This page explains the concept of bucket location and the different regional locations where buckets can be created. To learn how to set the location for your bucket, see Creating Storage Buckets. To learn how to view or change a bucket's location, see Managing Buckets.
Overview of bucket locations
In Google Cloud Storage, you create a bucket to store your data. A bucket has three properties that you specify when you create it: a globally unique name, a storage class, and a location where the bucket and its contents are stored.
A bucket location can be a multi-region location or a regional location. Typically, a good location for your bucket balances latency, availability, and bandwidth costs for applications and users of the bucket data. For more information, see Choosing the best location for your data.
Types of locations
A property of a bucket that specifies where data in the bucket is stored, either a multi-region or regional location. When you specify a location, Google will keep it there in accordance with our Service Specific Terms.
Each bucket you create in Google Cloud Storage has a location setting. For example, if you specify the location
eu(European Union) when you create bucket A, then bucket A and any objects in bucket A are stored on servers in the European Union.
- Multi-region Location
A location that spans multiple regional locations. You can configure a bucket for all storage classes in the following multi-region locations:
asia— Asia Pacific
eu— European Union
us— United States
- Regional Location
A specific geographic location within a multi-region location. You can create a bucket configured for all storage classes in the following regional locations:
asia-east1— Eastern Asia-Pacific
europe-west1— Western Europe
us-central1— Central United States
us-east1— Eastern United States
You can create a bucket configured for Durable Reduced Availability (DRA) Storage only in the following Alpha release regional locations.
us-central2*— Central United States
us-east2*— Eastern United States
us-east3*— Eastern United States
us-west1*— Western United States
An isolated location within a region where you can create Google Compute Engine instances. A zone within a region is independent of other zones in the same region. All Compute Engine instances created within zones in the same region have similar performance accessing Google Cloud Storage.
You can't specify a bucket location as a zone, but regional Google Cloud Storage buckets automatically store multiple copies of objects in optimized zones within the region.
Choosing the best location for your data
Data stored in a Google Cloud Storage multi-region location is distributed across regions. This allows Google to optimally balance availability, performance, and resource efficiency on your behalf.
If you don't have a specific application use or regional need for your data, then store your data in a multi-region location that is convenient or includes the majority of the data client. Additionally, if your application cannot tolerate the possible loss of data in a single region, use a multi-region location. For more information about using multi-region services in Google Cloud Platform, see Geography and Regions.
Regional buckets allow you to locate your data in a specific region within a multi-region location. You can use a regional bucket when you need to optimize latency, availability, and network bandwidth costs for an application in a specific region. Data stored in a regional bucket can still be read globally, but if your bucket data is going to be used primarily by clients outside the region, use a multi-region location instead.
All Google Cloud Storage and Google Cloud Platform resources in a region share the same network fabric, which reduces the latency and improves the bandwidth of other regional resources accessing regional bucket data. Scenarios for using a regional bucket include:
- Data Processing and Analysis
You can place your Standard Storage data within the same region as your Compute Engine instances that you use for data analysis and processing. Doing so gives you better performance for data-intensive computations, as opposed to storing your data in a multi-region location. In addition, using a regional bucket in this scenario can reduce network charges.
If your application isn't sensitive to data availability, for example, batch processing pipelines or data backups, then you can use the Durable Reduced Availability (DRA) Storage class for your regional bucket.
- Disaster Recovery or Archiving
With a regional bucket configured for Nearline Storage, you can prepare for a disaster recovery event by placing your data in a region where you would need to recover it, decreasing recovery time and ensuring low latency access. You can use several regional buckets together as part of a coordinated, global disaster recovery infrastructure. For examples, see Disaster Recovery Cookbook.
For an archiving application, you can create a regional Nearline Storage bucket that is located geographically close to the data to be archived, thereby reducing network bandwidth charges.
- Web and Mobile Serving
For a serving use case that is latency sensitive, you can use a regional Standard Storage bucket. Doing so offers more predictable performance versus data stored in a multi-region location. If your data is used primarily to serve content for web or mobile clients beyond a single region, then a multi-region location for your data might be better.