Host a static website


This tutorial describes how to configure a Cloud Storage bucket to host a static website for a domain you own. Static web pages can contain client-side technologies such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. They cannot contain dynamic content such as server-side scripts like PHP.

Because Cloud Storage doesn't support custom domains with HTTPS on its own, this tutorial uses Cloud Storage with an external Application Load Balancer to serve content from a custom domain over HTTPS. For more ways to serve content from a custom domain over HTTPS, see troubleshooting for HTTPS serving. You can also use Cloud Storage to serve custom domain content over HTTP, which doesn't require a load balancer.

For examples and tips on static web pages, including how to host static assets for a dynamic website, see the Static Website page.

Objectives

This tutorial shows you how to:

  • Create a bucket.
  • Upload and share your site's files.
  • Set up a load balancer and SSL certificate.
  • Connect your load balancer to your bucket.
  • Point your domain to your load balancer using an A record.
  • Test the website.

Costs

This tutorial uses the following billable components of Google Cloud:

See the Monitoring your charges tip for details on what charges may be incurred when hosting a static website.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Cloud account. If you're new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how our products perform in real-world scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and deploy workloads.
  2. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud project.

  4. In the Google Cloud console, on the project selector page, select or create a Google Cloud project.

    Go to project selector

  5. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud project.

  6. Enable the Compute Engine API for your project.
  7. Have the following Identity and Access Management roles: Storage Admin and Compute Network Admin.
  8. Have a domain that you own or manage. If you don't have an existing domain, there are many services through which you can register a new domain, such as Cloud Domains.

    This tutorial uses the domain example.com.

  9. Have a few website files you want to serve. This tutorial works best if you have at least an index page (index.html) and a 404 page (404.html).
  10. (Optional) If you want your Cloud Storage bucket to have the same name as your domain, you must verify that you own or manage the domain that you will be using. Make sure you are verifying the top-level domain, such as example.com, and not a subdomain, such as www.example.com. If you purchased your domain through Cloud Domains, verification is automatic.

Create a bucket

To create a bucket:

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Storage Buckets page.

    Go to Buckets

  2. Click + Create.
  3. On the Create a bucket page, enter your bucket information. To go to the next step, click Continue.
    • For Name your bucket, enter a name that meets the bucket name requirements.
    • For Choose where to store your data, select a Location type and Location where the bucket data will be permanently stored.
    • For Choose a storage class for your data, either select a default storage class for the bucket, or select Autoclass for automatic storage class management of your bucket's data.

      Note: The Monthly cost estimate panel in the right pane estimates the bucket's monthly costs based on your selected storage class and location, as well as your expected data size and operations.

    • For Choose how to control access to objects, select whether or not your bucket enforces public access prevention, and select an Access control model for your bucket's objects.

      Note: If public access prevention is already enforced by your project's organization policy, the Prevent public access toggle is locked.

    • For Choose how to protect object data, configure Protection tools if desired, and select a Data encryption method.
  4. Click Create.

To learn how to get detailed error information about failed Cloud Storage operations in the Google Cloud console, see Troubleshooting.

Command line

  1. In the Google Cloud console, activate Cloud Shell.

    Activate Cloud Shell

    At the bottom of the Google Cloud console, a Cloud Shell session starts and displays a command-line prompt. Cloud Shell is a shell environment with the Google Cloud CLI already installed and with values already set for your current project. It can take a few seconds for the session to initialize.

  2. In your development environment, run the gcloud storage buckets create command:

    gcloud storage buckets create gs://BUCKET_NAME --location=BUCKET_LOCATION

    Where:

    • BUCKET_NAME is the name you want to give your bucket, subject to naming requirements. For example, my-bucket.
    • BUCKET_LOCATION is the location of your bucket. For example, us-east1.

    If the request is successful, the command returns the following message:

    Creating gs://BUCKET_NAME/...

    Set the following flags to have greater control over the creation of your bucket:

    • --project: Specify the project ID or project number with which your bucket will be associated. For example, my-project.
    • --default-storage-class: Specify the default storage class of your bucket. For example, STANDARD.
    • --uniform-bucket-level-access: Enable uniform bucket-level access for your bucket.
    • For a complete list of options for gcloud bucket creation, see buckets create options.

    For example:

    gcloud storage buckets create gs://BUCKET_NAME --project=PROJECT_ID --default-storage-class=STORAGE_CLASS --location=BUCKET_LOCATION --uniform-bucket-level-access

Client Libraries

C++

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C++ API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

namespace gcs = ::google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string const& bucket_name,
   std::string const& storage_class, std::string const& location) {
  StatusOr<gcs::BucketMetadata> bucket_metadata =
      client.CreateBucket(bucket_name, gcs::BucketMetadata()
                                           .set_storage_class(storage_class)
                                           .set_location(location));
  if (!bucket_metadata) throw std::move(bucket_metadata).status();

  std::cout << "Bucket " << bucket_metadata->name() << " created."
            << "\nFull Metadata: " << *bucket_metadata << "\n";
}

C#

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C# API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.


using Google.Apis.Storage.v1.Data;
using Google.Cloud.Storage.V1;
using System;

public class CreateRegionalBucketSample
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Creates a storage bucket with region.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="projectId">The ID of the project to create the buckets in.</param>
    /// <param name="location">The location of the bucket. Object data for objects in the bucket resides in 
    /// physical storage within this region. Defaults to US.</param>
    /// <param name="bucketName">The name of the bucket to create.</param>
    /// <param name="storageClass">The bucket's default storage class, used whenever no storageClass is specified
    /// for a newly-created object. This defines how objects in the bucket are stored
    /// and determines the SLA and the cost of storage. Values include MULTI_REGIONAL,
    /// REGIONAL, STANDARD, NEARLINE, COLDLINE, ARCHIVE, and DURABLE_REDUCED_AVAILABILITY.
    /// If this value is not specified when the bucket is created, it will default to
    /// STANDARD.</param>
    public Bucket CreateRegionalBucket(
        string projectId = "your-project-id",
        string bucketName = "your-unique-bucket-name",
        string location = "us-west1",
        string storageClass = "REGIONAL")
    {
        var storage = StorageClient.Create();
        Bucket bucket = new Bucket
        {
            Location = location,
            Name = bucketName,
            StorageClass = storageClass
        };
        var newlyCreatedBucket = storage.CreateBucket(projectId, bucket);
        Console.WriteLine($"Created {bucketName}.");
        return newlyCreatedBucket;
    }
}

Go

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Go API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"time"

	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
)

// createBucketClassLocation creates a new bucket in the project with Storage class and
// location.
func createBucketClassLocation(w io.Writer, projectID, bucketName string) error {
	// projectID := "my-project-id"
	// bucketName := "bucket-name"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %w", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(ctx, time.Second*30)
	defer cancel()

	storageClassAndLocation := &storage.BucketAttrs{
		StorageClass: "COLDLINE",
		Location:     "asia",
	}
	bucket := client.Bucket(bucketName)
	if err := bucket.Create(ctx, projectID, storageClassAndLocation); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("Bucket(%q).Create: %w", bucketName, err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Created bucket %v in %v with storage class %v\n", bucketName, storageClassAndLocation.Location, storageClassAndLocation.StorageClass)
	return nil
}

Java

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Java API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

import com.google.cloud.storage.Bucket;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BucketInfo;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageClass;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;

public class CreateBucketWithStorageClassAndLocation {
  public static void createBucketWithStorageClassAndLocation(String projectId, String bucketName) {
    // The ID of your GCP project
    // String projectId = "your-project-id";

    // The ID to give your GCS bucket
    // String bucketName = "your-unique-bucket-name";

    Storage storage = StorageOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService();

    // See the StorageClass documentation for other valid storage classes:
    // https://googleapis.dev/java/google-cloud-clients/latest/com/google/cloud/storage/StorageClass.html
    StorageClass storageClass = StorageClass.COLDLINE;

    // See this documentation for other valid locations:
    // http://g.co/cloud/storage/docs/bucket-locations#location-mr
    String location = "ASIA";

    Bucket bucket =
        storage.create(
            BucketInfo.newBuilder(bucketName)
                .setStorageClass(storageClass)
                .setLocation(location)
                .build());

    System.out.println(
        "Created bucket "
            + bucket.getName()
            + " in "
            + bucket.getLocation()
            + " with storage class "
            + bucket.getStorageClass());
  }
}

Node.js

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Node.js API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// The ID of your GCS bucket
// const bucketName = 'your-unique-bucket-name';

// The name of a storage class
// See the StorageClass documentation for other valid storage classes:
// https://googleapis.dev/java/google-cloud-clients/latest/com/google/cloud/storage/StorageClass.html
// const storageClass = 'coldline';

// The name of a location
// See this documentation for other valid locations:
// http://g.co/cloud/storage/docs/locations#location-mr
// const location = 'ASIA';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
// The bucket in the sample below will be created in the project associated with this client.
// For more information, please see https://cloud.google.com/docs/authentication/production or https://googleapis.dev/nodejs/storage/latest/Storage.html
const storage = new Storage();

async function createBucketWithStorageClassAndLocation() {
  // For default values see: https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/locations and
  // https://cloud.google.com/storage/docs/storage-classes
  const [bucket] = await storage.createBucket(bucketName, {
    location,
    [storageClass]: true,
  });

  console.log(
    `${bucket.name} created with ${storageClass} class in ${location}`
  );
}

createBucketWithStorageClassAndLocation().catch(console.error);

PHP

For more information, see the Cloud Storage PHP API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Create a new bucket with a custom default storage class and location.
 *
 * @param string $bucketName The name of your Cloud Storage bucket.
 *        (e.g. 'my-bucket')
 */
function create_bucket_class_location(string $bucketName): void
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    $storageClass = 'COLDLINE';
    $location = 'ASIA';
    $bucket = $storage->createBucket($bucketName, [
        'storageClass' => $storageClass,
        'location' => $location,
    ]);

    $objects = $bucket->objects([
        'encryption' => [
            'defaultKmsKeyName' => null,
        ]
    ]);

    printf('Created bucket %s in %s with storage class %s', $bucketName, $storageClass, $location);
}

Python

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Python API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

from google.cloud import storage


def create_bucket_class_location(bucket_name):
    """
    Create a new bucket in the US region with the coldline storage
    class
    """
    # bucket_name = "your-new-bucket-name"

    storage_client = storage.Client()

    bucket = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name)
    bucket.storage_class = "COLDLINE"
    new_bucket = storage_client.create_bucket(bucket, location="us")

    print(
        "Created bucket {} in {} with storage class {}".format(
            new_bucket.name, new_bucket.location, new_bucket.storage_class
        )
    )
    return new_bucket

Ruby

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Ruby API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

def create_bucket_class_location bucket_name:
  # The ID to give your GCS bucket
  # bucket_name = "your-unique-bucket-name"

  require "google/cloud/storage"

  storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new
  bucket  = storage.create_bucket bucket_name,
                                  location:      "ASIA",
                                  storage_class: "COLDLINE"

  puts "Created bucket #{bucket.name} in #{bucket.location} with #{bucket.storage_class} class"
end

Terraform

You can use a Terraform resource to create a storage bucket.

The following sample includes assigning an index page suffix and a custom error page. For more information, see Assign specialty pages.

# Create new storage bucket in the US multi-region
# and settings for main_page_suffix and not_found_page
resource "random_id" "bucket_prefix" {
  byte_length = 8
}

resource "google_storage_bucket" "static_website" {
  name          = "${random_id.bucket_prefix.hex}-static-website-bucket"
  location      = "US"
  storage_class = "STANDARD"
  website {
    main_page_suffix = "index.html"
    not_found_page   = "404.html"
  }
}

REST APIs

JSON API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Create a JSON file that contains the settings for the bucket, which must include a name for the bucket. See the Buckets:Insert documentation for a complete list of settings. The following are common settings to include:
  3. {
      "name": "BUCKET_NAME",
      "location": "BUCKET_LOCATION",
      "storageClass": "STORAGE_CLASS",
      "iamConfiguration": {
        "uniformBucketLevelAccess": {
          "enabled": true
        },
      }
    }

    Where:

    • BUCKET_NAME is the name you want to give your bucket, subject to naming requirements. For example, my-bucket.
    • BUCKET_LOCATION is the location where you want to store your bucket's object data. For example, US-EAST1.
    • STORAGE_CLASS is the default storage class of your bucket. For example, STANDARD.
  4. Use cURL to call the JSON API:
    curl -X POST --data-binary @JSON_FILE_NAME \
         -H "Authorization: Bearer OAUTH2_TOKEN" \
         -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
         "https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b?project=PROJECT_IDENTIFIER"

    Where:

    • JSON_FILE_NAME is name of the JSON file you created in Step 2.
    • OAUTH2_TOKEN is the access token you generated in Step 1.
    • PROJECT_IDENTIFIER is the ID or number of the project with which your bucket will be associated. For example, my-project.

XML API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Create an XML file that contains settings for the bucket. See the XML: Create a bucket documentation for a complete list of settings. The following are common settings to include:
  3. <CreateBucketConfiguration>
       <LocationConstraint>BUCKET_LOCATION</LocationConstraint>
       <StorageClass>STORAGE_CLASS</StorageClass>
    </CreateBucketConfiguration>

    Where:

    • BUCKET_LOCATION is the location where you want to store your bucket's object data. For example, US-EAST1.
    • STORAGE_CLASS is the default storage class of your bucket. For example, STANDARD.
  4. Use cURL to call the XML API:
    curl -X PUT --data-binary @XML_FILE_NAME \
         -H "Authorization: Bearer OAUTH2_TOKEN" \
         -H "x-goog-project-id: PROJECT_ID" \
         "https://storage.googleapis.com/BUCKET_NAME"

    Where:

    • XML_FILE_NAME is name of the XML file you created in Step 2.
    • OAUTH2_TOKEN is the access token you generated in Step 1.
    • PROJECT_ID is the ID of the project with which your bucket will be associated. For example, my-project.
    • BUCKET_NAME is the name you want to give your bucket, subject to naming requirements. For example, my-bucket.

Upload your site's files

Add the files you want your website to serve to the bucket:

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Storage Buckets page.

    Go to Buckets

  2. In the list of buckets, click the name of the bucket that you created.

    The Bucket details page opens with the Objects tab selected.

  3. Click the Upload files button.

  4. In the file dialog, browse to the desired file and select it.

After the upload completes, you should see the filename along with file information displayed in the bucket.

To learn how to get detailed error information about failed Cloud Storage operations in the Google Cloud console, see Troubleshooting.

Command line

Use the gcloud storage cp command to copy files to your bucket. For example, to copy the file index.html from its current location Desktop to the bucket my-static-assets:

gcloud storage cp Desktop/index.html gs://my-static-assets

If successful, the response looks like the following example:

Completed files 1/1 | 164.3kiB/164.3kiB

Client libraries

C++

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C++ API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

namespace gcs = ::google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string const& file_name,
   std::string const& bucket_name, std::string const& object_name) {
  // Note that the client library automatically computes a hash on the
  // client-side to verify data integrity during transmission.
  StatusOr<gcs::ObjectMetadata> metadata = client.UploadFile(
      file_name, bucket_name, object_name, gcs::IfGenerationMatch(0));
  if (!metadata) throw std::move(metadata).status();

  std::cout << "Uploaded " << file_name << " to object " << metadata->name()
            << " in bucket " << metadata->bucket()
            << "\nFull metadata: " << *metadata << "\n";
}

C#

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C# API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.


using Google.Cloud.Storage.V1;
using System;
using System.IO;

public class UploadFileSample
{
    public void UploadFile(
        string bucketName = "your-unique-bucket-name",
        string localPath = "my-local-path/my-file-name",
        string objectName = "my-file-name")
    {
        var storage = StorageClient.Create();
        using var fileStream = File.OpenRead(localPath);
        storage.UploadObject(bucketName, objectName, null, fileStream);
        Console.WriteLine($"Uploaded {objectName}.");
    }
}

Go

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Go API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"os"
	"time"

	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
)

// uploadFile uploads an object.
func uploadFile(w io.Writer, bucket, object string) error {
	// bucket := "bucket-name"
	// object := "object-name"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %w", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Open local file.
	f, err := os.Open("notes.txt")
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("os.Open: %w", err)
	}
	defer f.Close()

	ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(ctx, time.Second*50)
	defer cancel()

	o := client.Bucket(bucket).Object(object)

	// Optional: set a generation-match precondition to avoid potential race
	// conditions and data corruptions. The request to upload is aborted if the
	// object's generation number does not match your precondition.
	// For an object that does not yet exist, set the DoesNotExist precondition.
	o = o.If(storage.Conditions{DoesNotExist: true})
	// If the live object already exists in your bucket, set instead a
	// generation-match precondition using the live object's generation number.
	// attrs, err := o.Attrs(ctx)
	// if err != nil {
	// 	return fmt.Errorf("object.Attrs: %w", err)
	// }
	// o = o.If(storage.Conditions{GenerationMatch: attrs.Generation})

	// Upload an object with storage.Writer.
	wc := o.NewWriter(ctx)
	if _, err = io.Copy(wc, f); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("io.Copy: %w", err)
	}
	if err := wc.Close(); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("Writer.Close: %w", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Blob %v uploaded.\n", object)
	return nil
}

Java

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Java API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.


import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobId;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobInfo;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.file.Paths;

public class UploadObject {
  public static void uploadObject(
      String projectId, String bucketName, String objectName, String filePath) throws IOException {
    // The ID of your GCP project
    // String projectId = "your-project-id";

    // The ID of your GCS bucket
    // String bucketName = "your-unique-bucket-name";

    // The ID of your GCS object
    // String objectName = "your-object-name";

    // The path to your file to upload
    // String filePath = "path/to/your/file"

    Storage storage = StorageOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService();
    BlobId blobId = BlobId.of(bucketName, objectName);
    BlobInfo blobInfo = BlobInfo.newBuilder(blobId).build();

    // Optional: set a generation-match precondition to avoid potential race
    // conditions and data corruptions. The request returns a 412 error if the
    // preconditions are not met.
    Storage.BlobWriteOption precondition;
    if (storage.get(bucketName, objectName) == null) {
      // For a target object that does not yet exist, set the DoesNotExist precondition.
      // This will cause the request to fail if the object is created before the request runs.
      precondition = Storage.BlobWriteOption.doesNotExist();
    } else {
      // If the destination already exists in your bucket, instead set a generation-match
      // precondition. This will cause the request to fail if the existing object's generation
      // changes before the request runs.
      precondition =
          Storage.BlobWriteOption.generationMatch(
              storage.get(bucketName, objectName).getGeneration());
    }
    storage.createFrom(blobInfo, Paths.get(filePath), precondition);

    System.out.println(
        "File " + filePath + " uploaded to bucket " + bucketName + " as " + objectName);
  }
}

Node.js

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Node.js API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

The following sample uploads an individual object:

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// The ID of your GCS bucket
// const bucketName = 'your-unique-bucket-name';

// The path to your file to upload
// const filePath = 'path/to/your/file';

// The new ID for your GCS file
// const destFileName = 'your-new-file-name';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

async function uploadFile() {
  const options = {
    destination: destFileName,
    // Optional:
    // Set a generation-match precondition to avoid potential race conditions
    // and data corruptions. The request to upload is aborted if the object's
    // generation number does not match your precondition. For a destination
    // object that does not yet exist, set the ifGenerationMatch precondition to 0
    // If the destination object already exists in your bucket, set instead a
    // generation-match precondition using its generation number.
    preconditionOpts: {ifGenerationMatch: generationMatchPrecondition},
  };

  await storage.bucket(bucketName).upload(filePath, options);
  console.log(`${filePath} uploaded to ${bucketName}`);
}

uploadFile().catch(console.error);

The following sample uploads multiple objects concurrently:

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// The ID of your GCS bucket
// const bucketName = 'your-unique-bucket-name';

// The ID of the first GCS file to download
// const firstFileName = 'your-first-file-name';

// The ID of the second GCS file to download
// const secondFileName = 'your-second-file-name;

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage, TransferManager} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

// Creates a transfer manager client
const transferManager = new TransferManager(storage.bucket(bucketName));

async function uploadManyFilesWithTransferManager() {
  // Uploads the files
  await transferManager.uploadManyFiles([firstFilePath, secondFilePath]);

  for (const filePath of [firstFilePath, secondFilePath]) {
    console.log(`${filePath} uploaded to ${bucketName}.`);
  }
}

uploadManyFilesWithTransferManager().catch(console.error);

The following sample uploads all objects with a common prefix concurrently:

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// The ID of your GCS bucket
// const bucketName = 'your-unique-bucket-name';

// The local directory to upload
// const directoryName = 'your-directory';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage, TransferManager} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

// Creates a transfer manager client
const transferManager = new TransferManager(storage.bucket(bucketName));

async function uploadDirectoryWithTransferManager() {
  // Uploads the directory
  await transferManager.uploadManyFiles(directoryName);

  console.log(`${directoryName} uploaded to ${bucketName}.`);
}

uploadDirectoryWithTransferManager().catch(console.error);

PHP

For more information, see the Cloud Storage PHP API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Upload a file.
 *
 * @param string $bucketName The name of your Cloud Storage bucket.
 *        (e.g. 'my-bucket')
 * @param string $objectName The name of your Cloud Storage object.
 *        (e.g. 'my-object')
 * @param string $source The path to the file to upload.
 *        (e.g. '/path/to/your/file')
 */
function upload_object(string $bucketName, string $objectName, string $source): void
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    if (!$file = fopen($source, 'r')) {
        throw new \InvalidArgumentException('Unable to open file for reading');
    }
    $bucket = $storage->bucket($bucketName);
    $object = $bucket->upload($file, [
        'name' => $objectName
    ]);
    printf('Uploaded %s to gs://%s/%s' . PHP_EOL, basename($source), $bucketName, $objectName);
}

Python

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Python API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

The following sample uploads an individual object:

from google.cloud import storage


def upload_blob(bucket_name, source_file_name, destination_blob_name):
    """Uploads a file to the bucket."""
    # The ID of your GCS bucket
    # bucket_name = "your-bucket-name"
    # The path to your file to upload
    # source_file_name = "local/path/to/file"
    # The ID of your GCS object
    # destination_blob_name = "storage-object-name"

    storage_client = storage.Client()
    bucket = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name)
    blob = bucket.blob(destination_blob_name)

    # Optional: set a generation-match precondition to avoid potential race conditions
    # and data corruptions. The request to upload is aborted if the object's
    # generation number does not match your precondition. For a destination
    # object that does not yet exist, set the if_generation_match precondition to 0.
    # If the destination object already exists in your bucket, set instead a
    # generation-match precondition using its generation number.
    generation_match_precondition = 0

    blob.upload_from_filename(source_file_name, if_generation_match=generation_match_precondition)

    print(
        f"File {source_file_name} uploaded to {destination_blob_name}."
    )

The following sample uploads multiple objects concurrently:

def upload_many_blobs_with_transfer_manager(
    bucket_name, filenames, source_directory="", workers=8
):
    """Upload every file in a list to a bucket, concurrently in a process pool.

    Each blob name is derived from the filename, not including the
    `source_directory` parameter. For complete control of the blob name for each
    file (and other aspects of individual blob metadata), use
    transfer_manager.upload_many() instead.
    """

    # The ID of your GCS bucket
    # bucket_name = "your-bucket-name"

    # A list (or other iterable) of filenames to upload.
    # filenames = ["file_1.txt", "file_2.txt"]

    # The directory on your computer that is the root of all of the files in the
    # list of filenames. This string is prepended (with os.path.join()) to each
    # filename to get the full path to the file. Relative paths and absolute
    # paths are both accepted. This string is not included in the name of the
    # uploaded blob; it is only used to find the source files. An empty string
    # means "the current working directory". Note that this parameter allows
    # directory traversal (e.g. "/", "../") and is not intended for unsanitized
    # end user input.
    # source_directory=""

    # The maximum number of processes to use for the operation. The performance
    # impact of this value depends on the use case, but smaller files usually
    # benefit from a higher number of processes. Each additional process occupies
    # some CPU and memory resources until finished. Threads can be used instead
    # of processes by passing `worker_type=transfer_manager.THREAD`.
    # workers=8

    from google.cloud.storage import Client, transfer_manager

    storage_client = Client()
    bucket = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name)

    results = transfer_manager.upload_many_from_filenames(
        bucket, filenames, source_directory=source_directory, max_workers=workers
    )

    for name, result in zip(filenames, results):
        # The results list is either `None` or an exception for each filename in
        # the input list, in order.

        if isinstance(result, Exception):
            print("Failed to upload {} due to exception: {}".format(name, result))
        else:
            print("Uploaded {} to {}.".format(name, bucket.name))

The following sample uploads all objects with a common prefix concurrently:

def upload_directory_with_transfer_manager(bucket_name, source_directory, workers=8):
    """Upload every file in a directory, including all files in subdirectories.

    Each blob name is derived from the filename, not including the `directory`
    parameter itself. For complete control of the blob name for each file (and
    other aspects of individual blob metadata), use
    transfer_manager.upload_many() instead.
    """

    # The ID of your GCS bucket
    # bucket_name = "your-bucket-name"

    # The directory on your computer to upload. Files in the directory and its
    # subdirectories will be uploaded. An empty string means "the current
    # working directory".
    # source_directory=""

    # The maximum number of processes to use for the operation. The performance
    # impact of this value depends on the use case, but smaller files usually
    # benefit from a higher number of processes. Each additional process occupies
    # some CPU and memory resources until finished. Threads can be used instead
    # of processes by passing `worker_type=transfer_manager.THREAD`.
    # workers=8

    from pathlib import Path

    from google.cloud.storage import Client, transfer_manager

    storage_client = Client()
    bucket = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name)

    # Generate a list of paths (in string form) relative to the `directory`.
    # This can be done in a single list comprehension, but is expanded into
    # multiple lines here for clarity.

    # First, recursively get all files in `directory` as Path objects.
    directory_as_path_obj = Path(source_directory)
    paths = directory_as_path_obj.rglob("*")

    # Filter so the list only includes files, not directories themselves.
    file_paths = [path for path in paths if path.is_file()]

    # These paths are relative to the current working directory. Next, make them
    # relative to `directory`
    relative_paths = [path.relative_to(source_directory) for path in file_paths]

    # Finally, convert them all to strings.
    string_paths = [str(path) for path in relative_paths]

    print("Found {} files.".format(len(string_paths)))

    # Start the upload.
    results = transfer_manager.upload_many_from_filenames(
        bucket, string_paths, source_directory=source_directory, max_workers=workers
    )

    for name, result in zip(string_paths, results):
        # The results list is either `None` or an exception for each filename in
        # the input list, in order.

        if isinstance(result, Exception):
            print("Failed to upload {} due to exception: {}".format(name, result))
        else:
            print("Uploaded {} to {}.".format(name, bucket.name))

Ruby

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Ruby API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

def upload_file bucket_name:, local_file_path:, file_name: nil
  # The ID of your GCS bucket
  # bucket_name = "your-unique-bucket-name"

  # The path to your file to upload
  # local_file_path = "/local/path/to/file.txt"

  # The ID of your GCS object
  # file_name = "your-file-name"

  require "google/cloud/storage"

  storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new
  bucket  = storage.bucket bucket_name, skip_lookup: true

  file = bucket.create_file local_file_path, file_name

  puts "Uploaded #{local_file_path} as #{file.name} in bucket #{bucket_name}"
end

Terraform

# Upload a simple index.html page to the bucket
resource "google_storage_bucket_object" "indexpage" {
  name         = "index.html"
  content      = "<html><body>Hello World!</body></html>"
  content_type = "text/html"
  bucket       = google_storage_bucket.static_website.id
}

# Upload a simple 404 / error page to the bucket
resource "google_storage_bucket_object" "errorpage" {
  name         = "404.html"
  content      = "<html><body>404!</body></html>"
  content_type = "text/html"
  bucket       = google_storage_bucket.static_website.id
}

REST APIs

JSON API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Use cURL to call the JSON API with a POST Object request. For the file index.html uploaded to a bucket named my-static-assets:

    curl -X POST --data-binary @index.html \
      -H "Content-Type: text/html" \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer ya29.AHES6ZRVmB7fkLtd1XTmq6mo0S1wqZZi3-Lh_s-6Uw7p8vtgSwg" \
      "https://storage.googleapis.com/upload/storage/v1/b/my-static-assets/o?uploadType=media&name=index.html"

XML API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Use cURL to call the XML API with a PUT Object request. For the file index.html uploaded to a bucket named my-static-assets:

    curl -X PUT --data-binary @index.html \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer ya29.AHES6ZRVmB7fkLtd1XTmq6mo0S1wqZZi3-Lh_s-6Uw7p8vtgSwg" \
      -H "Content-Type: text/html" \
      "https://storage.googleapis.com/my-static-assets/index.html"

Share your files

To make all objects in your bucket readable to anyone on the public internet:

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Storage Buckets page.

    Go to Buckets

  2. In the list of buckets, click the name of the bucket that you want to make public.

  3. Select the Permissions tab near the top of the page.

  4. If the Public access pane reads Not public, click the button labeled Remove public access prevention and click Confirm in the dialog that appears.

  5. Click the Grant access button.

    The Add principals dialog box appears.

  6. In the New principals field, enter allUsers.

  7. In the Select a role drop down, select the Cloud Storage sub-menu, and click the Storage Object Viewer option.

  8. Click Save.

  9. Click Allow public access.

Once shared publicly, a link icon appears for each object in the public access column. You can click this icon to get the URL for the object.

To learn how to get detailed error information about failed Cloud Storage operations in the Google Cloud console, see Troubleshooting.

Command line

Use the buckets add-iam-policy-binding command:

gcloud storage buckets add-iam-policy-binding  gs://my-static-assets --member=allUsers --role=roles/storage.objectViewer

Client libraries

C++

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C++ API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

namespace gcs = ::google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string const& bucket_name) {
  auto current_policy = client.GetNativeBucketIamPolicy(
      bucket_name, gcs::RequestedPolicyVersion(3));
  if (!current_policy) throw std::move(current_policy).status();

  current_policy->set_version(3);
  current_policy->bindings().emplace_back(
      gcs::NativeIamBinding("roles/storage.objectViewer", {"allUsers"}));

  auto updated =
      client.SetNativeBucketIamPolicy(bucket_name, *current_policy);
  if (!updated) throw std::move(updated).status();

  std::cout << "Policy successfully updated: " << *updated << "\n";
}

C#

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C# API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.


using Google.Apis.Storage.v1.Data;
using Google.Cloud.Storage.V1;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class MakeBucketPublicSample
{
    public void MakeBucketPublic(string bucketName = "your-unique-bucket-name")
    {
        var storage = StorageClient.Create();

        Policy policy = storage.GetBucketIamPolicy(bucketName);

        policy.Bindings.Add(new Policy.BindingsData
        {
            Role = "roles/storage.objectViewer",
            Members = new List<string> { "allUsers" }
        });

        storage.SetBucketIamPolicy(bucketName, policy);
        Console.WriteLine(bucketName + " is now public ");
    }
}

Go

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Go API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/iam"
	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	iampb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/iam/v1"
)

// setBucketPublicIAM makes all objects in a bucket publicly readable.
func setBucketPublicIAM(w io.Writer, bucketName string) error {
	// bucketName := "bucket-name"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %w", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	policy, err := client.Bucket(bucketName).IAM().V3().Policy(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("Bucket(%q).IAM().V3().Policy: %w", bucketName, err)
	}
	role := "roles/storage.objectViewer"
	policy.Bindings = append(policy.Bindings, &iampb.Binding{
		Role:    role,
		Members: []string{iam.AllUsers},
	})
	if err := client.Bucket(bucketName).IAM().V3().SetPolicy(ctx, policy); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("Bucket(%q).IAM().SetPolicy: %w", bucketName, err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Bucket %v is now publicly readable\n", bucketName)
	return nil
}

Java

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Java API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

import com.google.cloud.Identity;
import com.google.cloud.Policy;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageRoles;

public class MakeBucketPublic {
  public static void makeBucketPublic(String projectId, String bucketName) {
    // The ID of your GCP project
    // String projectId = "your-project-id";

    // The ID of your GCS bucket
    // String bucketName = "your-unique-bucket-name";

    Storage storage = StorageOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService();
    Policy originalPolicy = storage.getIamPolicy(bucketName);
    storage.setIamPolicy(
        bucketName,
        originalPolicy
            .toBuilder()
            .addIdentity(StorageRoles.objectViewer(), Identity.allUsers()) // All users can view
            .build());

    System.out.println("Bucket " + bucketName + " is now publicly readable");
  }
}

Node.js

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Node.js API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// The ID of your GCS bucket
// const bucketName = 'your-unique-bucket-name';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

async function makeBucketPublic() {
  await storage.bucket(bucketName).makePublic();

  console.log(`Bucket ${bucketName} is now publicly readable`);
}

makeBucketPublic().catch(console.error);

PHP

For more information, see the Cloud Storage PHP API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Update the specified bucket's IAM configuration to make it publicly accessible.
 *
 * @param string $bucketName The name of your Cloud Storage bucket.
 *        (e.g. 'my-bucket')
 */
function set_bucket_public_iam(string $bucketName): void
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    $bucket = $storage->bucket($bucketName);

    $policy = $bucket->iam()->policy(['requestedPolicyVersion' => 3]);
    $policy['version'] = 3;

    $role = 'roles/storage.objectViewer';
    $members = ['allUsers'];

    $policy['bindings'][] = [
        'role' => $role,
        'members' => $members
    ];

    $bucket->iam()->setPolicy($policy);

    printf('Bucket %s is now public', $bucketName);
}

Python

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Python API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

from typing import List

from google.cloud import storage


def set_bucket_public_iam(
    bucket_name: str = "your-bucket-name",
    members: List[str] = ["allUsers"],
):
    """Set a public IAM Policy to bucket"""
    # bucket_name = "your-bucket-name"

    storage_client = storage.Client()
    bucket = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name)

    policy = bucket.get_iam_policy(requested_policy_version=3)
    policy.bindings.append(
        {"role": "roles/storage.objectViewer", "members": members}
    )

    bucket.set_iam_policy(policy)

    print(f"Bucket {bucket.name} is now publicly readable")

Ruby

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Ruby API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

def set_bucket_public_iam bucket_name:
  # The ID of your GCS bucket
  # bucket_name = "your-unique-bucket-name"

  require "google/cloud/storage"

  storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new
  bucket = storage.bucket bucket_name

  bucket.policy do |p|
    p.add "roles/storage.objectViewer", "allUsers"
  end

  puts "Bucket #{bucket_name} is now publicly readable"
end

Terraform

# Make bucket public by granting allUsers READER access
resource "google_storage_bucket_access_control" "public_rule" {
  bucket = google_storage_bucket.static_website.id
  role   = "READER"
  entity = "allUsers"
}

REST APIs

JSON API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Create a JSON file that contains the following information:

    {
      "bindings":[
        {
          "role": "roles/storage.objectViewer",
          "members":["allUsers"]
        }
      ]
    }
  3. Use cURL to call the JSON API with a PUT Bucket request:

    curl -X PUT --data-binary @JSON_FILE_NAME \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer OAUTH2_TOKEN" \
      -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
      "https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b/BUCKET_NAME/iam"

    Where:

    • JSON_FILE_NAME is the path for the JSON file that you created in Step 2.
    • OAUTH2_TOKEN is the access token you created in Step 1.
    • BUCKET_NAME is the name of the bucket whose objects you want to make public. For example, my-static-assets.

XML API

Making all objects in a bucket publicly readable is not supported by the XML API. Use the Google Cloud console or gcloud storage instead, or set ACLs for each individual object.

To make individual objects in your bucket publicly accessible, you need to switch your bucket's Access control mode to Fine-grained. Generally, making all files in your bucket publicly accessible is easier and faster.

Visitors receive a http 403 response code when requesting the URL for a non-public or non-existent file. See the next section for information on how to add an error page that uses a http 404 response code.

Recommended: assign specialty pages

You can assign an index page suffix and a custom error page, which are known as specialty pages. Assigning either is optional, but if you don't assign an index page suffix and upload the corresponding index page, users who access your top-level site are served an XML document tree containing a list of the public objects in your bucket.

For more information on the behavior of specialty pages, see Specialty pages.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Cloud Storage Buckets page.

    Go to Buckets

  2. In the list of buckets, find the bucket you created.

  3. Click the Bucket overflow menu () associated with the bucket and select Edit website configuration.

  4. In the website configuration dialog, specify the main page and error page.

  5. Click Save.

To learn how to get detailed error information about failed Cloud Storage operations in the Google Cloud console, see Troubleshooting.

Command line

Use the buckets update command with the --web-main-page-suffix and --web-error-page flags.

In the following sample, the MainPageSuffix is set to index.html and NotFoundPage is set to 404.html:

gcloud storage buckets update gs://my-static-assets --web-main-page-suffix=index.html --web-error-page=404.html

If successful, the command returns:

Updating gs://www.example.com/...
  Completed 1

Client libraries

C++

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C++ API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

namespace gcs = ::google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string const& bucket_name,
   std::string const& main_page_suffix, std::string const& not_found_page) {
  StatusOr<gcs::BucketMetadata> original =
      client.GetBucketMetadata(bucket_name);

  if (!original) throw std::move(original).status();
  StatusOr<gcs::BucketMetadata> patched = client.PatchBucket(
      bucket_name,
      gcs::BucketMetadataPatchBuilder().SetWebsite(
          gcs::BucketWebsite{main_page_suffix, not_found_page}),
      gcs::IfMetagenerationMatch(original->metageneration()));
  if (!patched) throw std::move(patched).status();

  if (!patched->has_website()) {
    std::cout << "Static website configuration is not set for bucket "
              << patched->name() << "\n";
    return;
  }

  std::cout << "Static website configuration successfully set for bucket "
            << patched->name() << "\nNew main page suffix is: "
            << patched->website().main_page_suffix
            << "\nNew not found page is: "
            << patched->website().not_found_page << "\n";
}

C#

For more information, see the Cloud Storage C# API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.


using Google.Apis.Storage.v1.Data;
using Google.Cloud.Storage.V1;
using System;

public class BucketWebsiteConfigurationSample
{
    public Bucket BucketWebsiteConfiguration(
        string bucketName = "your-bucket-name",
        string mainPageSuffix = "index.html",
        string notFoundPage = "404.html")
    {
        var storage = StorageClient.Create();
        var bucket = storage.GetBucket(bucketName);

        if (bucket.Website == null)
        {
            bucket.Website = new Bucket.WebsiteData();
        }
        bucket.Website.MainPageSuffix = mainPageSuffix;
        bucket.Website.NotFoundPage = notFoundPage;

        bucket = storage.UpdateBucket(bucket);
        Console.WriteLine($"Static website bucket {bucketName} is set up to use {mainPageSuffix} as the index page and {notFoundPage} as the 404 not found page.");
        return bucket;
    }
}

Go

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Go API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"time"

	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
)

// setBucketWebsiteInfo sets website configuration on a bucket.
func setBucketWebsiteInfo(w io.Writer, bucketName, indexPage, notFoundPage string) error {
	// bucketName := "www.example.com"
	// indexPage := "index.html"
	// notFoundPage := "404.html"
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %w", err)
	}
	defer client.Close()

	ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(ctx, time.Second*10)
	defer cancel()

	bucket := client.Bucket(bucketName)
	bucketAttrsToUpdate := storage.BucketAttrsToUpdate{
		Website: &storage.BucketWebsite{
			MainPageSuffix: indexPage,
			NotFoundPage:   notFoundPage,
		},
	}
	if _, err := bucket.Update(ctx, bucketAttrsToUpdate); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("Bucket(%q).Update: %w", bucketName, err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Static website bucket %v is set up to use %v as the index page and %v as the 404 page\n", bucketName, indexPage, notFoundPage)
	return nil
}

Java

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Java API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

import com.google.cloud.storage.Bucket;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;

public class SetBucketWebsiteInfo {
  public static void setBucketWesbiteInfo(
      String projectId, String bucketName, String indexPage, String notFoundPage) {
    // The ID of your GCP project
    // String projectId = "your-project-id";

    // The ID of your static website bucket
    // String bucketName = "www.example.com";

    // The index page for a static website bucket
    // String indexPage = "index.html";

    // The 404 page for a static website bucket
    // String notFoundPage = "404.html";

    Storage storage = StorageOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService();
    Bucket bucket = storage.get(bucketName);
    bucket.toBuilder().setIndexPage(indexPage).setNotFoundPage(notFoundPage).build().update();

    System.out.println(
        "Static website bucket "
            + bucketName
            + " is set up to use "
            + indexPage
            + " as the index page and "
            + notFoundPage
            + " as the 404 page");
  }
}

Node.js

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Node.js API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// The ID of your GCS bucket
// const bucketName = 'your-unique-bucket-name';

// The name of the main page
// const mainPageSuffix = 'http://example.com';

// The Name of a 404 page
// const notFoundPage = 'http://example.com/404.html';

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

async function addBucketWebsiteConfiguration() {
  await storage.bucket(bucketName).setMetadata({
    website: {
      mainPageSuffix,
      notFoundPage,
    },
  });

  console.log(
    `Static website bucket ${bucketName} is set up to use ${mainPageSuffix} as the index page and ${notFoundPage} as the 404 page`
  );
}

addBucketWebsiteConfiguration().catch(console.error);

PHP

For more information, see the Cloud Storage PHP API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Update the given bucket's website configuration.
 *
 * @param string $bucketName The name of your Cloud Storage bucket.
 *        (e.g. 'my-bucket')
 * @param string $indexPageObject the name of an object in the bucket to use as
 *        (e.g. 'index.html')
 *     an index page for a static website bucket.
 * @param string $notFoundPageObject the name of an object in the bucket to use
 *        (e.g. '404.html')
 *     as the 404 Not Found page.
 */
function define_bucket_website_configuration(string $bucketName, string $indexPageObject, string $notFoundPageObject): void
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    $bucket = $storage->bucket($bucketName);

    $bucket->update([
        'website' => [
            'mainPageSuffix' => $indexPageObject,
            'notFoundPage' => $notFoundPageObject
        ]
    ]);

    printf(
        'Static website bucket %s is set up to use %s as the index page and %s as the 404 page.',
        $bucketName,
        $indexPageObject,
        $notFoundPageObject
    );
}

Python

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Python API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

from google.cloud import storage


def define_bucket_website_configuration(bucket_name, main_page_suffix, not_found_page):
    """Configure website-related properties of bucket"""
    # bucket_name = "your-bucket-name"
    # main_page_suffix = "index.html"
    # not_found_page = "404.html"

    storage_client = storage.Client()

    bucket = storage_client.get_bucket(bucket_name)
    bucket.configure_website(main_page_suffix, not_found_page)
    bucket.patch()

    print(
        "Static website bucket {} is set up to use {} as the index page and {} as the 404 page".format(
            bucket.name, main_page_suffix, not_found_page
        )
    )
    return bucket

Ruby

For more information, see the Cloud Storage Ruby API reference documentation.

To authenticate to Cloud Storage, set up Application Default Credentials. For more information, see Set up authentication for a local development environment.

def define_bucket_website_configuration bucket_name:, main_page_suffix:, not_found_page:
  # The ID of your static website bucket
  # bucket_name = "www.example.com"

  # The index page for a static website bucket
  # main_page_suffix = "index.html"

  # The 404 page for a static website bucket
  # not_found_page = "404.html"

  require "google/cloud/storage"

  storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new
  bucket = storage.bucket bucket_name

  bucket.update do |b|
    b.website_main = main_page_suffix
    b.website_404 = not_found_page
  end

  puts "Static website bucket #{bucket_name} is set up to use #{main_page_suffix} as the index page and " \
       "#{not_found_page} as the 404 page"
end

REST APIs

JSON API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Create a JSON file that sets the mainPageSuffix and notFoundPage properties in a website object to the desired pages.

    In the following sample, the mainPageSuffix is set to index.html and notFoundPage is set to 404.html:

    {
      "website":{
        "mainPageSuffix": "index.html",
        "notFoundPage": "404.html"
      }
    }
  3. Use cURL to call the JSON API with a PATCH Bucket request. For the bucket my-static-assets:

    curl -X PATCH --data-binary @web-config.json \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer ya29.AHES6ZRVmB7fkLtd1XTmq6mo0S1wqZZi3-Lh_s-6Uw7p8vtgSwg" \
      -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
      "https://storage.googleapis.com/storage/v1/b/my-static-assets"

XML API

  1. Get an authorization access token from the OAuth 2.0 Playground. Configure the playground to use your own OAuth credentials. For instructions, see API authentication.
  2. Create an XML file that sets the MainPageSuffix and NotFoundPage elements in a WebsiteConfiguration element to the desired pages.

    In the following sample, the MainPageSuffix is set to index.html and NotFoundPage is set to 404.html:

    <WebsiteConfiguration>
      <MainPageSuffix>index.html</MainPageSuffix>
      <NotFoundPage>404.html</NotFoundPage>
    </WebsiteConfiguration>
  3. Use cURL to call the XML API with a PUT Bucket request and websiteConfig query string parameter. For my-static-assets:

    curl -X PUT --data-binary @web-config.xml \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer ya29.AHES6ZRVmB7fkLtd1XTmq6mo0S1wqZZi3-Lh_s-6Uw7p8vtgSwg" \
      https://storage.googleapis.com/my-static-assets?websiteConfig

Set up your load balancer and SSL certificate

Cloud Storage doesn't support custom domains with HTTPS on its own, so you also need to set up an SSL certificate attached to an HTTPS load balancer to serve your website through HTTPS. This section shows you how to add your bucket to a load balancer's backend and how to add a new Google-managed SSL certificate to the load balancer's front end.

  1. Go to the Load balancing page in the Google Cloud console.
    Go to Load balancing
  2. On the Application Load Balancer (HTTP/S) card, click Start configuration.
  3. Select From Internet to my VMs or serverless services.
  4. Select Global external Application Load Balancer.
  5. Click Continue.

    The configuration window for your load balancer appears.

  6. Before continuing with the configuration, give your load balancer a Name, such as example-lb.

Configure the frontend

This section shows you how to configure the HTTPS protocol and create an SSL certificate. You can also select an existing certificate or upload a self-managed SSL certificate.

  1. Click Frontend configuration.
  2. (Optional) Give your frontend configuration a Name.
  3. For Protocol, select HTTPS (includes HTTP/2).
  4. For IP version, select IPv4. If you prefer IPv6, see IPv6 termination for additional information.
  5. For the IP address field:

    • In the dropdown, click Create IP address.
    • In the Reserve a new static IP address pop-up, enter a name, such as example-ip for the Name of the IP address.
    • Click Reserve.
  6. For Port, select 443.

  7. In the Certificate field dropdown, select Create a new certificate. The certificate creation form appears in a panel. Configure the following:

    • Give your certificate a Name, such as example-ssl.
    • For Create mode, select Create Google-managed certificate.
    • For Domains, enter your website name, such as www.example.com. If you want to serve your content through additional domains such as the root domain example.com, press Enter to add them on additional lines. Each certificate has a limit of 100 domains.
  8. Click Create.

  9. (Optional) If you want Google Cloud to automatically set up a partial HTTP load balancer for redirecting HTTP traffic, select the checkbox next to Enable HTTP to HTTPS redirect.

  10. Click Done.

Configure the backend

  1. Click Backend configuration.
  2. In the Backend services & backend buckets dropdown, click Create a backend bucket.
  3. Choose a Backend bucket name, such as example-bucket. The name you choose can be different from the name of the bucket you created earlier.
  4. Click Browse, found in the Cloud Storage bucket field.
  5. Select the my-static-assets bucket you created earlier, and click Select.
  6. (Optional) If you want to use Cloud CDN, select the checkbox for Enable Cloud CDN and configure Cloud CDN as desired. Note that Cloud CDN may incur additional costs.
  7. Click Create.

Configure routing rules

Routing rules are the components of an external Application Load Balancer's URL map. For this tutorial, you should skip this portion of the load balancer configuration, because it is automatically set to use the backend you just configured.

Review the configuration

  1. Click Review and finalize.
  2. Review the Frontend, Routing rules, and Backend.
  3. Click Create.

You may need to wait a few minutes for the load balancer to be created.

Connect your domain to your load balancer

After the load balancer is created, click the name of your load balancer: example-lb. Note the IP address associated with the load balancer: for example, 30.90.80.100. To point your domain to your load balancer, create an A record using your domain registration service. If you added multiple domains to your SSL certificate, you must add an A record for each one, all pointing to the load balancer's IP address. For example, to create A records for www.example.com and example.com:

NAME                  TYPE     DATA
www                   A        30.90.80.100
@                     A        30.90.80.100

It might take up to 60-90 minutes for Google Cloud to provision the certificate and make the site available through the load balancer. To monitor the status of your certificate:

Console

  1. Go to the Load balancing page in the Google Cloud console.
    Go to Load balancing
  2. Click the name of your load balancer: example-lb.
  3. Click the name of the SSL certificate associated with the load balancer: example-ssl.
  4. The Status and Domain status rows show the certificate status. Both must be active in order for the certificate to be valid for your website.

Command line

  1. To check the certificate status, run the following command:

    gcloud compute ssl-certificates describe CERTIFICATE_NAME \
      --global \
      --format="get(name,managed.status)"
    
  2. To check the domain status, run the following command:

    gcloud compute ssl-certificates describe CERTIFICATE_NAME \
      --global \
      --format="get(managed.domainStatus)"
    

See Troubleshooting SSL certificates for more information about certificate status.

Test the website

Once the SSL certificate is active, verify that content is served from the bucket by going to https://www.example.com/test.html, where test.html is an object stored in the bucket that you're using as the backend. If you set the MainPageSuffix property, https://www.example.com goes to index.html.

Clean up

After you finish the tutorial, you can clean up the resources that you created so that they stop using quota and incurring charges. The following sections describe how to delete or turn off these resources.

Delete the project

The easiest way to eliminate billing is to delete the project that you created for the tutorial.

To delete the project:

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Manage resources page.

    Go to Manage resources

  2. In the project list, select the project that you want to delete, and then click Delete.
  3. In the dialog, type the project ID, and then click Shut down to delete the project.

Delete the load balancer and bucket

If you don't want to delete the entire project, delete the load balancer and bucket that you created for the tutorial:

  1. Go to the Load balancing page in the Google Cloud console.
    Go to Load balancing
  2. Select the checkbox next to example-lb.
  3. Click Delete.
  4. (Optional) Select the checkbox next to the resources you want to delete along with the load balancer, such as the my-static-assets bucket or the example-ssl SSL certificate.
  5. Click Delete load balancer or Delete load balancer and the selected resources.

Release a reserved IP address

To delete the reserved IP address you used for the tutorial:

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the External IP addresses page.

    Go to External IP addresses

  2. Select the checkboxes next to example-ip.

  3. Click Release static address.

  4. In the confirmation window, click Delete.

What's next

Try it for yourself

If you're new to Google Cloud, create an account to evaluate how Cloud Storage performs in real-world scenarios. New customers also get $300 in free credits to run, test, and deploy workloads.

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