Change object storage classes

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This page describes how to change the storage class of objects within a bucket through rewriting the object. To learn how to change object storage classes without rewriting an object, see the Object Lifecycle Management feature.

Prerequisites

Prerequisites can vary based on the tool used:

Console

Individual object storage classes cannot be set through the Google Cloud console. Instead, use the command line.

Command line

In order to complete this guide using a command-line utility, you must have the proper IAM permissions. If the object you want to access exists in a project that you did not create, you might need the project owner to give you a role that contains the necessary permissions.

For a list of permissions required for specific actions, see IAM permissions for gsutil commands.

For a list of relevant roles, see Cloud Storage roles. Alternatively, you can create a custom role that has specific, limited permissions.

Code samples

In order to complete this guide using the Cloud Storage client libraries, you must have the proper IAM permissions. If the object you want to access exists in a project that you did not create, you might need the project owner to give you a role that contains the necessary permissions. Unless otherwise noted, client library requests are made through the JSON API.

For a list of permissions required for specific actions, see IAM permissions for JSON methods.

For a list of relevant roles, see Cloud Storage roles. Alternatively, you can create a custom role that has specific, limited permissions.

REST APIs

JSON API

In order to complete this guide using the JSON API, you must have the proper IAM permissions. If the object you want to access exists in a project that you did not create, you might need the project owner to give you a role that contains the necessary permissions.

For a list of permissions required for specific actions, see IAM permissions for JSON methods.

For a list of relevant roles, see Cloud Storage roles. Alternatively, you can create a custom role that has specific, limited permissions.

Change an object's storage class

Complete the following steps to change an object's storage class:

Console

Individual object storage classes cannot be set through the Google Cloud console. Instead, use the command line.

Command line

gcloud

Use the gcloud storage objects update command with the --storage-class flag. For example:

gcloud storage objects update gs://BUCKET_NAME/OBJECT_NAME --storage-class=STORAGE_CLASS

Where:

  • BUCKET_NAME is the name of the bucket containing the object whose class you want to change. For example, my-bucket.
  • OBJECT_NAME is the name of the object whose class you want to change. For example, pets/dog.png.
  • STORAGE_CLASS is the new storage class for your object. For example, nearline.

gsutil

Use the -s flag in a gsutil rewrite command. For example:

gsutil rewrite -s STORAGE_CLASS gs://BUCKET_NAME/OBJECT_NAME

Where:

  • STORAGE_CLASS is the new storage class for your object. For example, nearline.
  • BUCKET_NAME is the name of the bucket containing the object whose class you want to change. For example, my-bucket.
  • OBJECT_NAME is the name of the object whose class you want to change. For example, pets/dog.png.

Code samples

C++

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C++ API reference documentation.

namespace gcs = ::google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string const& bucket_name,
   std::string const& object_name, std::string const& storage_class) {
  StatusOr<gcs::ObjectMetadata> object_metadata =
      client.RewriteObjectBlocking(
          bucket_name, object_name, bucket_name, object_name,
          gcs::WithObjectMetadata(
              gcs::ObjectMetadata().set_storage_class(storage_class)));

  if (!object_metadata) {
    throw std::runtime_error(object_metadata.status().message());
  }

  std::cout << "Changed storage class of object " << object_metadata->name()
            << " in bucket " << object_metadata->bucket() << " to "
            << object_metadata->storage_class() << "\n";
}

C#

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C# API reference documentation.


using Google.Cloud.Storage.V1;
using System;

public class ChangeFileStorageClassSample
{
    public Google.Apis.Storage.v1.Data.Object ChangeFileStorageClass(
        string bucketName = "your-bucket-name",
        string objectName = "your-object-name",
        string storageClass = StorageClasses.Standard)
    {
        var storage = StorageClient.Create();

        // Changing storage class requires a rewrite operation, which can only be done
        // by the underlying service
        var obj = new Google.Apis.Storage.v1.Data.Object { StorageClass = storageClass };
        storage.Service.Objects.Rewrite(obj, bucketName, objectName, bucketName, objectName).Execute();

        var file = storage.GetObject(bucketName, objectName);
        Console.WriteLine($"Object {objectName} in bucket {bucketName} had" +
            $" its storage class set to {storageClass}.");

        return file;
    }
}

Go

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Go API reference documentation.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"time"

	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
)

// changeObjectStorageClass changes the storage class of a single object.
func changeObjectStorageClass(w io.Writer, bucket, object string) error {
	// bucket := "bucket-name"
	// object := "object-name"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(ctx, time.Second*10)
	defer cancel()

	o := client.Bucket(bucket).Object(object)

	// Optional: set a generation-match precondition to avoid potential race
	// conditions and data corruptions. The request to upload is aborted if the
	// object's generation number does not match your precondition.
	attrs, err := o.Attrs(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("object.Attrs: %v", err)
	}
	o = o.If(storage.Conditions{GenerationMatch: attrs.Generation})

	// See the StorageClass documentation for other valid storage classes:
	// https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/storage-classes
	newStorageClass := "COLDLINE"
	// You can't change an object's storage class directly, the only way is
	// to rewrite the object with the desired storage class.
	copier := o.CopierFrom(o)
	copier.StorageClass = newStorageClass
	if _, err := copier.Run(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("copier.Run: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Object %v in bucket %v had its storage class set to %v\n", object, bucket, newStorageClass)
	return nil
}

Java

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Java API reference documentation.

import com.google.cloud.storage.Blob;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobId;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobInfo;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageClass;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;

public class ChangeObjectStorageClass {
  public static void changeObjectStorageClass(
      String projectId, String bucketName, String objectName) {
    // The ID of your GCP project
    // String projectId = "your-project-id";

    // The ID of your GCS bucket
    // String bucketName = "your-unique-bucket-name";

    // The ID of your GCS object
    // String objectName = "your-object-name";

    Storage storage = StorageOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService();
    BlobId blobId = BlobId.of(bucketName, objectName);
    Blob sourceBlob = storage.get(blobId);
    if (sourceBlob == null) {
      System.out.println("The object " + objectName + " wasn't found in " + bucketName);
      return;
    }

    // See the StorageClass documentation for other valid storage classes:
    // https://googleapis.dev/java/google-cloud-clients/latest/com/google/cloud/storage/StorageClass.html
    StorageClass storageClass = StorageClass.COLDLINE;

    // You can't change an object's storage class directly, the only way is to rewrite the object
    // with the desired storage class

    BlobInfo targetBlob = BlobInfo.newBuilder(blobId).setStorageClass(storageClass).build();

    // Optional: set a generation-match precondition to avoid potential race
    // conditions and data corruptions. The request to upload returns a 412 error if
    // the object's generation number does not match your precondition.
    Storage.BlobSourceOption precondition =
        Storage.BlobSourceOption.generationMatch(sourceBlob.getGeneration());

    Storage.CopyRequest request =
        Storage.CopyRequest.newBuilder()
            .setSource(blobId)
            .setSourceOptions(precondition) // delete this line to run without preconditions
            .setTarget(targetBlob)
            .build();
    Blob updatedBlob = storage.copy(request).getResult();

    System.out.println(
        "Object "
            + objectName
            + " in bucket "
            + bucketName
            + " had its storage class set to "
            + updatedBlob.getStorageClass().name());
  }
}

Node.js

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Node.js API reference documentation.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// The ID of your GCS bucket
// const bucketName = 'your-unique-bucket-name';

// The ID of your GCS file
// const fileName = 'your-file-name';

// The name of a storage class
// See the StorageClass documentation for other valid storage classes:
// https://googleapis.dev/java/google-cloud-clients/latest/com/google/cloud/storage/StorageClass.html
// const storageClass = 'coldline';

async function fileChangeStorageClass() {
  // Optional:
  // Set a generation-match precondition to avoid potential race conditions
  // and data corruptions. The request to upload is aborted if the object's
  // generation number does not match your precondition. For a destination
  // object that does not yet exist, set the ifGenerationMatch precondition to 0
  // If the destination object already exists in your bucket, set instead a
  // generation-match precondition using its generation number.
  const setStorageClassOptions = {
    ifGenerationMatch: generationMatchPrecondition,
  };

  await storage
    .bucket(bucketName)
    .file(fileName)
    .setStorageClass(storageClass, setStorageClassOptions);

  console.log(`${fileName} has been set to ${storageClass}`);
}

fileChangeStorageClass().catch(console.error);

PHP

For more information, see the Cloud Storage PHP API reference documentation.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Change the storage class of the given file.
 *
 * @param string $bucketName The name of your Cloud Storage bucket.
 * @param string $objectName The name of your Cloud Storage object.
 * @param string $storageClass The storage class of the new object.
 */
function change_file_storage_class(string $bucketName, string $objectName, string $storageClass): void
{
    // $bucketName = 'my-bucket';
    // $objectName = 'my-object';
    // $storageClass = 'COLDLINE';

    $storage = new StorageClient();
    $bucket = $storage->bucket($bucketName);
    $object = $bucket->object($objectName);

    // Storage class cannot be changed directly. But we can rewrite the object
    // using the new storage class.

    $newObject = $object->rewrite($bucket, [
        'storageClass' => $storageClass,
    ]);

    printf(
        'Object %s in bucket %s had its storage class set to %s',
        $objectName,
        $bucketName,
        $newObject->info()['storageClass']
    );
}

Python

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Python API reference documentation.

from google.cloud import storage


def change_file_storage_class(bucket_name, blob_name):
    """Change the default storage class of the blob"""
    # bucket_name = "your-bucket-name"
    # blob_name = "your-object-name"

    storage_client = storage.Client()

    bucket = storage_client.get_bucket(bucket_name)
    blob = bucket.get_blob(blob_name)
    blob.update_storage_class("NEARLINE")

    print(
        "Blob {} in bucket {} had its storage class set to {}".format(
            blob_name,
            bucket_name,
            blob.storage_class
        )
    )
    return blob

Ruby

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Ruby API reference documentation.

def change_file_storage_class bucket_name:, file_name:
  # The ID of your GCS bucket
  # bucket_name = "your-unique-bucket-name"

  # The ID of your GCS object
  # file_name = "your-file-name"

  require "google/cloud/storage"

  storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new
  bucket = storage.bucket bucket_name, skip_lookup: true

  file = bucket.file file_name

  file.storage_class = "NEARLINE"

  puts "File #{file_name} in bucket #{bucket_name} had its storage class set to #{file.storage_class}"
end

REST APIs

JSON API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Create a JSON file that contains the following information:

    {
      "storageClass": "STORAGE_CLASS"
    }

    Where:

    • STORAGE_CLASS is the new storage class for your object. For example, nearline.
  3. Use cURL to call the JSON API with a POST Object, request:

    curl -X POST --data-binary @JSON_FILE_NAME \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer OAUTH2_TOKEN" \
      -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
      "https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b/BUCKET_NAME/o/OBJECT_NAME/rewriteTo/b/BUCKET_NAME/o/OBJECT_NAME"

    Where:

    • JSON_FILE_NAME is the path for the JSON file that you created in Step 2.
    • OAUTH2_TOKEN is the access token you generated in Step 1.
    • BUCKET_NAME is the name of the bucket containing the original object. For example, my-bucket.
    • OBJECT_NAME is the URL-encoded name of the object. For example, pets/dog.png, URL-encoded as pets%2Fdog.png.

XML API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Use cURL to call the XML API with a PUT Object request:

    curl -X PUT --data-binary @OBJECT \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer OAUTH2_TOKEN" \
      -H "Content-Type: OBJECT_CONTENT_TYPE" \
      -H "x-goog-storage-class: STORAGE_CLASS" \
      "https://storage.googleapis.com/BUCKET_NAME/OBJECT_NAME"

    Where:

    • OBJECT is the local path to the object whose storage class you want to change (you must re-upload the object when changing storage class with the XML API). For example, Desktop/dog.png.
    • OAUTH2_TOKEN is the access token you generated in Step 1.
    • OBJECT_CONTENT_TYPE is the content type of the object. For example, image/png.
    • STORAGE_CLASS is the new storage class for your object. For example, nearline.
    • BUCKET_NAME is the name of the bucket containing the object you are rewriting. For example, my-bucket.
    • OBJECT_NAME is the URL-encoded name of the object you are rewriting. For example, pets/dog.png, URL-encoded as pets%2Fdog.png.

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