Fully migrate from Amazon S3 to Cloud Storage

This page describes how to fully migrate from Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) to Cloud Storage for users sending requests using an API. After you fully migrate, you can use all the features of Cloud Storage, including multiple projects and OAuth 2.0 for authentication.

If you want to get started with Cloud Storage quickly, you can choose a simple migration, which requires just a few simple changes to the tools and libraries you currently use with Amazon S3.

Migrate from Amazon S3 to Cloud Storage

To fully migrate from Amazon S3 to Cloud Storage, you need to complete the following steps:

  • Change any existing x-amz-* headers to corresponding x-goog-* headers.
  • Change AWS Access Control List (ACL) XML to the corresponding Cloud Storage ACL XML (see Creating and managing access control lists).
  • Set the x-goog-project-id header in your requests.
  • Get set up to use OAuth 2.0 authentication as described in OAuth 2.0 Authentication. The first step is to register your application (where you will be issuing requests from) with Google. Using OAuth 2.0 means that your Authorization header looks like this:

    Authorization: Bearer OAUTH2_TOKEN

    OAuth 2.0 relies on SSL for security instead of requiring your application to do cryptographic signing directly and is easier to implement. With OAuth, your application can request access to data associated with a user's Google Account, and access can be scoped to several levels, including read-only, read-write, and full-control. For more information, see OAuth 2.0 Authentication.

Access control

This section shows a few examples of access control to help you migrate from Amazon S3 to Cloud Storage. For an overview of access control in Cloud Storage, see Access Control.

In Cloud Storage, there are several ways to apply ACLs to buckets and objects (see Creating and managing access control lists). Two of the ways you specify ACLs are analogous to what you do in Amazon S3:

  • The acl query string parameter lets you apply ACLs for specific scopes.
  • The x-goog-acl request header lets you apply predefined ACLs, which are sometimes known as canned ACLs.

Using the acl query string parameter

You can use the acl query string parameter for a Cloud Storage request exactly the same way you would use it for an Amazon S3 request. The acl parameter is used in conjunction with the PUT method to apply ACLs to the following: an existing object, an existing bucket, or a bucket you are creating. When you use the acl query string parameter in a PUT request, you must attach an XML document (using Cloud Storage ACL syntax) to the body of your request. The XML document contains the individual ACL entries that you want to apply to the bucket or object.

The following example shows a PUT request to Amazon S3 that uses the acl query string parameter. ACLs are defined in an XML document sent in the request body. The PUT request changes the ACLs on an object named europe/france/paris.jpg that is in a bucket named my-travel-maps. The ACL grants jane@gmail.com FULL_CONTROL permission.

PUT europe/france/paris.jpg?acl HTTP/1.1
Host: my-travel-maps.s3.amazonaws.com
Date: Wed, 06 Nov 2013 19:28:18 GMT
Content-Length: 598
Content-Type: application/xml
Authorization: AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AWS-ACCESS-KEY/20131106/us-east-1/s3/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=content-length;content-type;date;host, Signature=4c45f25bb679fdab0de5a287625d6a143414728d93c9aeb9f4cc91c33a1c45fg

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<AccessControlPolicy>
  <Owner>
    <ID>5a6557ba40f7c86496ffceae789fcd888abc1b62a7149873a0fe12c0f60a7d95</ID>
    <DisplayName>ownerEmail@example.com</DisplayName>
  </Owner>
  <AccessControlList>
    <Grant>
      <Grantee xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:type="CanonicalUser">
        <ID>fd447671d60b979f78ee6fcec7b22afc80e6b26a4db16eed01afb8064047949b</ID>
        <DisplayName>jane@gmail.com</DisplayName>
      </Grantee>
      <Permission>FULL_CONTROL</Permission>
    </Grant>
  </AccessControlList>
</AccessControlPolicy>

Here is the same request to Cloud Storage:

PUT europe/france/paris.jpg?acl HTTP/1.1
Host: my-travel-maps.storage.googleapis.com
Date: Wed, 06 Nov 2013 19:37:33 GMT
Content-Length: 268
Content-Type: application/xml
Authorization: Bearer ya29.AHES6ZRVmB7fkLtd1XTmq6mo0S1wqZZi3-Lh_s-6Uw7p8vtgSwg

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<AccessControlList>
  <Entries>
  <Entry>
    <Permission>FULL_CONTROL</Permission>
    <Scope type="UserByEmail">
      <EmailAddress>jane@gmail.com</EmailAddress>
    </Scope>
  </Entry>
  </Entries>
</AccessControlList>

Note that Cloud Storage does not require an <Owner/> element in the ACL XML document. For more information, see Bucket and object ownership.

You can also retrieve bucket and object ACLs by using the acl query string parameter with the GET method. The ACLs are described in an XML document, which is attached to the body of the response. You must have FULL_CONTROL permission to apply or retrieve ACLs on an object or bucket.

Apply ACLs with an extension request header

You can use the x-goog-acl header in a Cloud Storage request to apply predefined ACLs to buckets and objects exactly the same way you would use the x-amz-acl header in an Amazon S3 request. You typically use the x-goog-acl (x-amz-acl) header to apply a predefined ACL to a bucket or object when you are creating or uploading the bucket or object. The Cloud Storage predefined ACLs are similar to Amazon S3 Canned ACLs, including private, public-read, public-read-write, as well as others. For a list of Cloud Storage predefined ACLs, see Predefined ACLs.

The following example shows a PUT Object request that applies the public-read ACL to an object named europe/france/paris.jpg that is being uploaded into a bucket named my-travel-maps in Amazon S3.

PUT europe/france/paris.jpg HTTP/1.1
Host: my-travel-maps.s3.amazonaws.com
Date: Wed, 06 Nov 2013 20:48:42 GMT
Content-Length: 888814
Content-Type: image/jpg
x-amz-acl: public-read
Authorization: AWS4-HMAC-SHA256 Credential=AWS-ACCESS-KEY/20131106/us-east-1/s3/aws4_request, SignedHeaders=content-length;content-type;date;host, Signature=808150c37dbd1b425b2398421d6fc3dd6d4942dfaae9e519fd5835aa62fd62ab

<888814 bytes in entity body>

Here is the same request to Cloud Storage:

PUT europe/france/paris.jpg HTTP/1.1
Host: my-travel-maps.storage.googleapis.com
Date: Wed, 06 Nov 2013 20:49:57 GMT
Content-Length: 888814
Content-Type: image/jpg
x-goog-acl: public-read
Authorization: Bearer ya29.AHES6ZRVmB7fkLtd1XTmq6mo0S1wqZZi3-Lh_s-6Uw7p8vtgSwg

<888814 bytes in entity body>

You can also use the x-goog-acl header to apply a predefined ACL to an existing bucket or object. To do this, include the acl query string parameter in your request but do not include an XML document in your request. Applying a predefined ACL to an existing object or bucket is useful if you want to change from one predefined ACL to another, or you want to update custom ACLs to a predefined ACL. For example, the following PUT Object request applies the predefined ACL private to an object named europe/france/paris.jpg that is in a bucket named my-travel-maps.

PUT europe/france/paris.jpg?acl HTTP/1.1
Host: my-travel-maps.storage.googleapis.com
Date: Wed, 06 Nov 2013 00:26:36 GMT
Content-Length: 0
x-goog-acl: private
Authorization: Bearer ya29.AHES6ZRVmB7fkLtd1XTmq6mo0S1wqZZi3-Lh_s-6Uw7p8vtgSwg

<empty entity body>

For more information about managing ACLs, see Creating and managing access control lists.

Migrate from Amazon S3 to Cloud Storage request methods

Cloud Storage supports the same standard HTTP request methods for reading and writing data to your buckets as are supported in Amazon S3. Therefore, the majority of your tools and libraries that you currently use with Amazon S3, work as-is with Cloud Storage. Cloud Storage supports the following request methods:

  • Service request for GET.
  • Bucket requests, including PUT, GET, DELETE.
  • Object requests, including GET, POST, PUT, HEAD, and DELETE.

For more information, see XML API Reference Methods. Keep in mind that when you send requests to Cloud Storage, you need to change the request body, when applicable, to use the appropriate Cloud Storage syntax. For example, when you create a lifecycle configuration for a bucket, use the Cloud Storage lifecycle XML, which is different than the Amazon S3 lifecycle XML.

There are a few differences between Cloud Storage XML API and Amazon S3 which are summarized below:

Amazon S3 Functionality Cloud Storage XML API Functionality
When using customer-supplied encryption keys in a multipart upload, the final request does not include the customer-supplied encryption key. In the Cloud Storage XML API, all requests in a multipart upload, including the final request, require you to supply the same customer-supplied encryption key. This requirement exists because Cloud Storage does not store your encryption key information while it waits for the request to complete the upload, but it requires the key to calculate a checksum for the completed object.
In Amazon S3, V4 signatures can be used to authenticate uploads that use chunked transfer encoding. In the Cloud Storage XML API, chunked transfer encoding and V4 signatures cannot currently be used simultaneously. Some Amazon S3 tools use chunked transfer encoding along with signatures by default; you should disable chunked transfer encoding in such cases.
GET/POST bucket query string parameters:
  • "policy" - Working with Amazon S3 bucket policies.
  • "website" - Configuring bucket websites.
  • "tagging" - Tagging buckets for cost allocation purposes.
  • "notification" - Notifying for bucket events.
  • "requestPayment" - Configuring who pays for the request and the data download from a bucket.
Alternatives:
  • "policy" - Cloud Storage ACLs, project team membership, and the ability to use multiple projects address many of the scenarios where bucket policies are used.
  • "website" - Use the gsutil web command to manage websites, or try the JSON API (see buckets resource).
  • "tagging" - Use multiple projects to track different cost centers. For more about projects, see Managing Projects.
  • "notification" - Use gsutil or JSON API Pub/Sub Notifications.
  • "requestPayment" - Use multiple projects with different billing profiles to manage who pays for requests and downloaded data from a bucket. For more about configuring billing, see Billing in the Google APIs Console Help documentation.
Multiple object delete.
POST /?delete

Use the gsutil rm command to easily remove multiple objects. The rm command supports the "-m" option to perform parallel (multi-threaded/multi-processing) deletes.

Alternatively, the JSON API supports sending batch requests to reduce the number of HTTP connections your client makes.

Migrate from Amazon S3 to Cloud Storage headers

Cloud Storage uses several standard HTTP headers as well as several custom (extension) HTTP headers. If you are transitioning from Amazon S3 to Cloud Storage, you can convert your custom Amazon S3 headers to the equivalent Cloud Storage custom header or similar functionality as shown in the tables below.

For many Amazon S3 headers, you simply need to replace the x-amz prefix with x-goog:

Amazon S3 Header Cloud Storage Header
x-amz-storage-class x-goog-storage-class
x-amz-acl x-goog-acl
x-amz-date x-goog-date
x-amz-meta-* x-goog-meta-*
x-amz-copy-source x-goog-copy-source
x-amz-metadata-directive x-goog-metadata-directive
x-amz-copy-source-if-match x-goog-copy-source-if-match
x-amz-copy-source-if-none-match x-goog-copy-source-if-none-match
x-amz-copy-source-if-unmodified-since x-goog-copy-source-if-unmodified-since
x-amz-copy-source-if-modified-since x-goog-copy-source-if-modified-since

Several headers differ or do not apply in Cloud Storage:

Amazon S3 Header Cloud Storage Header
x-amz-server-side-encryption Not required. Cloud Storage automatically encrypts all data before it is written to disk. For more information, see Encryption.
x-amz-grant-* x-goog-acl with a predefined ACL value.
x-amz-mfa Use OAuth 2.0 Authentication.
x-amz-website-redirect-location, x-amz-copy-source-range n/a

See HTTP headers and query string parameters for XML API for a reference to Cloud Storage headers.