Turbo replication

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Turbo replication is a Cloud Storage feature designed to asynchronously replicate newly written Cloud Storage objects associated with any insert, rewrite, copy, or compose operation—regardless of object size—to a separate region within a target of 15 minutes. Available for dual-region buckets, turbo replication offers a shorter, more predictable recovery point objective (RPO), helping to reduce data loss exposure.

Overview

While traditional storage models often rely on an active-passive approach with "primary" and "secondary" geographic locations, Cloud Storage provides an active-active architecture based on a single bucket with redundancy across regions. This simplifies the disaster recovery process by eliminating the need for users to replicate data from one bucket to another or manually failover to the secondary bucket in the case of primary region downtime. Cloud Storage buckets in dual-regions use Cloud Load Balancing to automatically serve data from either constituent region as needed.

Cloud Storage always understands the current state of the bucket and transparently serves objects from either region as required. As a result, dual-region buckets are designed to have a recovery time objective (RTO) of zero, and temporary regional failures are normally invisible to users; in the case of a regional outage, dual-region buckets automatically continue serving all data that has been replicated between the two regions.

However, redundancy across regions occurs asynchronously, and any data that does not finish replicating across regions prior to a region becoming unavailable is inaccessible until the downed region comes back online. Data could potentially be lost in the very unlikely case of physical destruction of the region.

Turbo replication provides faster redundancy across regions for data in your dual-region buckets, which reduces the risk of data loss exposure and helps support uninterrupted service following a regional outage.

  • When enabled, turbo replication is designed to replicate 100% of newly written objects to both regions that constitute the dual-region within the recovery point objective of 15 minutes.

  • Compare this to default replication for buckets in dual-regions and multi-region buckets, which is designed to asynchronously replicate 99.9% of newly written objects to separate regions within a target of one hour.

Note that even for default replication, most objects finish replication within minutes.

While redundancy across regions and turbo replication help support business continuity and disaster recovery (BCDR) efforts, administrators should plan and implement a full BCDR architecture that's appropriate for their workload.

For more information, see the Step-by-step guide to designing disaster recovery for applications in Google Cloud.

Availability

Turbo replication is available for every dual-region pairing. Turbo replication is not available for other location types.

For more information, see Create a dual-region bucket.

Limitations

  • Turbo replication cannot be managed through the XML API, including creating a new bucket with turbo replication enabled.

  • When turbo replication is enabled on a bucket, it can take up to 10 seconds before it begins to apply to newly written objects.

  • Object writes that began prior to enabling turbo replication on a bucket replicate across regions at the default replication rate.

    • Object composition that uses source objects subject to the default replication rate creates composite objects that are also subject to the default replication rate.
  • Objects uploaded using XML API multi-part uploads are always replicated using default replication and are not covered by the turbo replication SLOs defined in the Cloud Storage SLA.

Performance monitoring

Cloud Storage monitors the oldest unreplicated objects. If an object took longer than 15 minutes to replicate, those extra or "bad" minutes are displayed in the Google Cloud console as Number of minutes missing RPO. This number represents an aggregate of bad minutes from all objects in the bucket.

For example, if one object yielded 20 bad minutes from 9:00-9:20 AM, and another object yielded 10 bad minutes from 9:15-9:25 AM, the total number of bad minutes is 25 minutes, as at least one object missed the RPO from 9:00-9:25 AM. This service level indicator can be used to monitor your bucket's Monthly Replication Time Conformance.

The Google Cloud console also tracks the number of completed object replications, shown as Object replications with turbo. This service level indicator can be used to monitor the bucket's Monthly Replication Volume Conformance. For more information, see the Cloud Storage SLA.

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