To support common use cases like setting a Time to Live (TTL) for objects, retaining noncurrent versions of objects, or "downgrading" storage classes of objects to help manage costs, Cloud Storage offers the Object Lifecycle Management feature.
This page describes the feature as well as the options available when using it. For the general format of a lifecycle configuration file, see the bucket resource representation for JSON or the lifecycle configuration format for XML.
You can assign a lifecycle management configuration to a bucket. The configuration contains a set of rules which apply to current and future objects in the bucket. When an object meets the criteria of one of the rules, Cloud Storage automatically performs a specified action on the object. Here are some example use cases:
- Downgrade the storage class of objects older than 365 days to Coldline Storage.
- Delete objects created before January 1, 2013.
- Keep only the 3 most recent versions of each object in a bucket with versioning enabled.
Each lifecycle management configuration contains a set of rules. When defining a rule, you can specify any set of conditions for any action. If you specify multiple conditions in a rule, an object has to match all of the conditions for the action to be taken. If you specify multiple rules that contain the same action, the action is taken when an object matches the condition(s) in any of the rules. Each rule should contain only one action.
If multiple rules have their conditions satisfied simultaneously for a single object, Cloud Storage performs the action associated with only one of the rules, based on the following considerations:
Deleteaction takes precedence over any
SetStorageClassaction that switches the object to the storage class with the lowest at-rest storage pricing takes precedence.
Once an action occurs, the object is re-evaluated before any additional actions are taken.
So, for example, if you have one rule that deletes an object and another rule that changes the object's storage class, but both rules use the exact same condition, the delete action always occurs when the condition is met. If you have one rule that changes the object's class to Nearline Storage and another rule that changes the object's class to Coldline Storage, but both rules use the exact same condition, the object's class always changes to Coldline Storage when the condition is met.
See Managing object lifecycles for examples of using lifecycle configurations.
Delete action deletes an object when the object meets all conditions
specified in the lifecycle rule.
Exception: In buckets with Object Versioning enabled, deleting the live
version of an object causes it to become a noncurrent version, while deleting
a noncurrent version deletes that version permanently. See the
configuration for deleting objects for an example of using the
action along with Object Versioning.
SetStorageClass action changes the storage class of an object when
the object meets all conditions specified in the lifecycle rule.
SetStorageClass supports the following storage class transitions:
|Original storage class||New storage class|
|Durable Reduced Availability (DRA) Storage||Nearline StorageColdline StorageArchive StorageMulti-Regional Storage/Regional Storage1|
|Standard Storage, Multi-Regional Storage, or Regional Storage||Nearline StorageColdline StorageArchive Storage|
|Nearline Storage||Coldline StorageArchive Storage|
|Coldline Storage||Archive Storage|
1 For buckets in a region, the new storage class cannot be Multi-Regional Storage. For buckets in a multi-region or dual-region, the new storage class cannot be Regional Storage.
Cloud Storage does not validate correctness of the storage class transition. This means that you can specify a storage class transition not listed in the above table, but the transition will not occur. You should verify that your lifecycle rules use one of the listed storage class transitions.
A lifecycle rule includes conditions which an object must meet before the action defined in the rule occurs on the object. Lifecycle rules support the following conditions:
All conditions are optional, but at least one condition is required. If you
attempt to set an invalid lifecycle configuration, such as by using an action or
condition that does not exist, you receive a
400 Bad request error response,
and any existing lifecycle configuration remains in place.
Age condition is satisfied when an object reaches the specified age (in
days). Age is measured from the object's creation time. For example, if an
object's creation time is 2019/01/10 10:00 UTC and the
Age condition is 10
days, then the condition is satisfied for the object on and after 2019/01/20
10:00 UTC. This is true even if the object becomes noncurrent through Object
Versioning sometime after its creation.
CreatedBefore condition is satisfied when an object is created before
midnight of the specified date in UTC.
CustomTimeBefore condition is satisfied when the date portion of an
Custom-Time metadata is earlier than the date specified
in this condition. This condition is set using the date format
CustomTimeBefore is never satisfied for an object with no
DaysSinceCustomTime condition is satisfied when the specified number of
days have passed since the date and time specified in an object's
Custom-Time metadata field. For example, if an object's
2020-05-16T10:00:00Z and the
DaysSinceCustomTime condition is 10 days, then
the condition is satisfied for the object on and after 2020/05/26 10:00 UTC.
DaysSinceCustomTime is never satisfied for an object with no
DaysSinceNoncurrentTime condition is typically only used in conjunction
with Object Versioning. The condition is satisfied when the specified
number of days have passed since the object became noncurrent, either because
the live version was deleted or replaced. For example, if an object became
noncurrent at 2020/07/08 15:00 UTC and the
is 10 days, then the condition is satisfied for the object on and after
2020/07/18 15:00 UTC.
IsLive condition is typically only used in conjunction with
Object Versioning. When set to
false, this condition is satisfied for any
noncurrent version of an object. When set to
true, this condition is satisfied
for the live version of an object. If you don't use versioning, all your
objects are considered live and match when IsLive is
MatchesStorageClass condition is satisfied when an object in the bucket is
stored as the specified storage class. You can use the following values for
Generally, if you intend to use the
MatchesStorageClass condition on
Standard Storage objects, you should also include the following:
If the bucket is in a region, include
DURABLE_REDUCED_AVAILABILITYin the condition.
If the bucket is in a multi-region or dual-region, include
DURABLE_REDUCED_AVAILABILITYin the condition.
Including these additional classes ensures the lifecycle rule covers older objects in your buckets which may be set to legacy storage classes.
NoncurrentTimeBefore condition is typically only used in conjunction
with Object Versioning. The condition is satisfied for objects that became
noncurrent on a date prior to the one specified in this condition. The
condition is set using the date format
never satisfied for a live object.
NumberOfNewerVersions condition is typically only used in conjunction with
Object Versioning. If the value of this condition is set to N, an object
version satisfies the condition when there are at least N versions (including
the live version) newer than it. For a live object version, the number of newer
versions is considered to be 0. For the most recent noncurrent version, the
number of newer versions is 1 (or 0 if there is no live object version), and so
Object lifecycle behavior
If a lifecycle configuration rule deletes millions of objects in a bucket at the same time, object listing performance could be severely degraded after the deletions occur.
Cloud Storage regularly inspects all the objects in a bucket for which Object Lifecycle Management is configured and performs all actions applicable according to the bucket's rules. Cloud Storage performs an action asynchronously, so there can be a lag between when the conditions are satisfied and when the action is taken. Note that your applications should not rely on lifecycle actions occurring within a certain amount of time after a lifecycle condition is met.
For example, if an object meets the conditions for deletion, the object might not be deleted right away, and you see the object until the lifecycle action is executed on the object. In buckets with Object Versioning enabled, this means that a live object will exist in a noncurrent state for some amount of time, even if a rule is configured to delete both live and noncurrent objects.
- Applicable charges still apply while the object remains in its
original state, with one exception: at-rest storage costs are waived if
the object is subject to a rule with a
Deleteaction, the only condition for the rule is an
Agecondition, and that
Agecondition is satisfied for the object.
- Applicable charges still apply while the object remains in its original state, with one exception: at-rest storage costs are waived if the object is subject to a rule with a
Updates to your lifecycle configuration may take up to 24 hours to go into effect. This means that when you change your lifecycle configuration, Object Lifecycle Management may still perform actions based on the old configuration for up to 24 hours.
For example, if you change an
Agecondition from 10 days to 20 days, an object that is 11 days old could be deleted by Object Lifecycle Management up to 24 hours later, due to the criteria of the old configuration.
An object lifecycle
Deleteaction will not take effect on an object while the object either has an object hold placed on it or a retention policy that it has not yet fulfilled. Any
Deleteaction that would occur while an object had a hold or retention policy restriction instead occurs after the restrictions no longer apply to the object.
An object lifecycle
SetStorageClassaction is not affected by the existence of object holds or retention policies.
SetStorageClass cost considerations
Unlike changing an object's storage class manually, using
not rewrite an object. This gives Object Lifecycle Management certain pricing
There are no retrieval fees or early deletion fees associated with the storage class change, even when the object is originally set to Nearline Storage or Coldline Storage.
The object's time spent set at the original storage class counts towards any minimum storage duration that applies for the new storage class.
For example, say you upload an object as Nearline Storage, and 20 days later your lifecycle configuration changes the storage class of the object to Coldline Storage. This change incurs no retrieval or early deletion fees. If you then delete the object 60 days after the storage class change, there is only a 10-day early deletion charge, since Coldline Storage has a 90-day minimum storage duration, and the object existed for a total of 80 days.
In comparison, say you upload an object as Nearline Storage, and 20 days later change the storage class using a rewrite (again to Coldline Storage). This change incurs both a retrieval fee and a 10-day early deletion charge. If you then delete the object 60 days after the rewrite, there is a 30-day early deletion charge.
Object creation time
In many cases, an object's upload completes soon after it begins; however, for uploads that occur over multiple requests, such as resumable uploads, there can be days between when the initial upload request is sent and when the final upload request is sent. In such cases, you should keep in mind the following:
- An object is not subject to lifecycle rules until after its upload completes.
- An object's creation time is based on when the upload completes. This impacts
- When you set a
Custom-Timefor the object, you do so at the beginning of the upload. If you set a
Custom-Timebased on the time of the request, the
Custom-Timecould be much earlier than the object's creation time. This impacts the
Expiration time metadata
Delete action is specified for a bucket with the
Age condition (and no
other conditions besides
matchesStorageClass), then some objects may be tagged
with expiration time metadata. An object's expiration time indicates the time at
which the object becomes (or became) eligible for deletion by Object Lifecycle
Management. The expiration time may change as the bucket's lifecycle
configuration or retention policy change.
Note that the absence of expiration time metadata does not necessarily mean
the object will not be deleted, but rather that not enough information is
available to determine when or if it will be deleted. For example, if the object
creation time is 2020/01/10 10:00 UTC and the
Age condition is set
to 10 days, then the object expiration time is 2020/01/20 10:00 UTC. However,
the expiration time is not available for the object if:
There are other conditions specified in the
Deleterule, with the exception of
You use a
matchesStorageClasscondition that does not include the object's storage class.
The object is under a hold, because Cloud Storage cannot know when the hold will be removed.
You are not charged for storage after the object expiration time even if the object is not deleted immediately. You can continue to access the object before it is deleted and are responsible for other charges (request, network bandwidth). If the expiration time is not available for an object, the object is charged for storage until the time it is deleted.
When working with expiration times, keep in mind the following:
If the bucket has a retention policy, the expiration time is the later of the Object Lifecycle Management
Agecondition and the time the object satisfies the retention period specified by the retention policy.
If there are multiple conflicting expiration times applicable for an object due to different lifecycle management rules, then the earliest applicable expiration time is used.
Options for tracking Lifecycle actions
To track the lifecycle management actions that Cloud Storage takes, use one of the following options:
Use Cloud Storage usage logs. This feature logs both the action and who performed the action. A value of
GCS Lifecycle Managementin the
cs_user_agentfield of the log entry indicates the action was taken by Cloud Storage in accordance with a lifecycle configuration.
Enable Pub/Sub Notifications for Cloud Storage for your bucket. This feature sends notifications to a Pub/Sub topic of your choice when specified actions occur. Note that this feature does not record who performed the actions.
- Enable Object Lifecycle Management.
- Review the general format of a lifecycle configuration in JSON API requests and XML API requests.