使用 Cloud Storage 工具执行 V4 签名流程

本页面介绍如何使用 gsutil 和 Cloud Storage 客户端库轻松生成签名网址。签名网址可提供带有时限的读取或写入访问权限,供用户访问特定的 Cloud Storage 资源。拥有签名网址的任何人都可以在其有效时限内使用该网址,无论是否有 Google 帐号。如需详细了解签名网址,请参阅签名网址概览。要自行创建签名网址,请参阅使用自己的程序执行 V4 签名流程

要生成签名网址,请执行以下操作:

gsutil

  1. 生成新的私钥,或使用现有私钥作为服务帐号。密钥可以是 JSON 或 PKCS12 格式。

    如需详细了解私钥和服务帐号,请参阅服务帐号

  2. 使用 gsutil signurl 命令,传入上一步中所获得私钥的路径,以及要为其生成签名网址的存储分区或对象的名称。

    例如,通过使用存储在 Desktop 文件夹中的密钥,以下命令会生成一个签名网址,供用户在 10 分钟的时间内查看对象 cat.jpeg

    gsutil signurl -d 10m Desktop/private-key.json gs://example-bucket/cat.jpeg

如果成功,响应应如下所示:

URL    HTTP Method    Expiration    Signed URL
gs://example-bucket/cat.jpeg GET 2018-10-26 15:19:52 https://storage.googleapis.
com/example-bucket/cat.jpeg?x-goog-signature=2d2a6f5055eb004b8690b9479883292ae74
50cdc15f17d7f99bc49b916f9e7429106ed7e5858ae6b4ab0bbbdb1a8ccc364dad3a0da2caebd308
87a70c5b2569d089ceb8afbde3eed4dff5086f0db5483998c175980991fe899fbd2cd8cb813b0016
5e8d56e0a8aa7b3d7a12ee1baa8400611040f05b50a1a8eab5ba223fe1375747748de950ec7a4dc5
0f8382a6ffd4994ac42498d7daa703d9a414d4475154d0e7edaa92d4f2507d92c1f7e8efa7cab64d
f68b5df48575b9259d8d0bdb5dc752bdf07bd162d98ff2924f2e4a26fa6b3cede73ad5333c47d146
a21c2ab2d97115986a12c68ff37346d6c2ca83e56b8ec8ad95632710b489b75c35697d781c38e&
x-goog-algorithm=GOOG4-RSA-SHA256&x-goog-credential=example%40example-project.
iam.gserviceaccount.com%2F20181026%2Fus%2Fstorage%2Fgoog4_request&x-goog-date=
20181026T211942Z&x-goog-expires=3600&x-goog-signedheaders=host

签名网址是以 https://storage.googleapis.com 开头的字符串(可能会延伸多行)。此网址可供任何人用来在指定时间范围内(在本例中为 10 分钟)访问相关资源(在本例中为 cat.jpeg)。

代码示例

以下示例专门展示了如何创建可从 Cloud Storage 获取对象的签名网址。

C++

如需了解详情,请参阅 Cloud Storage C++ API 参考文档

namespace gcs = google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string bucket_name, std::string object_name) {
  StatusOr<std::string> signed_url = client.CreateV4SignedUrl(
      "GET", std::move(bucket_name), std::move(object_name),
      gcs::SignedUrlDuration(std::chrono::minutes(15)));

  if (!signed_url) {
    throw std::runtime_error(signed_url.status().message());
  }

  std::cout << "The signed url is: " << *signed_url << "\n\n"
            << "You can use this URL with any user agent, for example:\n"
            << "curl '" << *signed_url << "'\n";
}

Java

如需了解详情,请参阅 Cloud Storage Java API 参考文档

// Instantiate a Google Cloud Storage client
Storage storage = StorageOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

// The name of a bucket, e.g. "my-bucket"
// String bucketName = "my-bucket";

// The name of an object, e.g. "my-object"
// String objectName = "my-object";

// Define resource
BlobInfo blobinfo = BlobInfo.newBuilder(BlobId.of(bucketName, objectName)).build();

// Generate Signed URL
URL url =
    storage.signUrl(blobinfo, 15, TimeUnit.MINUTES, Storage.SignUrlOption.withV4Signature());

System.out.println("Generated GET signed URL:");
System.out.println(url);
System.out.println("You can use this URL with any user agent, for example:");
System.out.println("curl '" + url + "'");

Node.js

如需了解详情,请参阅 Cloud Storage Node.js API 参考文档

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const bucketName = 'Name of a bucket, e.g. my-bucket';
// const filename = 'File to access, e.g. file.txt';

// These options will allow temporary read access to the file
const options = {
  version: 'v4',
  action: 'read',
  expires: Date.now() + 15 * 60 * 1000, // 15 minutes
};

// Get a v4 signed URL for reading the file
const [url] = await storage
  .bucket(bucketName)
  .file(filename)
  .getSignedUrl(options);

console.log('Generated GET signed URL:');
console.log(url);
console.log('You can use this URL with any user agent, for example:');
console.log(`curl '${url}'`);

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