `zones/${this.zone}/machineTypes/${this.cpuSeries}-${this.memory}`;
    }

    if (this.memory > this.coreCount * this.typeLimit.maxMemPerCore) {
      return `zones/${this.zone}/machineTypes/${this.cpuSeries}-${this.coreCount}-${this.memory}-ext`;
    }

    return `zones/${zone}/machineTypes/${this.cpuSeries}-${this.coreCount}-${this.memory}`;
  }
}

async function createInstanceWithCustomMachineTypeWithHelper() {
  const instancesClient = new compute.InstancesClient();

  const machineType = new CustomMachineType(
    zone,
    cpuSeries,
    coreCount,
    memory
  ).getMachineTypeURI();

  const [response] = await instancesClient.insert({
    instanceResource: {
      name: instanceName,
      disks: [
        {
          initializeParams: {
            diskSizeGb: '64',
            sourceImage:
              'projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-11/',
          },
          autoDelete: true,
          boot: true,
        },
      ],
      machineType,
      networkInterfaces: [
        {
          name: 'global/networks/default',
        },
      ],
    },
    project: projectId,
    zone,
  });
  let operation = response.latestResponse;
  const operationsClient = new compute.ZoneOperationsClient();

  // Wait for the create operation to complete.
  while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
    [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
      operation: operation.name,
      project: projectId,
      zone: operation.zone.split('/').pop(),
    });
  }

  console.log('Instance created.');
}

createInstanceWithCustomMachineTypeWithHelper();

Python

from collections import namedtuple
from enum import Enum
from enum import unique
import re
import sys
from typing import Any, List
import warnings

from google.api_core.extended_operation import ExtendedOperation
from google.cloud import compute_v1

def gb_to_mb(value: int) -> int:
    return value << 10

class CustomMachineType:
    """
    Allows to create custom machine types to be used with the VM instances.
    """

    @unique
    class CPUSeries(Enum):
        N1 = "custom"
        N2 = "n2-custom"
        N2D = "n2d-custom"
        E2 = "e2-custom"
        E2_MICRO = "e2-custom-micro"
        E2_SMALL = "e2-custom-small"
        E2_MEDIUM = "e2-custom-medium"

    TypeLimits = namedtuple(
        "TypeLimits",
        [
            "allowed_cores",
            "min_mem_per_core",
            "max_mem_per_core",
            "allow_extra_memory",
            "extra_memory_limit",
        ],
    )

    # The limits for various CPU types are described on:
    # https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/general-purpose-machines
    LIMITS = {
        CPUSeries.E2: TypeLimits(frozenset(range(2, 33, 2)), 512, 8192, False, 0),
        CPUSeries.E2_MICRO: TypeLimits(frozenset(), 1024, 2048, False, 0),
        CPUSeries.E2_SMALL: TypeLimits(frozenset(), 2048, 4096, False, 0),
        CPUSeries.E2_MEDIUM: TypeLimits(frozenset(), 4096, 8192, False, 0),
        CPUSeries.N2: TypeLimits(
            frozenset(range(2, 33, 2)).union(set(range(36, 129, 4))),
            512,
            8192,
            True,
            gb_to_mb(624),
        ),
        CPUSeries.N2D: TypeLimits(
            frozenset({2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96}), 512, 8192, True, gb_to_mb(768)
        ),
        CPUSeries.N1: TypeLimits(
            frozenset({1}.union(range(2, 97, 2))), 922, 6656, True, gb_to_mb(624)
        ),
    }

    def __init__(
        self, zone: str, cpu_series: CPUSeries, memory_mb: int, core_count: int = 0
    ):
        self.zone = zone
        self.cpu_series = cpu_series
        self.limits = self.LIMITS[self.cpu_series]
        # Shared machine types (e2-small, e2-medium and e2-micro) always have
        # 2 vCPUs: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/general-purpose-machines#e2_limitations
        self.core_count = 2 if self.is_shared() else core_count
        self.memory_mb = memory_mb
        self._checked = False
        self._check_parameters()
        self.extra_memory_used = self._check_extra_memory()

    def is_shared(self):
        return self.cpu_series in (
            CustomMachineType.CPUSeries.E2_SMALL,
            CustomMachineType.CPUSeries.E2_MICRO,
            CustomMachineType.CPUSeries.E2_MEDIUM,
        )

    def _check_extra_memory(self) -> bool:
        if self._checked:
            return self.memory_mb > self.core_count * self.limits.max_mem_per_core
        else:
            raise RuntimeError(
                "You need to call _check_parameters() before calling _check_extra_memory()"
            )

    def _check_parameters(self):
        """
        Check whether the requested parameters are allowed. Find more information about limitations of custom machine
        types at: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/general-purpose-machines#custom_machine_types
        """
        # Check the number of cores
        if (
            self.limits.allowed_cores
            and self.core_count not in self.limits.allowed_cores
        ):
            raise RuntimeError(
                f"Invalid number of cores requested. Allowed number of cores for {self.cpu_series.name} is: {sorted(self.limits.allowed_cores)}"
            )

        # Memory must be a multiple of 256 MB
        if self.memory_mb % 256 != 0:
            raise RuntimeError("Requested memory must be a multiple of 256 MB.")

        # Check if the requested memory isn't too little
        if self.memory_mb < self.core_count * self.limits.min_mem_per_core:
            raise RuntimeError(
                f"Requested memory is too low. Minimal memory for {self.cpu_series.name} is {self.limits.min_mem_per_core} MB per core."
            )

        # Check if the requested memory isn't too much
        if self.memory_mb > self.core_count * self.limits.max_mem_per_core:
            if self.limits.allow_extra_memory:
                if self.memory_mb > self.limits.extra_memory_limit:
                    raise RuntimeError(
                        f"Requested memory is too large.. Maximum memory allowed for {self.cpu_series.name} is {self.limits.extra_memory_limit} MB."
                    )
            else:
                raise RuntimeError(
                    f"Requested memory is too large.. Maximum memory allowed for {self.cpu_series.name} is {self.limits.max_mem_per_core} MB per core."
                )

        self._checked = True

    def __str__(self) -> str:
        """
        Return the custom machine type in form of a string acceptable by Compute Engine API.
        """
        if self.cpu_series in {
            self.CPUSeries.E2_SMALL,
            self.CPUSeries.E2_MICRO,
            self.CPUSeries.E2_MEDIUM,
        }:
            return f"zones/{self.zone}/machineTypes/{self.cpu_series.value}-{self.memory_mb}"

        if self.extra_memory_used:
            return f"zones/{self.zone}/machineTypes/{self.cpu_series.value}-{self.core_count}-{self.memory_mb}-ext"

        return f"zones/{self.zone}/machineTypes/{self.cpu_series.value}-{self.core_count}-{self.memory_mb}"

    def short_type_str(self) -> str:
        """
        Return machine type in a format without the zone. For example, n2-custom-0-10240.
        This format is used to create instance templates.
        """
        return str(self).rsplit("/", maxsplit=1)[1]

    @classmethod
    def from_str(cls, machine_type: str):
        """
        Construct a new object from a string. The string needs to be a valid custom machine type like:
         - https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/diregapic-mestiv/zones/us-central1-b/machineTypes/e2-custom-4-8192
         - zones/us-central1-b/machineTypes/e2-custom-4-8192
         - e2-custom-4-8192 (in this case, the zone parameter will not be set)
        """
        zone = None
        if machine_type.startswith("http"):
            machine_type = machine_type[machine_type.find("zones/") :]

        if machine_type.startswith("zones/"):
            _, zone, _, machine_type = machine_type.split("/")

        extra_mem = machine_type.endswith("-ext")

        if machine_type.startswith("custom"):
            cpu = cls.CPUSeries.N1
            _, cores, memory = machine_type.rsplit("-", maxsplit=2)
        else:
            if extra_mem:
                cpu_series, _, cores, memory, _ = machine_type.split("-")
            else:
                cpu_series, _, cores, memory = machine_type.split("-")
            if cpu_series == "n2":
                cpu = cls.CPUSeries.N2
            elif cpu_series == "n2d":
                cpu = cls.CPUSeries.N2D
            elif cpu_series == "e2":
                cpu = cls.CPUSeries.E2
                if cores == "micro":
                    cpu = cls.CPUSeries.E2_MICRO
                    cores = 2
                elif cores == "small":
                    cpu = cls.CPUSeries.E2_SMALL
                    cores = 2
                elif cores == "medium":
                    cpu = cls.CPUSeries.E2_MEDIUM
                    cores = 2
            else:
                raise RuntimeError("Unknown CPU series.")

        cores = int(cores)
        memory = int(memory)

        return cls(zone, cpu, memory, cores)

def get_image_from_family(project: str, family: str) -> compute_v1.Image:
    """
    Retrieve the newest image that is part of a given family in a project.

    Args:
        project: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to get image from.
        family: name of the image family you want to get image from.

    Returns:
        An Image object.
    """
    image_client = compute_v1.ImagesClient()
    # List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details
    newest_image = image_client.get_from_family(project=project, family=family)
    return newest_image

def disk_from_image(
    disk_type: str,
    disk_size_gb: int,
    boot: bool,
    source_image: str,
    auto_delete: bool = True,
) -> compute_v1.AttachedDisk:
    """
    Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the
    source for the new disk.

    Args:
         disk_type: the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
            "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)".
            For example: "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
        disk_size_gb: size of the new disk in gigabytes
        boot: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an instance
        source_image: source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to this disk. This can be one
            of the publicly available images or an image from one of your projects.
            This value uses the following format: "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
        auto_delete: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be deleted with the VM that uses it

    Returns:
        AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
    """
    boot_disk = compute_v1.AttachedDisk()
    initialize_params = compute_v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams()
    initialize_params.source_image = source_image
    initialize_params.disk_size_gb = disk_size_gb
    initialize_params.disk_type = disk_type
    boot_disk.initialize_params = initialize_params
    # Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
    # your VM instance.
    boot_disk.auto_delete = auto_delete
    boot_disk.boot = boot
    return boot_disk

def wait_for_extended_operation(
    operation: ExtendedOperation, verbose_name: str = "operation", timeout: int = 300
) -> Any:
    """
    This method will wait for the extended (long-running) operation to
    complete. If the operation is successful, it will return its result.
    If the operation ends with an error, an exception will be raised.
    If there were any warnings during the execution of the operation
    they will be printed to sys.stderr.

    Args:
        operation: a long-running operation you want to wait on.
        verbose_name: (optional) a more verbose name of the operation,
            used only during error and warning reporting.
        timeout: how long (in seconds) to wait for operation to finish.
            If None, wait indefinitely.

    Returns:
        Whatever the operation.result() returns.

    Raises:
        This method will raise the exception received from `operation.exception()`
        or RuntimeError if there is no exception set, but there is an `error_code`
        set for the `operation`.

        In case of an operation taking longer than `timeout` seconds to complete,
        a `concurrent.futures.TimeoutError` will be raised.
    """
    result = operation.result(timeout=timeout)

    if operation.error_code:
        print(
            f"Error during {verbose_name}: [Code: {operation.error_code}]: {operation.error_message}",
            file=sys.stderr,
            flush=True,
        )
        print(f"Operation ID: {operation.name}", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
        raise operation.exception() or RuntimeError(operation.error_message)

    if operation.warnings:
        print(f"Warnings during {verbose_name}:\n", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
        for warning in operation.warnings:
            print(f" - {warning.code}: {warning.message}", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)

    return result

def create_instance(
    project_id: str,
    zone: str,
    instance_name: str,
    disks: List[compute_v1.AttachedDisk],
    machine_type: str = "n1-standard-1",
    network_link: str = "global/networks/default",
    subnetwork_link: str = None,
    internal_ip: str = None,
    external_access: bool = False,
    external_ipv4: str = None,
    accelerators: List[compute_v1.AcceleratorConfig] = None,
    preemptible: bool = False,
    spot: bool = False,
    instance_termination_action: str = "STOP",
    custom_hostname: str = None,
    delete_protection: bool = False,
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        disks: a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks
            you want to attach to your new instance.
        machine_type: machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the
            following format: "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
            For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
        network_link: name of the network you want the new instance to use.
            For example: "global/networks/default" represents the network
            named "default", which is created automatically for each project.
        subnetwork_link: name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use.
            This value uses the following format:
            "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
        internal_ip: internal IP address you want to assign to the new instance.
            By default, a free address from the pool of available internal IP addresses of
            used subnet will be used.
        external_access: boolean flag indicating if the instance should have an external IPv4
            address assigned.
        external_ipv4: external IPv4 address to be assigned to this instance. If you specify
            an external IP address, it must live in the same region as the zone of the instance.
            This setting requires `external_access` to be set to True to work.
        accelerators: a list of AcceleratorConfig objects describing the accelerators that will
            be attached to the new instance.
        preemptible: boolean value indicating if the new instance should be preemptible
            or not. Preemptible VMs have been deprecated and you should now use Spot VMs.
        spot: boolean value indicating if the new instance should be a Spot VM or not.
        instance_termination_action: What action should be taken once a Spot VM is terminated.
            Possible values: "STOP", "DELETE"
        custom_hostname: Custom hostname of the new VM instance.
            Custom hostnames must conform to RFC 1035 requirements for valid hostnames.
        delete_protection: boolean value indicating if the new virtual machine should be
            protected against deletion or not.
    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    instance_client = compute_v1.InstancesClient()

    # Use the network interface provided in the network_link argument.
    network_interface = compute_v1.NetworkInterface()
    network_interface.name = network_link
    if subnetwork_link:
        network_interface.subnetwork = subnetwork_link

    if internal_ip:
        network_interface.network_i_p = internal_ip

    if external_access:
        access = compute_v1.AccessConfig()
        access.type_ = compute_v1.AccessConfig.Type.ONE_TO_ONE_NAT.name
        access.name = "External NAT"
        access.network_tier = access.NetworkTier.PREMIUM.name
        if external_ipv4:
            access.nat_i_p = external_ipv4
        network_interface.access_configs = [access]

    # Collect information into the Instance object.
    instance = compute_v1.Instance()
    instance.network_interfaces = [network_interface]
    instance.name = instance_name
    instance.disks = disks
    if re.match(r"^zones/[a-z\d\-]+/machineTypes/[a-z\d\-]+$", machine_type):
        instance.machine_type = machine_type
    else:
        instance.machine_type = f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{machine_type}"

    if accelerators:
        instance.guest_accelerators = accelerators

    if preemptible:
        # Set the preemptible setting
        warnings.warn(
            "Preemptible VMs are being replaced by Spot VMs.", DeprecationWarning
        )
        instance.scheduling = compute_v1.Scheduling()
        instance.scheduling.preemptible = True

    if spot:
        # Set the Spot VM setting
        instance.scheduling = compute_v1.Scheduling()
        instance.scheduling.provisioning_model = (
            compute_v1.Scheduling.ProvisioningModel.SPOT.name
        )
        instance.scheduling.instance_termination_action = instance_termination_action

    if custom_hostname is not None:
        # Set the custom hostname for the instance
        instance.hostname = custom_hostname

    if delete_protection:
        # Set the delete protection bit
        instance.deletion_protection = True

    # Prepare the request to insert an instance.
    request = compute_v1.InsertInstanceRequest()
    request.zone = zone
    request.project = project_id
    request.instance_resource = instance

    # Wait for the create operation to complete.
    print(f"Creating the {instance_name} instance in {zone}...")

    operation = instance_client.insert(request=request)

    wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "instance creation")

    print(f"Instance {instance_name} created.")
    return instance_client.get(project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name)

def create_custom_instance(
    project_id: str,
    zone: str,
    instance_name: str,
    cpu_series: CustomMachineType.CPUSeries,
    core_count: int,
    memory: int,
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Create a new VM instance with a custom machine type.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        cpu_series: the type of CPU you want to use. Select one value from the CustomMachineType.CPUSeries enum.
            For example: CustomMachineType.CPUSeries.N2
        core_count: number of CPU cores you want to use.
        memory: the amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.

    Return:
        Instance object.
    """
    assert cpu_series in (
        CustomMachineType.CPUSeries.E2,
        CustomMachineType.CPUSeries.N1,
        CustomMachineType.CPUSeries.N2,
        CustomMachineType.CPUSeries.N2D,
    )
    custom_type = CustomMachineType(zone, cpu_series, memory, core_count)

    newest_debian = get_image_from_family(project="debian-cloud", family="debian-10")
    disk_type = f"zones/{zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard"
    disks = [disk_from_image(disk_type, 10, True, newest_debian.self_link)]

    return create_instance(project_id, zone, instance_name, disks, str(custom_type))

Da mesma forma, é possível criar instâncias preemptivas e grupos de instâncias com tipos de máquina personalizados.

Adicionar memória estendida a um tipo de máquina

Dependendo da máquina, por padrão, cada tipo de máquina tem uma quantidade específica de memória. Por exemplo, se você criar uma VM N1 personalizada, ela poderá ter até 6,5 GB de memória por vCPU. Para VMs N2 personalizadas, esse número aumenta até 8 GB de memória por vCPU.

Para algumas cargas de trabalho, isso pode não ser memória suficiente. Por um custo extra, é possível ter mais memória por vCPU além do limite padrão. Isso é conhecido como memória estendida.

Com a memória estendida, é possível adicionar memória ao tipo de máquina sem limitações por vCPU. Você adiciona memória estendida até certos limites com base no tipo de máquina:

  • Para tipos de máquinas N1, é possível adicionar até 624 GB de memória total por VM.
  • Para tipos de máquinas N2, é possível adicionar até 640 GB de memória por VM.
  • Para tipos de máquinas N2D, é possível adicionar até 768 GB de memória por VM.
  • A memória estendida não está disponível para os tipos de máquina E2.

Se você precisar de mais memória, use um dos tipos de máquina de megamemória, que permitem criar instâncias com um total de 1,4 TB por instância de VM.

Como determinar se você precisa de memória estendida

Certas cargas de trabalho precisam do que a quantidade padrão de memória por vCPU para fornecer os melhores resultados. As cargas de trabalho baseadas em bancos de dados de análise de alto desempenho na memória, incluindo bancos de dados relacionais e NoSQL, como MS SQL Server, MongoDB e MemcacheD/Redis, estão nessa categoria. O licenciamento com base em vCPU de sistemas operacionais e pilhas de software também torna a seleção de uma configuração de memória de VM ideal mais desafiadora com os tipos de máquinas predefinidos. Ao usar memória estendida, adicione a memória que suas VMs precisarem para conseguir a melhor relação custo-benefício.

Preços

Ao usar um tipo de máquina personalizado, qualquer memória até e incluindo a quantidade padrão por vCPU é cobrada de acordo com os preços de tipos de máquinas personalizados N1 ou os preços de tipos de máquinas personalizados N2. Máquinas personalizadas E2 e tipos de máquina com núcleo compartilhado E2 compartilham o mesmo esquema de preços.

Para memória acima do padrão, o Compute Engine cobra por memória estendida com base nos preços de memória personalizada estendida N1 ou nos preços de memória personalizada estendida N2. O preço da memória estendida é diferente do preço da memória abaixo do limite padrão.

Os preços de memória estendida diferem conforme a região. Instâncias em execução com memória estendida estão sujeitas à mesma cobrança mínima de um minuto que qualquer outra instância. A memória estendida também se qualifica para descontos por uso prolongado.

Para mais informações, consulte descontos por uso prolongado para tipos de máquinas personalizados e preços de memória personalizada estendida.

Limitações

  • Só é possível adicionar memória estendida a tipos de máquina personalizados. Não são aceitos tipos de máquinas predefinidos.
  • Não há limite para a adição de memória por vCPU, mas há uma quantidade máxima de memória que pode ser adicionada a cada instância de VM. Para tipos de máquinas N1, é possível adicionar até 624 GB de memória. Para tipos de máquinas N2, é possível adicionar até 640 GB de memória. Para tipos de máquinas N2D, é possível adicionar até 768 GB de memória.
  • Os tipos de máquina N2 e N2D estão disponíveis somente em determinadas regiões e zonas.
  • A memória precisa ser especificada em incrementos de 256 MB.
  • A memória estendida não se qualifica para os descontos por compromisso de uso.

Adicionar memória estendida durante a criação da instância

Para criar uma instância de VM com memória estendida, siga as instruções abaixo.

Console

  1. No console do Google Cloud, acesse a página Criar uma instância.

    Acesse "Criar uma instância"

  2. Na lista Zona, selecione a zona em que você quer hospedar esta VM. A lista Série é filtrada para incluir apenas as famílias de tipo de máquina disponíveis na zona selecionada.

  3. Na seção Configuração da máquina, selecione Uso geral.

    1. Na lista Série, clique em N1 em Primeira geração para tipos de máquinas personalizados N1 ou N2 ou N2D para tipos de máquina personalizados de segunda geração.
    2. Na lista Tipo de máquina, selecione Personalizado.
    3. Para especificar o número de vCPUs, arraste o controle deslizante Núcleos ou insira o valor na caixa de texto.
    4. Para adicionar memória estendida, selecione Estender memória e faça o seguinte:

      1. Para especificar a quantidade de memória da instância da VM, arraste o controle deslizante Memória ou insira o valor na caixa de texto.

      O console exibe um custo estimado para a VM à medida que você altera o número de vCPUs e a memória.

  4. Continue a criar a VM.

gcloud

Para tipos de máquinas N1, use o comando gcloud e o subcomando instances create, seguido pela sinalização --custom-extensions para ativar a memória estendida. Em seguida, especifique o total de memória desejada com o parâmetro --custom-memory.

gcloud compute instances create example-instance  \
    --custom-extensions --custom-cpu=2 --custom-memory=15

Para tipos de máquinas N2, use o comando gcloud com o subcomando instances create. Defina as sinalizações --custom-extensions, --custom-cpu e --custom-memory, seguidas pela sinalização --custom-vm-type, para especificar o tipo de máquina N2:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance \
    --custom-extensions --custom-cpu=2 --custom-memory=16 \
    --custom-vm-type=n2

Para os tipos de máquina N2D, use o comando gcloud com o subcomandoinstances create. Defina as sinalizações --custom-extensions, --custom-cpu e --custom-memory, seguidas pela sinalização --custom-vm-type, para especificar o tipo de máquina N2D:

gcloud compute instances create example-instance \
    --custom-extensions --custom-cpu=2 --custom-memory=16 \
    --custom-vm-type=n2d

API

Na API, faça sua solicitação de criação de instância como faria normalmente, mas ao especificar um valor machineType, use um dos formatos a seguir:

  • Para tipos de máquinas N1, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY-ext
    
  • Para tipos de máquinas N2, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/n2-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY-ext
    
  • Para tipos de máquinas N2D, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/n2d-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY-ext
    

Substitua estes itens:

  • NUMBER_OF_CPUS: o número de vCPUs
  • AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY: a memória, em MB.

Por exemplo, o seguinte comando especifica um tipo de máquina N2 com 2 vCPUs e 20 GB de memória:

zones/ZONE/machineTypes/n2-custom-2-20480-ext

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

// createInstanceWithExtraMemWithoutHelper сreates new VM instances with extra memory
// without using a CustomMachineType struct.
func createInstanceWithExtraMemWithoutHelper(
	w io.Writer,
	projectID, zone, instanceName, cpuSeries string,
	coreCount, memory int,
) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	// zone := "europe-central2-b"
	// instanceName := "your_instance_name"
	// cpuSeries := "N1"
	// coreCount := 2 // number of CPU cores you want to use.
	// memory := 256 // the amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.

	// The coreCount and memory values are not validated anywhere and can be rejected by the API.

	ctx := context.Background()
	instancesClient, err := compute.NewInstancesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewInstancesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer instancesClient.Close()

	mt := fmt.Sprintf("zones/%s/machineTypes/%v-%v-%v-ext", zone, cpuSeries, coreCount, memory)
	inst := &computepb.Instance{
		Name: proto.String(instanceName),
		Disks: []*computepb.AttachedDisk{
			{
				InitializeParams: &computepb.AttachedDiskInitializeParams{
					DiskSizeGb: proto.Int64(10),
					SourceImage: proto.String(
						"projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-10",
					),
				},
				AutoDelete: proto.Bool(true),
				Boot:       proto.Bool(true),
			},
		},
		MachineType: proto.String(mt),
		NetworkInterfaces: []*computepb.NetworkInterface{
			{
				Name: proto.String("global/networks/default"),
			},
		},
	}

	req := &computepb.InsertInstanceRequest{
		Project:          projectID,
		Zone:             zone,
		InstanceResource: inst,
	}

	op, err := instancesClient.Insert(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to create instance: %v", err)
	}

	if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Instance created\n")

	return nil
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDisk;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InsertInstanceRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Instance;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InstancesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.NetworkInterface;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Operation;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

public class ExtraMemoryWithoutHelper {

  public static void main(String[] args)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    // Project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
    String projectId = "your-google-cloud-project-id";
    // Name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b".
    String zone = "google-cloud-zone";
    // Name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
    String instanceName = "instance-name";
    String cpuSeries = "N1";
    // Number of CPU cores you want to use.
    int coreCount = 2;
    // The amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.
    int memory = 256;

    createInstanceWithExtraMemoryWithoutHelper(projectId, zone, instanceName, cpuSeries, coreCount,
        memory);
  }

  // Create VM instances with extra memory without using a CustomMachineType class and
  // return the created Instance.
  public static void createInstanceWithExtraMemoryWithoutHelper(
      String project, String zone, String instanceName, String cpuSeries, int coreCount, int memory)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
    // once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After completing all of your requests, call
    // the `instancesClient.close()` method on the client to safely
    // clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (InstancesClient instancesClient = InstancesClient.create()) {

      // The coreCount and memory values are not validated anywhere and can be rejected by the API.
      String machineType = String.format("zones/%s/machineTypes/%s-%s-%s-ext", zone, cpuSeries,
          coreCount, memory);

      AttachedDisk attachedDisk = AttachedDisk.newBuilder()
          .setInitializeParams(
              // Describe the size and source image of the boot disk to attach to the instance.
              // The list of public images available in Compute Engine can be found here:
              // https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images#list_of_public_images_available_on
              AttachedDiskInitializeParams.newBuilder()
                  .setSourceImage(
                      String.format("projects/%s/global/images/family/%s", "debian-cloud",
                          "debian-11"))
                  .setDiskSizeGb(10)
                  .build()
          )
          // Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
          // your VM instance.
          .setAutoDelete(true)
          .setBoot(true)
          .build();

      // Create the Instance object with the relevant information.
      Instance instance = Instance.newBuilder()
          .setName(instanceName)
          .addDisks(attachedDisk)
          .setMachineType(machineType)
          .addNetworkInterfaces(
              NetworkInterface.newBuilder().setName("global/networks/default").build())
          .build();

      // Create the insert instance request object.
      InsertInstanceRequest insertInstanceRequest = InsertInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
          .setProject(project)
          .setZone(zone)
          .setInstanceResource(instance)
          .build();

      // Invoke the API with the request object and wait for the operation to complete.
      Operation response = instancesClient.insertAsync(insertInstanceRequest)
          .get(3, TimeUnit.MINUTES);

      // Check for errors.
      if (response.hasError()) {
        System.out.println("Instance creation failed!!" + response);
        return;
      }
      System.out.printf("Instance created : %s", instanceName);
      System.out.println("Operation Status: " + response.getStatus());
    }
  }
}

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';
// const zone = 'europe-central2-b';
// const instanceName = 'YOUR_INSTANCE_NAME';
// const cpuSeries = 'N1';
// const coreCount = 2
// const memory = 256

// The coreCount and memory values are not validated anywhere and can be rejected by the API.

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');

async function createInstanceWithExtraMemWithoutHelper() {
  const instancesClient = new compute.InstancesClient();

  const machineType = `zones/${zone}/machineTypes/${cpuSeries}-${coreCount}-${memory}-ext`;

  const [response] = await instancesClient.insert({
    instanceResource: {
      name: instanceName,
      disks: [
        {
          initializeParams: {
            diskSizeGb: '64',
            sourceImage:
              'projects/debian-cloud/global/images/family/debian-11/',
          },
          autoDelete: true,
          boot: true,
        },
      ],
      machineType,
      networkInterfaces: [
        {
          name: 'global/networks/default',
        },
      ],
    },
    project: projectId,
    zone,
  });
  let operation = response.latestResponse;
  const operationsClient = new compute.ZoneOperationsClient();

  // Wait for the create operation to complete.
  while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
    [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
      operation: operation.name,
      project: projectId,
      zone: operation.zone.split('/').pop(),
    });
  }

  console.log('Instance created.');
}

createInstanceWithExtraMemWithoutHelper();

Python

import re
import sys
from typing import Any, List
import warnings

from google.api_core.extended_operation import ExtendedOperation
from google.cloud import compute_v1

def get_image_from_family(project: str, family: str) -> compute_v1.Image:
    """
    Retrieve the newest image that is part of a given family in a project.

    Args:
        project: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to get image from.
        family: name of the image family you want to get image from.

    Returns:
        An Image object.
    """
    image_client = compute_v1.ImagesClient()
    # List of public operating system (OS) images: https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/images/os-details
    newest_image = image_client.get_from_family(project=project, family=family)
    return newest_image

def disk_from_image(
    disk_type: str,
    disk_size_gb: int,
    boot: bool,
    source_image: str,
    auto_delete: bool = True,
) -> compute_v1.AttachedDisk:
    """
    Create an AttachedDisk object to be used in VM instance creation. Uses an image as the
    source for the new disk.

    Args:
         disk_type: the type of disk you want to create. This value uses the following format:
            "zones/{zone}/diskTypes/(pd-standard|pd-ssd|pd-balanced|pd-extreme)".
            For example: "zones/us-west3-b/diskTypes/pd-ssd"
        disk_size_gb: size of the new disk in gigabytes
        boot: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be used as a boot disk of an instance
        source_image: source image to use when creating this disk. You must have read access to this disk. This can be one
            of the publicly available images or an image from one of your projects.
            This value uses the following format: "projects/{project_name}/global/images/{image_name}"
        auto_delete: boolean flag indicating whether this disk should be deleted with the VM that uses it

    Returns:
        AttachedDisk object configured to be created using the specified image.
    """
    boot_disk = compute_v1.AttachedDisk()
    initialize_params = compute_v1.AttachedDiskInitializeParams()
    initialize_params.source_image = source_image
    initialize_params.disk_size_gb = disk_size_gb
    initialize_params.disk_type = disk_type
    boot_disk.initialize_params = initialize_params
    # Remember to set auto_delete to True if you want the disk to be deleted when you delete
    # your VM instance.
    boot_disk.auto_delete = auto_delete
    boot_disk.boot = boot
    return boot_disk

def wait_for_extended_operation(
    operation: ExtendedOperation, verbose_name: str = "operation", timeout: int = 300
) -> Any:
    """
    This method will wait for the extended (long-running) operation to
    complete. If the operation is successful, it will return its result.
    If the operation ends with an error, an exception will be raised.
    If there were any warnings during the execution of the operation
    they will be printed to sys.stderr.

    Args:
        operation: a long-running operation you want to wait on.
        verbose_name: (optional) a more verbose name of the operation,
            used only during error and warning reporting.
        timeout: how long (in seconds) to wait for operation to finish.
            If None, wait indefinitely.

    Returns:
        Whatever the operation.result() returns.

    Raises:
        This method will raise the exception received from `operation.exception()`
        or RuntimeError if there is no exception set, but there is an `error_code`
        set for the `operation`.

        In case of an operation taking longer than `timeout` seconds to complete,
        a `concurrent.futures.TimeoutError` will be raised.
    """
    result = operation.result(timeout=timeout)

    if operation.error_code:
        print(
            f"Error during {verbose_name}: [Code: {operation.error_code}]: {operation.error_message}",
            file=sys.stderr,
            flush=True,
        )
        print(f"Operation ID: {operation.name}", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
        raise operation.exception() or RuntimeError(operation.error_message)

    if operation.warnings:
        print(f"Warnings during {verbose_name}:\n", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
        for warning in operation.warnings:
            print(f" - {warning.code}: {warning.message}", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)

    return result

def create_instance(
    project_id: str,
    zone: str,
    instance_name: str,
    disks: List[compute_v1.AttachedDisk],
    machine_type: str = "n1-standard-1",
    network_link: str = "global/networks/default",
    subnetwork_link: str = None,
    internal_ip: str = None,
    external_access: bool = False,
    external_ipv4: str = None,
    accelerators: List[compute_v1.AcceleratorConfig] = None,
    preemptible: bool = False,
    spot: bool = False,
    instance_termination_action: str = "STOP",
    custom_hostname: str = None,
    delete_protection: bool = False,
) -> compute_v1.Instance:
    """
    Send an instance creation request to the Compute Engine API and wait for it to complete.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        disks: a list of compute_v1.AttachedDisk objects describing the disks
            you want to attach to your new instance.
        machine_type: machine type of the VM being created. This value uses the
            following format: "zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{type_name}".
            For example: "zones/europe-west3-c/machineTypes/f1-micro"
        network_link: name of the network you want the new instance to use.
            For example: "global/networks/default" represents the network
            named "default", which is created automatically for each project.
        subnetwork_link: name of the subnetwork you want the new instance to use.
            This value uses the following format:
            "regions/{region}/subnetworks/{subnetwork_name}"
        internal_ip: internal IP address you want to assign to the new instance.
            By default, a free address from the pool of available internal IP addresses of
            used subnet will be used.
        external_access: boolean flag indicating if the instance should have an external IPv4
            address assigned.
        external_ipv4: external IPv4 address to be assigned to this instance. If you specify
            an external IP address, it must live in the same region as the zone of the instance.
            This setting requires `external_access` to be set to True to work.
        accelerators: a list of AcceleratorConfig objects describing the accelerators that will
            be attached to the new instance.
        preemptible: boolean value indicating if the new instance should be preemptible
            or not. Preemptible VMs have been deprecated and you should now use Spot VMs.
        spot: boolean value indicating if the new instance should be a Spot VM or not.
        instance_termination_action: What action should be taken once a Spot VM is terminated.
            Possible values: "STOP", "DELETE"
        custom_hostname: Custom hostname of the new VM instance.
            Custom hostnames must conform to RFC 1035 requirements for valid hostnames.
        delete_protection: boolean value indicating if the new virtual machine should be
            protected against deletion or not.
    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    instance_client = compute_v1.InstancesClient()

    # Use the network interface provided in the network_link argument.
    network_interface = compute_v1.NetworkInterface()
    network_interface.name = network_link
    if subnetwork_link:
        network_interface.subnetwork = subnetwork_link

    if internal_ip:
        network_interface.network_i_p = internal_ip

    if external_access:
        access = compute_v1.AccessConfig()
        access.type_ = compute_v1.AccessConfig.Type.ONE_TO_ONE_NAT.name
        access.name = "External NAT"
        access.network_tier = access.NetworkTier.PREMIUM.name
        if external_ipv4:
            access.nat_i_p = external_ipv4
        network_interface.access_configs = [access]

    # Collect information into the Instance object.
    instance = compute_v1.Instance()
    instance.network_interfaces = [network_interface]
    instance.name = instance_name
    instance.disks = disks
    if re.match(r"^zones/[a-z\d\-]+/machineTypes/[a-z\d\-]+$", machine_type):
        instance.machine_type = machine_type
    else:
        instance.machine_type = f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/{machine_type}"

    if accelerators:
        instance.guest_accelerators = accelerators

    if preemptible:
        # Set the preemptible setting
        warnings.warn(
            "Preemptible VMs are being replaced by Spot VMs.", DeprecationWarning
        )
        instance.scheduling = compute_v1.Scheduling()
        instance.scheduling.preemptible = True

    if spot:
        # Set the Spot VM setting
        instance.scheduling = compute_v1.Scheduling()
        instance.scheduling.provisioning_model = (
            compute_v1.Scheduling.ProvisioningModel.SPOT.name
        )
        instance.scheduling.instance_termination_action = instance_termination_action

    if custom_hostname is not None:
        # Set the custom hostname for the instance
        instance.hostname = custom_hostname

    if delete_protection:
        # Set the delete protection bit
        instance.deletion_protection = True

    # Prepare the request to insert an instance.
    request = compute_v1.InsertInstanceRequest()
    request.zone = zone
    request.project = project_id
    request.instance_resource = instance

    # Wait for the create operation to complete.
    print(f"Creating the {instance_name} instance in {zone}...")

    operation = instance_client.insert(request=request)

    wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "instance creation")

    print(f"Instance {instance_name} created.")
    return instance_client.get(project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name)

def create_custom_instances_extra_mem(
    project_id: str, zone: str, instance_name: str, core_count: int, memory: int
) -> List[compute_v1.Instance]:
    """
    Create 3 new VM instances with extra memory without using a CustomMachineType helper class.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        core_count: number of CPU cores you want to use.
        memory: the amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.

    Returns:
        List of Instance objects.
    """
    newest_debian = get_image_from_family(project="debian-cloud", family="debian-10")
    disk_type = f"zones/{zone}/diskTypes/pd-standard"
    disks = [disk_from_image(disk_type, 10, True, newest_debian.self_link)]
    # The core_count and memory values are not validated anywhere and can be rejected by the API.
    instances = [
        create_instance(
            project_id,
            zone,
            f"{instance_name}_n1_extra_mem",
            disks,
            f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/custom-{core_count}-{memory}-ext",
        ),
        create_instance(
            project_id,
            zone,
            f"{instance_name}_n2_extra_mem",
            disks,
            f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/n2-custom-{core_count}-{memory}-ext",
        ),
        create_instance(
            project_id,
            zone,
            f"{instance_name}_n2d_extra_mem",
            disks,
            f"zones/{zone}/machineTypes/n2d-custom-{core_count}-{memory}-ext",
        ),
    ]
    return instances

Adicionar memória estendida a uma instância de VM atual

Para adicionar mais memória a uma instância atual, primeiro interrompa a instância. Depois que a instância for interrompida, siga as instruções abaixo para adicionar mais memória à VM.

Console

  1. No Console do Google Cloud, acesse a página Instâncias de VMs.

    Acessar instâncias de VM

  2. Escolha a VM interrompida que você quer modificar na lista de VMs.

  3. Clique em Editar no topo da página.

  4. Em Configuração de máquina, selecione Uso geral.

  5. Na lista Tipo de máquina, selecione Personalizado.

  6. Selecione o número de vCPUs desejado.

  7. Para adicionar memória estendida, selecione Estender memória e especifique a quantidade de memória desejada.

  8. Salve as alterações.

gcloud

Na CLI do Google Cloud, use o subcomando instances set-machine-type, seguido pela sinalização --custom-extensions pareada com o parâmetro --custom-memory atual.

Por exemplo, para adicionar 2 GB de memória em uma instância de VM chamada example-instance, que atualmente tem um tipo de máquina N1 com 2 vCPUs, 13 GB, na zona us-central1-b, use o seguinte comando:

gcloud compute instances set-machine-type example-instance \
   --zone=us-central1-b --custom-cpu=2 \
   --custom-memory=15 --custom-extensions

API

Na API, faça uma solicitação POST para o método setMachineType com o tipo de máquina que você quer usar especificado no corpo da solicitação. Use um dos formatos a seguir:

  • Para tipos de máquinas N1, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY-ext
    
  • Para tipos de máquinas N2, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/n2-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY-ext
    
  • Para tipos de máquinas N2D, use:

    zones/ZONE/machineTypes/n2d-custom-NUMBER_OF_CPUS-AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY-ext
    

Substitua estes itens:

  • NUMBER_OF_CPUS: o número de vCPUs
  • AMOUNT_OF_MEMORY: a memória, em MB.

Por exemplo, o seguinte comando usa um tipo de máquina com 2 vCPUs e 15 GB de memória total:

zones/ZONE/machineTypes/custom-2-15360-ext

Exemplo:

POST https://compute.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/PROJECT_ID/zones/ZONE/instances/INSTANCE_NAME/setMachineType

{
    machineType: "zones/us-central1-f/machineTypes/custom-2-15360-ext"
}

Go

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"strings"

	compute "cloud.google.com/go/compute/apiv1"
	computepb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/compute/v1"
	"google.golang.org/protobuf/proto"
)

// modifyInstanceWithExtendedMemory sends an instance creation request
// to the Compute Engine API and waits for it to complete.
func modifyInstanceWithExtendedMemory(
	w io.Writer,
	projectID, zone, instanceName string,
	newMemory int,
) error {
	// projectID := "your_project_id"
	// zone := "europe-central2-b"
	// instanceName := "your_instance_name"
	// newMemory := 256 // the amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.

	ctx := context.Background()
	instancesClient, err := compute.NewInstancesRESTClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("NewInstancesRESTClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer instancesClient.Close()

	reqInstance := &computepb.GetInstanceRequest{
		Project:  projectID,
		Zone:     zone,
		Instance: instanceName,
	}

	instance, err := instancesClient.Get(ctx, reqInstance)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to get instance: %v", err)
	}

	containsString := func(s []string, str string) bool {
		for _, v := range s {
			if v == str {
				return true
			}
		}

		return false
	}

	if !(strings.Contains(instance.GetMachineType(), "machineTypes/n1-") ||
		strings.Contains(instance.GetMachineType(), "machineTypes/n2-") ||
		strings.Contains(instance.GetMachineType(), "machineTypes/n2d-")) {
		return fmt.Errorf("extra memory is available only for N1, N2 and N2D CPUs")
	}

	// Make sure that the machine is turned off
	if !containsString([]string{"TERMINATED", "STOPPED"}, instance.GetStatus()) {
		reqStop := &computepb.StopInstanceRequest{
			Project:  projectID,
			Zone:     zone,
			Instance: instanceName,
		}

		op, err := instancesClient.Stop(ctx, reqStop)
		if err != nil {
			return fmt.Errorf("unable to stop instance: %v", err)
		}

		if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
			return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
		}
	}

	// Modify the machine definition, remember that extended memory
	// is available only for N1, N2 and N2D CPUs
	machineType := instance.GetMachineType()
	start := machineType[:strings.LastIndex(machineType, "-")]

	updateReq := &computepb.SetMachineTypeInstanceRequest{
		Project:  projectID,
		Zone:     zone,
		Instance: instanceName,
		InstancesSetMachineTypeRequestResource: &computepb.InstancesSetMachineTypeRequest{
			MachineType: proto.String(fmt.Sprintf("%s-%v-ext", start, newMemory)),
		},
	}
	op, err := instancesClient.SetMachineType(ctx, updateReq)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to update instance: %v", err)
	}

	if err = op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unable to wait for the operation: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Instance updated\n")

	return nil

}

Java


import com.google.api.gax.longrunning.OperationFuture;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.GetInstanceRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Instance;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Instance.Status;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InstancesClient;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.InstancesSetMachineTypeRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.Operation;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.SetMachineTypeInstanceRequest;
import com.google.cloud.compute.v1.StopInstanceRequest;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

public class UpdateMemory {

  public static void main(String[] args)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    // Project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
    String projectId = "your-google-cloud-project-id";
    // Name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b".
    String zone = "google-cloud-zone";
    // Name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
    String instanceName = "instance-name";
    // The amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.
    int newMemory = 256;

    modifyInstanceWithExtendedMemory(projectId, zone, instanceName, newMemory);
  }

  // Modify an existing VM to use extended memory and return the modified Instance.
  public static void modifyInstanceWithExtendedMemory(
      String project, String zone, String instanceName, int newMemory)
      throws IOException, ExecutionException, InterruptedException, TimeoutException {
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only needs to be created
    // once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After completing all of your requests, call
    // the `instancesClient.close()` method on the client to safely
    // clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (InstancesClient instancesClient = InstancesClient.create()) {

      // Create the get instance request object.
      GetInstanceRequest getInstanceRequest = GetInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
          .setProject(project)
          .setZone(zone)
          .setInstance(instanceName)
          .build();

      Instance instance = instancesClient.get(getInstanceRequest);

      // Check the machine type.
      if (!(instance.getMachineType().contains("machineTypes/n1-")
          || instance.getMachineType().contains("machineTypes/n2-")
          || instance.getMachineType().contains("machineTypes/n2d-"))) {
        System.out.println("extra memory is available only for N1, N2 and N2D CPUs");
        return;
      }

      // Make sure that the machine is turned off.
      if (!(instance.getStatus().equals(Status.TERMINATED.toString())
          || instance.getStatus().equals(Status.STOPPED.toString()))) {

        StopInstanceRequest stopInstanceRequest = StopInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
            .setProject(project)
            .setZone(zone)
            .setInstance(instanceName)
            .build();

        OperationFuture<Operation, Operation> operation = instancesClient.stopAsync(
            stopInstanceRequest);
        Operation response = operation.get(3, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
        if (response.hasError()) {
          System.out.printf("Unable to stop instance %s", response.getError());
          return;
        }
      }

      // Modify the machine definition. Note that extended memory
      // is available only for N1, N2 and N2D CPUs.
      String machineType = instance.getMachineType();
      String start = machineType.substring(0, machineType.lastIndexOf("-"));

      // Create the machine type instance request object.
      SetMachineTypeInstanceRequest setMachineTypeInstanceRequest =
          SetMachineTypeInstanceRequest.newBuilder()
              .setProject(project)
              .setZone(zone)
              .setInstance(instanceName)
              .setInstancesSetMachineTypeRequestResource(InstancesSetMachineTypeRequest.newBuilder()
                  .setMachineType(String.format("%s-%d-ext", start, newMemory))
                  .build())
              .build();

      // Invoke the API with the request object and wait for the operation to complete.
      Operation response = instancesClient.setMachineTypeAsync(setMachineTypeInstanceRequest)
          .get(3, TimeUnit.MINUTES);

      // Check for errors.
      if (response.hasError()) {
        System.out.printf("Unable to update instance %s", response.getError());
        return;
      }
      System.out.println("Instance updated!");
    }
  }
}

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment and replace these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'YOUR_PROJECT_ID';
// const zone = 'europe-central2-b';
// const instanceName = 'YOUR_INSTANCE_NAME';
// const newMemory = 256;

const compute = require('@google-cloud/compute');

async function modifyInstanceWithExtendedMemory() {
  const instancesClient = new compute.InstancesClient();

  const [instance] = await instancesClient.get({
    project: projectId,
    zone,
    instance: instanceName,
  });

  if (
    !['machineTypes/n1-', 'machineTypes/n2-', 'machineTypes/n2d-'].some(
      type => instance.machineType.includes(type)
    )
  ) {
    throw new Error('extra memory is available only for N1, N2 and N2D CPUs');
  }

  // Make sure that the machine is turned off
  if (!['TERMINATED', 'STOPPED'].some(status => instance.status === status)) {
    const [response] = await instancesClient.stop({
      project: projectId,
      zone,
      instance: instanceName,
    });

    let operation = response.latestResponse;
    const operationsClient = new compute.ZoneOperationsClient();

    // Wait for the stop operation to complete.
    while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
      [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
        operation: operation.name,
        project: projectId,
        zone: operation.zone.split('/').pop(),
      });
    }
  }

  // Modify the machine definition, remember that extended memory
  // is available only for N1, N2 and N2D CPUs

  const start = instance.machineType.substring(
    0,
    instance.machineType.lastIndexOf('-')
  );

  const [response] = await instancesClient.setMachineType({
    project: projectId,
    zone,
    instance: instanceName,
    instancesSetMachineTypeRequestResource: {
      machineType: `${start}-${newMemory}-ext`,
    },
  });
  let operation = response.latestResponse;
  const operationsClient = new compute.ZoneOperationsClient();

  // Wait for the update operation to complete.
  while (operation.status !== 'DONE') {
    [operation] = await operationsClient.wait({
      operation: operation.name,
      project: projectId,
      zone: operation.zone.split('/').pop(),
    });
  }

  console.log('Instance updated.');
}

modifyInstanceWithExtendedMemory();

Python

import sys
import time
from typing import Any

from google.api_core.extended_operation import ExtendedOperation
from google.cloud import compute_v1

def wait_for_extended_operation(
    operation: ExtendedOperation, verbose_name: str = "operation", timeout: int = 300
) -> Any:
    """
    This method will wait for the extended (long-running) operation to
    complete. If the operation is successful, it will return its result.
    If the operation ends with an error, an exception will be raised.
    If there were any warnings during the execution of the operation
    they will be printed to sys.stderr.

    Args:
        operation: a long-running operation you want to wait on.
        verbose_name: (optional) a more verbose name of the operation,
            used only during error and warning reporting.
        timeout: how long (in seconds) to wait for operation to finish.
            If None, wait indefinitely.

    Returns:
        Whatever the operation.result() returns.

    Raises:
        This method will raise the exception received from `operation.exception()`
        or RuntimeError if there is no exception set, but there is an `error_code`
        set for the `operation`.

        In case of an operation taking longer than `timeout` seconds to complete,
        a `concurrent.futures.TimeoutError` will be raised.
    """
    result = operation.result(timeout=timeout)

    if operation.error_code:
        print(
            f"Error during {verbose_name}: [Code: {operation.error_code}]: {operation.error_message}",
            file=sys.stderr,
            flush=True,
        )
        print(f"Operation ID: {operation.name}", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
        raise operation.exception() or RuntimeError(operation.error_message)

    if operation.warnings:
        print(f"Warnings during {verbose_name}:\n", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)
        for warning in operation.warnings:
            print(f" - {warning.code}: {warning.message}", file=sys.stderr, flush=True)

    return result

def add_extended_memory_to_instance(
    project_id: str, zone: str, instance_name: str, new_memory: int
):
    """
    Modify an existing VM to use extended memory.

    Args:
        project_id: project ID or project number of the Cloud project you want to use.
        zone: name of the zone to create the instance in. For example: "us-west3-b"
        instance_name: name of the new virtual machine (VM) instance.
        new_memory: the amount of memory for the VM instance, in megabytes.

    Returns:
        Instance object.
    """
    instance_client = compute_v1.InstancesClient()
    instance = instance_client.get(
        project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name
    )

    if not (
        "n1-" in instance.machine_type
        or "n2-" in instance.machine_type
        or "n2d-" in instance.machine_type
    ):
        raise RuntimeError("Extra memory is available only for N1, N2 and N2D CPUs.")

    # Make sure that the machine is turned off
    if instance.status not in (
        instance.Status.TERMINATED.name,
        instance.Status.STOPPED.name,
    ):
        operation = instance_client.stop(
            project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name
        )
        wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "instance stopping")
        start = time.time()
        while instance.status not in (
            instance.Status.TERMINATED.name,
            instance.Status.STOPPED.name,
        ):
            # Waiting for the instance to be turned off.
            instance = instance_client.get(
                project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name
            )
            time.sleep(2)
            if time.time() - start >= 300:  # 5 minutes
                raise TimeoutError()

    # Modify the machine definition, remember that extended memory is available only for N1, N2 and N2D CPUs
    start, end = instance.machine_type.rsplit("-", maxsplit=1)
    instance.machine_type = start + f"-{new_memory}-ext"
    # TODO: If you prefer to use the CustomMachineType helper class, uncomment this code and comment the 2 lines above
    # Using CustomMachineType helper
    # cmt = CustomMachineType.from_str(instance.machine_type)
    # cmt.memory_mb = new_memory
    # cmt.extra_memory_used = True
    # instance.machine_type = str(cmt)
    operation = instance_client.update(
        project=project_id,
        zone=zone,
        instance=instance_name,
        instance_resource=instance,
    )
    wait_for_extended_operation(operation, "instance update")

    return instance_client.get(project=project_id, zone=zone, instance=instance_name)

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