Prebuilt containers for custom training

Vertex AI provides Docker container images that you run as prebuilt containers for custom training. These containers, which are organized by machine learning (ML) framework and framework version, include common dependencies that you might want to use in training code. Often, using a prebuilt container is simpler than creating your own custom container for training.

This document lists the prebuilt containers for training, and it describes how to use them with a Python training application.

Vertex AI supports each framework version based on a schedule to minimize security vulnerabilities. Review the Vertex AI framework support policy to understand the implications of the end-of-support and end-of-availability dates.

Available container images

Each of the following container images is available in several Artifact Registry repositories, which store data in various locations. You can use any of the URIs for an image when you perform custom training; each provides the same container image. When using Google Cloud console to perform custom training, the Google Cloud console selects the URI that best matches the location where you're using Vertex AI. This reduces latency.

TensorFlow

ML framework version Supported accelerators (and CUDA version, if applicable) End of patch and support date End of availability Supported images
2.12 (Python 3.10) CPU only Jun 30, 2024 Jun 30, 2025
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-12.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-12.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-12.py310:latest
2.12 (Python 3.10) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Jun 30, 2024 Jun 30, 2025
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-12.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-12.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-12.py310:latest
2.12 (Python 3.8) TPU only Jun 30, 2024 Jun 30, 2025
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-tpu.2-12:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-tpu.2-12:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-tpu.2-12:latest
2.11 (Python 3.10) CPU only Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-11.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-11.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-11.py310:latest
2.11 (Python 3.10) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-11.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-11.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-11.py310:latest
2.11 (Python 3.7) CPU only Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-11:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-11:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-11:latest
2.11 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-11:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-11:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-11:latest
2.9 (Python 3.10) CPU only Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-9.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-9.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-9.py310:latest
2.9 (Python 3.10) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-9.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-9.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-9.py310:latest
2.9 (Python 3.7) CPU only Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-9:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-9:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-9:latest
2.9 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-9:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-9:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-9:latest
2.8 (Python 3.10) CPU only Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-8.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-8.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-8.py310:latest
2.8 (Python 3.10) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-8.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-8.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-8.py310:latest
2.8 (Python 3.7) CPU only Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-8:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-8:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-8:latest
2.8 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Nov 15, 2023 Nov 15, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-8:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-8:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-8:latest
2.7 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-7:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-7:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-7:latest
2.7 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-7:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-7:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-7:latest
2.6 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-6:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-6:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-6:latest
2.6 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-6:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-6:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-6:latest
2.5 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-5:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-5:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-5:latest
2.5 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-5:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-5:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-5:latest
2.4 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-4:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-4:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-4:latest
2.4 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-4:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-4:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-4:latest
2.3 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-3:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-3:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-3:latest
2.3 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-3:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-3:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-3:latest
2.2 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-2:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-2:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-2:latest
2.2 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-2:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-2:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-2:latest
2.1 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-1:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-1:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.2-1:latest
2.1 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-1:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-1:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.2-1:latest
1.15 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.1-15:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.1-15:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-cpu.1-15:latest
1.15 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.1-15:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.1-15:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/tf-gpu.1-15:latest

PyTorch

ML framework version Supported accelerators (and CUDA version, if applicable) End of patch and support date End of availability Supported images
2.0 (Python 3.8) TPU only May 15, 2024 May 15, 2025
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-tpu.2-0:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-tpu.2-0:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-tpu.2-0:latest
1.13 (Python 3.10) CPU or GPU (CUDA 11.x) May 15, 2024 May 15, 2025
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-13.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-13.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-13.py310:latest
1.13 (Python 3.7) CPU or GPU (CUDA 11.x) Dec 8, 2023 Dec 8, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-13:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-13:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-13:latest
1.12 (Python 3.10) CPU or GPU (CUDA 11.x) May 15, 2024 May 15, 2025
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-12.py310:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-12.py310:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-12.py310:latest
1.12 (Python 3.7) CPU or GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-12:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-12:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-12:latest
1.11 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-11:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-11:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-11:latest
1.11 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-11:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-11:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-11:latest
1.10 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-10:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-10:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-10:latest
1.10 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-10:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-10:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-10:latest
1.9 (Python 3.7) CPU only Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-9:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-9:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-xla.1-9:latest
1.9 (Python 3.7) GPU (CUDA 11.x) Sep 1, 2023 Sep 1, 2024
  • us-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-9:latest
  • europe-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-9:latest
  • asia-docker.pkg.dev/vertex-ai/training/pytorch-gpu.1-9:latest
1.7 (Python 3.7