The same-origin policy is a security policy enforced on client-side web
applications (like web browsers) to prevent interactions between resources from
different origins. While useful for preventing malicious behavior, this security
measure also prevents legitimate interactions between known origins. For
example, a script on a page hosted on App Engine at
might need to use resources stored in a Cloud Storage bucket at
example.storage.googleapis.com. However, because these are two different
origins from the perspective of the browser, the browser won't allow a script
example.appspot.com to fetch resources from
The Cross Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) spec was developed by the
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to get around this limitation.
Cloud Storage supports this specification by allowing you to configure your
buckets to support CORS. Continuing the above example, you can configure the
example.storage.googleapis.com bucket so that a browser can share its
resources with scripts from
How CORS works
There are two types of CORS requests, simple and preflighted. A simple request can be initiated directly. A preflighted request must send a preliminary, "preflight" request to the server to get permission before the primary request can proceed. A request is preflighted if any of the following circumstances are true:
- It uses methods other than
- It uses the
POSTmethod with a
- It sets custom headers.
The following process occurs when a browser makes a simple request to Cloud Storage:
The browser adds the
Originheader to the request. The
Originheader contains the origin of the resource seeking to share the other domain's resources, for example,
Cloud Storage compares the HTTP method of the request and the value of the
Originheader to the Methods and Origins information in the target bucket's CORS configuration to see if there are matches. If there are, Cloud Storage includes the
Access-Control-Allow-Originheader in its response. The
Access-Control-Allow-Originheader contains the value of the
Originheader from the initial request.
The browser receives the response and checks to see if the
Access-Control-Allow-Originvalue matches the domain specified in the original request. If they do match, the request succeeds. If they don't match, or if the
Access-Control-Allow-Originheader is not present in the response, the request fails.
A preflighted request performs the following steps first. If it is successful, it then follows the same process as a simple request:
The browser sends an
OPTIONSrequest containing the
Requested Headersof the primary request.
The server responds back with the values of the HTTP methods and headers allowed by the targeted resource. If any of the method or header values in the preflight request aren't in the set of methods and headers allowed by the targeted resource, the request fails, and the primary request isn't sent.
This is a very simplified description of CORS. For a more complete description, read the Cross Origin Resource Sharing spec.
Cloud Storage CORS support
Different Cloud Storage endpoints deal with CORS requests in the following ways:
- JSON API endpoints allow CORS requests, regardless of CORS configuration on the target bucket.
- XML API endpoints accept CORS requests based on the CORS configuration on the target bucket.
- The authenticated browser download endpoint
storage.cloud.google.comdoes not allow CORS requests. Note that the Cloud Console provides this endpoint for each object's public URL link.
You can use either of the following XML API request URLs to obtain a response from Cloud Storage that contains the CORS headers:
For information about XML API request URLs, see Request Endpoints.
Client-side CORS support
Most browsers use the
XMLHttpRequest object to make a cross-domain request.
XMLHttpRequest takes care of all the work of inserting the right headers and
handling the CORS interaction with the server. You don't have to add any new
code to take advantage of CORS support on Cloud Storage buckets.