This page explains the concept of bucket location and the different locations where you can create buckets. To learn how to set the location for your bucket, see Creating Storage Buckets. To learn how to change a bucket's location, see Moving and Renaming Buckets.
Overview of bucket locations
In Google Cloud Storage, you create a bucket to store your data. A bucket has three
properties that you specify when you create it: a globally unique name, a
default storage class, and a location where the bucket and its
contents are stored. For example, if you specify the location
(Belgium) when you create bucket A, then bucket A and any objects in bucket
A are stored on servers in Belgium. When you specify a location, Google
will keep it there in accordance with our Service Specific Terms.
Typically, a good location for your bucket balances latency, availability, and bandwidth costs for applications and users of the bucket data. For more information, see Choosing the best location for your data.
For a world map showing the locations of Google Cloud Platform services, see the Cloud Locations page.
Types of locations
There are two types of locations where you can create buckets: regional locations and multi-regional locations.
Note that this terminology is distinct from the storage classes
Regional Storage and Multi-Regional Storage; however,
these storage classes must be created in a location of equivalent type. For
example, if you want to create a bucket that has the default storage class
Regional Storage, such a bucket must be created in a regional
location, such as
us-east1. For more information about storage classes,
see the Storage Classes page.
A regional location is a specific geographic place, such as Council Bluffs, IA. The following regional locations are available:
|Region Name||Region Description|
* For customers using the São Paulo region, all regional product SLAs will remain in force. However, multi-region and cross-region functionality spanning North America and South America may temporarily have reduced availability or performance.
All regional locations are separated from other regional locations by at least 100 miles.
Storage classes in regional locations
Regional Storage data is stored in a bucket created in a regional location. Such data is placed in a single geographic location within the specified region.
Nearline Storage or Coldline Storage data can be stored in a bucket created in either a regional location or a multi-regional location. When Nearline Storage or Coldline Storage data is stored in a regional location, it is placed in a single geographic location within the specified region.
You cannot store Multi-Regional Storage data in a bucket created in a regional location.
A multi-regional location is a general geographical area, such as the United States. Multi-regional locations consist of regional locations and any additional Google data centers that reside within the geographical area of the multi-region. The following multi-regional locations are available:
|Multi-Region Name||Multi-Region Description|
Storage classes in multi-regional locations
Multi-Regional Storage data is stored in a bucket created in a multi-regional location. Multi-Regional Storage data is geo-redundant. This means that the data is redundant in two or more geographic locations separated by at least 100 miles, while still remaining solely in the specified multi-region.
Nearline Storage or Coldline Storage data can be stored in a bucket created in either a multi-regional location or a regional location. When Nearline Storage or Coldline Storage data is stored in a multi-regional location, it is placed somewhere within the geographic area that makes up the multi-region but is not geo-redundant.
You cannot store Regional Storage data in a bucket created in a multi-regional location.
Choosing the best location for your data
Regional locations allow you to store your data in a specific region. You can use a bucket placed in a regional location when you need to optimize latency, availability, and network bandwidth costs for an application in the same region. Data stored in regional locations can still be read globally, but if your bucket data is going to be used primarily by clients outside the region, use a multi-regional location instead.
All Cloud Storage and Google Cloud Platform resources in a region share the same network fabric, which reduces the latency and improves the bandwidth of other regional resources accessing specific-region bucket data. Scenarios for storing data in a regional location include:
- Data Processing and Analysis
You can place your Regional Storage data within the same region as your Compute Engine instances that you use for data analysis and processing. Doing so gives you better performance for data-intensive computations, as opposed to storing your data in a multi-regional location. In addition, storing your data in a regional location in this scenario can reduce network charges.
If your application isn't sensitive to data availability, for example, batch processing pipelines or data backups, then you can use the Nearline Storage class for your bucket.
- Disaster Recovery or Archiving
With a bucket configured for Coldline Storage, you can prepare for a disaster recovery event by placing your data in a region where you would need to recover it, decreasing recovery time and ensuring low-latency access. You can use several buckets placed in different regions together as part of a coordinated, global disaster recovery infrastructure. For examples, see Disaster Recovery Cookbook.
For an archiving application, you can create a Nearline Storage or Coldline Storage bucket that is located geographically close to the data to be archived, thereby reducing network bandwidth charges.
For more information about geography and regions across services in Google Cloud Platform, including zones, see Geography and Regions.
Data stored in a multi-regional location whose storage class is Multi-Regional Storage is redundant in at least two geographic locations separated by at least 100 miles. This provides maximum accessibility of your data, even in the event of large-scale disruptions, such as natural disasters. Multi-Regional Storage storage is useful for:
- Serving multimedia worldwide
For serving web or mobile content, particularly multimedia, across a continent or the world, storing your data in a multi-regional location maximizes performance and accessibility for end-users.
If your application cannot tolerate the unavailability of data in a single geographic location, use a multi-regional location with the Multi-Regional Storage class. Geo-redundancy occurs asynchronously, but Multi-Regional Storage data is still redundant within at least one geographic location as soon as you upload it and is immediately accessible worldwide.
Data stored in a multi-regional location whose storage class is Nearline Storage or Coldline Storage is stored somewhere within the geographic area that makes up the specified multi-region. This allows Google to optimally balance availability, performance, and resource efficiency on your behalf.
If you don't have a specific application use or regional need for your data, then store your Nearline Storage or Coldline Storage data in a multi-regional location that is convenient or contains the majority of the users of your data.
us-central2— Central United States