서비스 계정의 HMAC 키 관리

이 페이지에서는 프로젝트의 서비스 계정과 관련된 해시 기반 메시지 인증 코드(HMAC) 키를 생성, 사용 중지, 삭제하는 방법을 보여줍니다. 일반적인 정보는 HMAC 키를 참조하세요.

기본 요건

Cloud Storage에서 이 기능을 사용하려면 다음 요건을 충족해야 합니다.

  1. 원하는 프로젝트에서 HMAC 키를 사용할 수 있는 충분한 권한이 있어야 합니다.

    • 프로젝트의 소유자라면 필요한 권한을 가지고 있을 가능성이 높습니다.

    • 프로젝트에 대해 storage.hmacKeys라는 프리픽스가 붙은 IAM 권한이 있어야 합니다. 이러한 권한을 가진 roles/storage.hmacKeyAdmin과 같은 역할을 얻는 방법은 IAM 권한 사용을 참조하세요.

  2. 프로젝트에 HMAC 키를 만들 서비스 계정이 있어야 합니다. 현재 서비스 계정이 없는 경우 서비스 계정 만들기를 참조하세요.

HMAC 키 만들기

서비스 계정의 HMAC 키를 만들려면 다음 안내를 따르세요.

Console

  1. Google Cloud Platform Console에서 Cloud Storage 브라우저를 엽니다.
    Cloud Storage 브라우저 열기
  2. 설정을 클릭합니다.

  3. 상호 운용성 탭을 선택합니다.

  4. + 서비스 계정의 키 만들기를 클릭합니다.

  5. HMAC 키와 연결할 서비스 계정을 선택합니다.

  6. 키 만들기를 클릭합니다.

gsutil

hmac create 명령어를 사용하고 [VALUES_IN_BRACKETS]는 적절한 값으로 바꿉니다.

gsutil hmac create [SERVICE_ACCOUNT_EMAIL]

성공하면 다음과 같은 응답이 표시됩니다.

AccessId: GOOGTS7C7FUP3AIRVJTE2BCD
SecretKey: de7c9b85b8b78aa6bc8a7a36f70a90701c9db4d9

코드 샘플

C++

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage C++ API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

namespace gcs = google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string service_account_email) {
  StatusOr<std::pair<gcs::HmacKeyMetadata, std::string>> hmac_key_details =
      client.CreateHmacKey(service_account_email);

  if (!hmac_key_details) {
    throw std::runtime_error(hmac_key_details.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "The base64 encoded secret is: " << hmac_key_details->second
            << "\nDo not miss that secret, there is no API to recover it."
            << "\nThe HMAC key metadata is: " << hmac_key_details->first
            << "\n";
}

C#

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage C# API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

        private void CreateHmacKey(String serviceAccountEmail)
        {
            var storage = StorageClient.Create();
            var key = storage.CreateHmacKey(s_projectId, serviceAccountEmail);

            var secret = key.Secret;
            var metadata = key.Metadata;

            Console.WriteLine($"The Base64 encoded secret is: {secret}");
            Console.WriteLine("Make sure to save that secret, there's no API to recover it.");
            Console.WriteLine("The HMAC key metadata is:");
            Console.WriteLine($"ID: {metadata.Id}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Access ID: {metadata.AccessId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Project ID: {metadata.ProjectId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Service Account Email: {metadata.ServiceAccountEmail}");
            Console.WriteLine($"State: {metadata.State}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Time Created: {metadata.TimeCreated}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Time Updated: {metadata.Updated}");
            Console.WriteLine($"ETag: {metadata.ETag}");
        }

Go

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Go API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

import (
	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
)

// createHMACKey creates a new HMAC key using the given project and service account.
func createHMACKey(w io.Writer, projectID string, serviceAccountEmail string) (*storage.HMACKey, error) {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Initialize client.
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close() // Closing the client safely cleans up background resources.

	key, err := client.CreateHMACKey(ctx, projectID, serviceAccountEmail)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("CreateHMACKey: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%s\n", key)
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "The base64 encoded secret is %s\n", key.Secret)
	fmt.Fprintln(w, "Do not miss that secret, there is no API to recover it.")
	fmt.Fprintln(w, "The HMAC key metadata is")
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%+v", key)

	return key, nil
}

자바

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage 자바 API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

// Instantiate a Google Cloud Storage client
Storage storage = StorageOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

// The service account email for which the new HMAC key will be created.
// String serviceAccountEmail = "service-account@iam.gserviceaccount.com";
//
// The ID of the project to which the service account belongs.
// String projectId = "project-id";

ServiceAccount account = ServiceAccount.of(serviceAccountEmail);
HmacKey hmacKey =
    storage.createHmacKey(account, Storage.CreateHmacKeyOption.projectId(projectId));

String secret = hmacKey.getSecretKey();
HmacKeyMetadata metadata = hmacKey.getMetadata();

System.out.println("The Base64 encoded secret is: " + secret);
System.out.println("Do not miss that secret, there is no API to recover it.");
System.out.println("The HMAC key metadata is:");
System.out.println("ID: " + metadata.getId());
System.out.println("Access ID: " + metadata.getAccessId());
System.out.println("Project ID: " + metadata.getProjectId());
System.out.println("Service Account Email: " + metadata.getServiceAccount().getEmail());
System.out.println("State: " + metadata.getState().toString());
System.out.println("Time Created: " + new Date(metadata.getCreateTime()).toString());
System.out.println("Time Updated: " + new Date(metadata.getUpdateTime()).toString());
System.out.println("ETag: " + metadata.getEtag());

Node.js

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Node.js API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

// Create HMAC SA Key
async function createHmacKey() {
  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following line before running the sample.
   */
  // const serviceAccountEmail = 'Service Account Email to associate HMAC Key';
  // const projectId = 'The project Id this service account to be created in, e.g. serviceAccountProjectId';

  const [hmacKey, secret] = await storage.createHmacKey(serviceAccountEmail, {
    projectId,
  });

  console.log(`The base64 encoded secret is: ${secret}`);
  console.log(`Do not miss that secret, there is no API to recover it.`);
  console.log(`The HMAC key metadata is:`);
  for (const [key, value] of Object.entries(hmacKey.metadata)) {
    console.log(`${key}: ${value}`);
  }
}

PHP

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage PHP API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Create a new HMAC key.
 *
 * @param string $serviceAccountEmail Service account email to associate with the new HMAC key.
 * @param string $projectId Google Cloud Project ID.
 *
 */
function create_hmac_key($serviceAccountEmail, $projectId)
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    // By default createHmacKey will use the projectId used by StorageClient().
    $hmacKeyCreated = $storage->createHmacKey($serviceAccountEmail, ['projectId' => $projectId]);

    printf('The base64 encoded secret is: %s' . PHP_EOL, $hmacKeyCreated->secret());
    print('Do not miss that secret, there is no API to recover it.' . PHP_EOL);
    printf('HMAC key Metadata: %s' . PHP_EOL, print_r($hmacKeyCreated->hmacKey()->info(), true));
}

Python

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Python API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

# project_id = 'Your Google Cloud project ID'
# service_account_email = 'Service account used to generate HMAC key'
storage_client = storage.Client(project=project_id)
hmac_key, secret = storage_client.create_hmac_key(
    service_account_email=service_account_email,
    project_id=project_id)
print('The base64 encoded secret is {}'.format(secret))
print('Do not miss that secret, there is no API to recover it.')
print('The HMAC key metadata is:')
print('Service Account Email: {}'.format(hmac_key.service_account_email))
print('Key ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.id))
print('Access ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.access_id))
print('Project ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.project))
print('State: {}'.format(hmac_key.state))
print('Created At: {}'.format(hmac_key.time_created))
print('Updated At: {}'.format(hmac_key.updated))
print('Etag: {}'.format(hmac_key.etag))

Ruby

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Ruby API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

# project_id = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# service_account_email = "Service account used to associate generate HMAC key"

require "google/cloud/storage"

storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new project_id: project_id

# By default Storage#create_hmac_key uses the Storage client project_id
hmac_key = storage.create_hmac_key service_account_email, project_id: project_id

puts "The base64 encoded secret is: #{hmac_key.secret}"
puts "Do not miss that secret, there is no API to recover it."
puts "\nThe HMAC key metadata is:"
puts "Key ID:                #{hmac_key.id}"
puts "Service Account Email: #{hmac_key.service_account_email}"
puts "Access ID:             #{hmac_key.access_id}"
puts "Project ID:            #{hmac_key.project_id}"
puts "Active:                #{hmac_key.active?}"
puts "Created At:            #{hmac_key.created_at}"
puts "Updated At:            #{hmac_key.updated_at}"
puts "Etag:                  #{hmac_key.etag}"

REST API

JSON API

  1. OAuth 2.0 Playground에서 승인 액세스 토큰을 가져옵니다. OAuth 사용자 인증 정보를 사용하도록 Playground를 구성합니다.
  2. cURL을 사용하여 POST hmacKeys 요청으로 JSON API를 호출하고 [VALUES_IN_BRACKETS]는 적절한 값으로 바꿉니다.

    curl -X POST \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer [OAUTH2_TOKEN]" \
      "https://www.googleapis.com/storage/v1/projects/[PROJECT_ID]/hmacKeys?serviceAccountEmail=[SERVICE_ACCOUNT_EMAIL]"

XML API

XML API는 HMAC 키를 만드는 데 사용할 수 없습니다. gsutil 등의 다른 Cloud Storage 도구 중 하나를 대신 사용하세요.

HMAC 키 정보 가져오기

프로젝트의 HMAC 키를 나열하고 키에 대한 정보를 가져오려면 다음 안내를 따르세요.

Console

  1. Google Cloud Platform Console에서 Cloud Storage 브라우저를 엽니다.
    Cloud Storage 브라우저 열기
  2. 설정을 클릭합니다.

  3. 상호 운용성 탭을 선택합니다.

gsutil

  1. hmac list 명령어를 사용하여 프로젝트의 hmac 키를 나열합니다.

    gsutil hmac list

    성공하면 gsutil이 각 키와 관련된 서비스 계정과 hmac 키 액세스 ID 목록을 반환합니다.

  2. hmac get 명령어를 사용하여 특정 키의 메타데이터를 검색합니다.

    gsutil hmac get [KEY_ACCESS_ID] 

    여기서 [KEY_ACCESS_ID]는 원하는 키의 액세스 ID입니다.

코드 샘플

C++

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage C++ API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 프로젝트와 관련된 HMAC 키 목록을 검색합니다.

namespace gcs = google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client) {
  int count = 0;
  gcs::ListHmacKeysReader hmac_keys_list = client.ListHmacKeys();
  for (auto&& hmac_key_metadata : hmac_keys_list) {
    if (!hmac_key_metadata) {
      throw std::runtime_error(hmac_key_metadata.status().message());
    }
    std::cout << "service_account_email = "
              << hmac_key_metadata->service_account_email()
              << "\naccess_id = " << hmac_key_metadata->access_id() << "\n";
    ++count;
  }
  if (count == 0) {
    std::cout << "No HMAC keys in default project\n";
  }
}

다음 샘플은 특정 HMAC 키에 대한 정보를 검색합니다.

namespace gcs = google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string access_id) {
  StatusOr<gcs::HmacKeyMetadata> hmac_key_details =
      client.GetHmacKey(access_id);

  if (!hmac_key_details) {
    throw std::runtime_error(hmac_key_details.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "The HMAC key metadata is: " << *hmac_key_details << "\n";
}

C#

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage C# API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 프로젝트와 관련된 HMAC 키 목록을 검색합니다.

        private void ListHmacKeys()
        {
            var storage = StorageClient.Create();
            var keys = storage.ListHmacKeys(s_projectId);

            foreach (var metadata in keys)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"Service Account Email: {metadata.ServiceAccountEmail}");
                Console.WriteLine($"Access ID: {metadata.AccessId}");
            }
        }

다음 샘플은 특정 HMAC 키에 대한 정보를 검색합니다.

        private void GetHmacKey(String accessId)
        {
            var storage = StorageClient.Create();
            var metadata = storage.GetHmacKey(s_projectId, accessId);

            Console.WriteLine("The HMAC key metadata is:");
            Console.WriteLine($"ID: {metadata.Id}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Access ID: {metadata.AccessId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Project ID: {metadata.ProjectId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Service Account Email: {metadata.ServiceAccountEmail}");
            Console.WriteLine($"State: {metadata.State}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Time Created: {metadata.TimeCreated}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Time Updated: {metadata.Updated}");
            Console.WriteLine($"ETag: {metadata.ETag}");
        }

Go

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Go API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 프로젝트와 관련된 HMAC 키 목록을 검색합니다.

import (
	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
	"io"
)

// listHMACKeys lists all HMAC keys associated with the project.
func listHMACKeys(w io.Writer, projectID string) ([]*storage.HMACKey, error) {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Initialize client.
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close() // Closing the client safely cleans up background resources.

	iter := client.ListHMACKeys(ctx, projectID)
	var keys []*storage.HMACKey
	for {
		key, err := iter.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			break
		}
		if err != nil {
			return nil, fmt.Errorf("ListHMACKeys: %v", err)
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Service Account Email: %s\n", key.ServiceAccountEmail)
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Access ID: %s\n", key.AccessID)

		keys = append(keys, key)
	}

	return keys, nil
}

다음 샘플은 특정 HMAC 키에 대한 정보를 검색합니다.

import (
	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
)

// getHMACKey retrieves the HMACKeyMetadata with the given access id.
func getHMACKey(w io.Writer, accessID string, projectID string) (*storage.HMACKey, error) {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Initialize client.
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close() // Closing the client safely cleans up background resources.

	handle := client.HMACKeyHandle(projectID, accessID)
	key, err := handle.Get(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("Get: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintln(w, "The HMAC key metadata is:")
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%+v", key)
	return key, nil
}

자바

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage 자바 API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 프로젝트와 관련된 HMAC 키 목록을 검색합니다.

// Instantiate a Google Cloud Storage client
Storage storage = StorageOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

// The ID of the project to which the service account belongs.
// String projectId = "project-id";
Page<HmacKeyMetadata> page = storage.listHmacKeys(ListHmacKeysOption.projectId(projectId));

for (HmacKeyMetadata metadata : page.iterateAll()) {
  System.out.println("Service Account Email: " + metadata.getServiceAccount().getEmail());
  System.out.println("Access ID: " + metadata.getAccessId());
}

다음 샘플은 특정 HMAC 키에 대한 정보를 검색합니다.

// Instantiate a Google Cloud Storage client
Storage storage = StorageOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

// The access ID of the HMAC key, e.g. "GOOG0234230X00"
// String accessId = "GOOG0234230X00";
//
// The ID of the project to which the service account belongs.
// String projectId = "project-id";
HmacKeyMetadata metadata =
    storage.getHmacKey(accessId, Storage.GetHmacKeyOption.projectId(projectId));

System.out.println("The HMAC key metadata is:");
System.out.println("ID: " + metadata.getId());
System.out.println("Access ID: " + metadata.getAccessId());
System.out.println("Project ID: " + metadata.getProjectId());
System.out.println("Service Account Email: " + metadata.getServiceAccount().getEmail());
System.out.println("State: " + metadata.getState().toString());
System.out.println("Time Created: " + new Date(metadata.getCreateTime()).toString());
System.out.println("Time Updated: " + new Date(metadata.getUpdateTime()).toString());
System.out.println("ETag: " + metadata.getEtag());

Node.js

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Node.js API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 프로젝트와 관련된 HMAC 키 목록을 검색합니다.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

// List HMAC SA Keys' Metadata
async function listHmacKeys() {
  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following line before running the sample.
   */
  // const projectId = 'The project Id this service account belongs to, e.g. serviceAccountProjectId';
  const [hmacKeys] = await storage.getHmacKeys({projectId});

  // hmacKeys is an array of HmacKey objects.
  for (const hmacKey of hmacKeys) {
    console.log(
      `Service Account Email: ${hmacKey.metadata.serviceAccountEmail}`
    );
    console.log(`Access Id: ${hmacKey.metadata.accessId}`);
  }
}

다음 샘플은 특정 HMAC 키에 대한 정보를 검색합니다.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

// Get HMAC SA Key Metadata
async function getHmacKey() {
  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following line before running the sample.
   */
  // const hmacKeyAccessId = 'HMAC Access Key Id to get, e.g. GOOG0234230X00';
  // const projectId = 'The project Id this service account belongs to, e.g. serviceAccountProjectId';

  const hmacKey = storage.hmacKey(hmacKeyAccessId, {projectId});
  // Populate the hmacKey object with metadata from server.
  await hmacKey.getMetadata();

  console.log(`The HMAC key metadata is:`);
  for (const [key, value] of Object.entries(hmacKey.metadata)) {
    console.log(`${key}: ${value}`);
  }
}

PHP

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage PHP API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 프로젝트와 관련된 HMAC 키 목록을 검색합니다.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * List HMAC keys.
 *
 * @param string $projectId Google Cloud Project ID.
 *
 */
function list_hmac_keys($projectId)
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    // By default hmacKeys will use the projectId used by StorageClient() to list HMAC Keys.
    $hmacKeys = $storage->hmacKeys(['projectId' => $projectId]);

    printf('HMAC Key\'s:' . PHP_EOL);
    foreach ($hmacKeys as $hmacKey) {
        printf('Service Account Email: %s' . PHP_EOL, $hmacKey->info()['serviceAccountEmail']);
        printf('Access Id: %s' . PHP_EOL, $hmacKey->info()['accessId']);
    }
}

다음 샘플은 특정 HMAC 키에 대한 정보를 검색합니다.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Get an HMAC key.
 *
 * @param string $accessId Access ID for an HMAC key.
 * @param string $projectId Google Cloud Project ID.
 *
 */
function get_hmac_key($accessId, $projectId)
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    $hmacKey = $storage->hmacKey($accessId, $projectId);

    printf('HMAC key Metadata: %s' . PHP_EOL, print_r($hmacKey->info(), true));
}

Python

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Python API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 프로젝트와 관련된 HMAC 키 목록을 검색합니다.

# project_id = 'Your Google Cloud project ID'
storage_client = storage.Client(project=project_id)
hmac_keys = storage_client.list_hmac_keys(project_id=project_id)
print('HMAC Keys:')
for hmac_key in hmac_keys:
    print('Service Account Email: {}'.format(
        hmac_key.service_account_email))
    print('Access ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.access_id))

다음 샘플은 특정 HMAC 키에 대한 정보를 검색합니다.

# project_id = 'Your Google Cloud project ID'
# access_id = 'ID of an HMAC key'
storage_client = storage.Client(project=project_id)
hmac_key = storage_client.get_hmac_key_metadata(
    access_id,
    project_id=project_id)
print('The HMAC key metadata is:')
print('Service Account Email: {}'.format(hmac_key.service_account_email))
print('Key ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.id))
print('Access ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.access_id))
print('Project ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.project))
print('State: {}'.format(hmac_key.state))
print('Created At: {}'.format(hmac_key.time_created))
print('Updated At: {}'.format(hmac_key.updated))
print('Etag: {}'.format(hmac_key.etag))

Ruby

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Ruby API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 프로젝트와 관련된 HMAC 키 목록을 검색합니다.

# project_id = "Your Google Cloud project ID"

require "google/cloud/storage"

storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new project_id: project_id

# By default Storage#hmac_keys uses the Storage client project_id
hmac_keys = storage.hmac_keys project_id: project_id

puts "HMAC Keys:"
hmac_keys.all do |hmac_key|
  puts "Service Account Email: #{hmac_key.service_account_email}"
  puts "Access ID: #{hmac_key.access_id}"
end

다음 샘플은 특정 HMAC 키에 대한 정보를 검색합니다.

# project_id = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# access_id = "ID of an HMAC key"

require "google/cloud/storage"

storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new project_id: project_id

# By default Storage#hmac_keys uses the Storage client project_id
hmac_key = storage.hmac_key access_id, project_id: project_id

puts "The HMAC key metadata is:"
puts "Key ID:                #{hmac_key.id}"
puts "Service Account Email: #{hmac_key.service_account_email}"
puts "Access ID:             #{hmac_key.access_id}"
puts "Project ID:            #{hmac_key.project_id}"
puts "Active:                #{hmac_key.active?}"
puts "Created At:            #{hmac_key.created_at}"
puts "Updated At:            #{hmac_key.updated_at}"
puts "Etag:                  #{hmac_key.etag}"

REST API

JSON API

  1. OAuth 2.0 Playground에서 승인 액세스 토큰을 가져옵니다. OAuth 사용자 인증 정보를 사용하도록 Playground를 구성합니다.
  2. cURL을 사용하여 LIST hmacKeys 요청으로 JSON API를 호출하고 [VALUES_IN_BRACKETS]는 적절한 값으로 바꿉니다.

    curl -X GET \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer [OAUTH2_TOKEN]" \
      -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
      "https://www.googleapis.com/storage/v1/projects/[PROJECT_ID]/hmacKeys"

XML API

XML API는 HMAC 키를 가져오거나 나열하는 데 사용할 수 없습니다. gsutil 등의 다른 Cloud Storage 도구 중 하나를 대신 사용하세요.

HMAC 키의 상태 업데이트

HMAC 키를 활성 또는 비활성 상태로 전환하려면 다음 안내를 따르세요.

Console

  1. Google Cloud Platform Console에서 Cloud Storage 브라우저를 엽니다.
    Cloud Storage 브라우저 열기
  2. 설정을 클릭합니다.

  3. 상호 운용성 탭을 선택합니다.

  4. 업데이트하려는 키와 관련된 연필 아이콘을 클릭합니다.

  5. 키의 상태와 관련된 옵션 더보기 버튼(추가 작업 아이콘)을 클릭합니다.

  6. 키에 적용하려는 상태를 선택합니다.

  7. 나타나는 확인 창에서 키 상태를 변경할지 확인합니다.

gsutil

hmac update 명령어를 사용하고 [VALUES_IN_BRACKETS]는 적절한 값으로 바꿉니다.

gsutil hmac update -s [STATE] [KEY_ACCESS_ID]

성공하면 gsutil이 HMAC 키의 업데이트된 메타데이터를 반환합니다.

코드 샘플

C++

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage C++ API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 비활성화합니다.

namespace gcs = google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string access_id) {
  StatusOr<gcs::HmacKeyMetadata> updated_metadata = client.UpdateHmacKey(
      access_id, gcs::HmacKeyMetadata().set_state(
                     gcs::HmacKeyMetadata::state_inactive()));

  if (!updated_metadata) {
    throw std::runtime_error(updated_metadata.status().message());
  }
  if (updated_metadata->state() != gcs::HmacKeyMetadata::state_inactive()) {
    throw std::runtime_error("The HMAC key is active, this is unexpected");
  }
  std::cout << "The HMAC key is now inactive\nFull metadata: "
            << *updated_metadata << "\n";
}

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 활성화합니다.

namespace gcs = google::cloud::storage;
using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string access_id) {
  StatusOr<gcs::HmacKeyMetadata> updated_metadata = client.UpdateHmacKey(
      access_id,
      gcs::HmacKeyMetadata().set_state(gcs::HmacKeyMetadata::state_active()));

  if (!updated_metadata) {
    throw std::runtime_error(updated_metadata.status().message());
  }
  if (updated_metadata->state() != gcs::HmacKeyMetadata::state_active()) {
    throw std::runtime_error(
        "The HMAC key is NOT active, this is unexpected");
  }
  std::cout << "The HMAC key is now active\nFull metadata: "
            << *updated_metadata << "\n";
}

C#

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage C# API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 비활성화합니다.

        private void DeactivateHmacKey(String accessId)
        {
            var storage = StorageClient.Create();
            var metadata = storage.GetHmacKey(s_projectId, accessId);
            metadata.State = HmacKeyStates.Inactive;
            var updatedMetadata = storage.UpdateHmacKey(metadata);

            Console.WriteLine("The HMAC key is now inactive.");
            Console.WriteLine("The HMAC key metadata is:");
            Console.WriteLine($"ID: {updatedMetadata.Id}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Access ID: {updatedMetadata.AccessId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Project ID: {updatedMetadata.ProjectId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Service Account Email: {updatedMetadata.ServiceAccountEmail}");
            Console.WriteLine($"State: {updatedMetadata.State}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Time Created: {updatedMetadata.TimeCreated}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Time Updated: {updatedMetadata.Updated}");
            Console.WriteLine($"ETag: {updatedMetadata.ETag}");
        }

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 활성화합니다.

        private void ActivateHmacKey(String accessId)
        {
            var storage = StorageClient.Create();
            var metadata = storage.GetHmacKey(s_projectId, accessId);
            metadata.State = HmacKeyStates.Active;
            var updatedMetadata = storage.UpdateHmacKey(metadata);

            Console.WriteLine("The HMAC key is now active.");
            Console.WriteLine("The HMAC key metadata is:");
            Console.WriteLine($"ID: {updatedMetadata.Id}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Access ID: {updatedMetadata.AccessId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Project ID: {updatedMetadata.ProjectId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Service Account Email: {updatedMetadata.ServiceAccountEmail}");
            Console.WriteLine($"State: {updatedMetadata.State}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Time Created: {updatedMetadata.TimeCreated}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Time Updated: {updatedMetadata.Updated}");
            Console.WriteLine($"ETag: {updatedMetadata.ETag}");
        }

Go

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Go API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 비활성화합니다.

import (
	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
)

// deactivateHMACKey deactivates the HMAC key with the given access ID.
func deactivateHMACKey(w io.Writer, accessID string, projectID string) (*storage.HMACKey, error) {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Initialize client.
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close() // Closing the client safely cleans up background resources.

	handle := client.HMACKeyHandle(projectID, accessID)
	key, err := handle.Update(ctx, storage.HMACKeyAttrsToUpdate{State: "INACTIVE"})
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("Update: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintln(w, "The HMAC key metadata is:")
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%+v", key)

	return key, nil
}

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 활성화합니다.

import (
	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
)

// activateHMACKey activates the HMAC key with the given access ID.
func activateHMACKey(w io.Writer, accessID string, projectID string) (*storage.HMACKey, error) {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Initialize client.
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close() // Closing the client safely cleans up background resources.

	handle := client.HMACKeyHandle(projectID, accessID)
	key, err := handle.Update(ctx, storage.HMACKeyAttrsToUpdate{State: "ACTIVE"})
	if err != nil {
		return nil, fmt.Errorf("Update: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintln(w, "The HMAC key metadata is:")
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%+v", key)

	return key, nil
}

자바

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage 자바 API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 비활성화합니다.

// Instantiate a Google Cloud Storage client
Storage storage = StorageOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

// The access ID of the HMAC key, e.g. "GOOG0234230X00"
// String accessId = "GOOG0234230X00";
//
// The ID of the project to which the service account belongs.
// String projectId = "project-id";
HmacKeyMetadata metadata =
    storage.getHmacKey(accessId, Storage.GetHmacKeyOption.projectId(projectId));
HmacKeyMetadata newMetadata = storage.updateHmacKeyState(metadata, HmacKeyState.INACTIVE);

System.out.println("The HMAC key is now inactive.");
System.out.println("The HMAC key metadata is:");
System.out.println("ID: " + newMetadata.getId());
System.out.println("Access ID: " + newMetadata.getAccessId());
System.out.println("Project ID: " + newMetadata.getProjectId());
System.out.println("Service Account Email: " + newMetadata.getServiceAccount().getEmail());
System.out.println("State: " + newMetadata.getState().toString());
System.out.println("Time Created: " + new Date(newMetadata.getCreateTime()).toString());
System.out.println("Time Updated: " + new Date(newMetadata.getUpdateTime()).toString());
System.out.println("ETag: " + newMetadata.getEtag());

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 활성화합니다.

// Instantiate a Google Cloud Storage client
Storage storage = StorageOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

// The access ID of the HMAC key, e.g. "GOOG0234230X00"
// String accessId = "GOOG0234230X00";
//
// The ID of the project to which the service account belongs.
// String projectId = "project-id";
HmacKeyMetadata metadata =
    storage.getHmacKey(accessId, Storage.GetHmacKeyOption.projectId(projectId));
HmacKeyMetadata newMetadata = storage.updateHmacKeyState(metadata, HmacKeyState.ACTIVE);

System.out.println("The HMAC key is now active.");
System.out.println("The HMAC key metadata is:");
System.out.println("ID: " + newMetadata.getId());
System.out.println("Access ID: " + newMetadata.getAccessId());
System.out.println("Project ID: " + newMetadata.getProjectId());
System.out.println("Service Account Email: " + newMetadata.getServiceAccount().getEmail());
System.out.println("State: " + newMetadata.getState().toString());
System.out.println("Time Created: " + new Date(newMetadata.getCreateTime()).toString());
System.out.println("Time Updated: " + new Date(newMetadata.getUpdateTime()).toString());
System.out.println("ETag: " + newMetadata.getEtag());

Node.js

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Node.js API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 비활성화합니다.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

// Deactivate HMAC SA Key
async function deactivateHmacKey() {
  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following line before running the sample.
   */
  // const hmacKeyAccessId = 'HMAC Access Key Id to update, e.g. GOOG0234230X00';
  // const projectId = 'The project Id this service account belongs to, e.g. serviceAccountProjectId';

  const hmacKey = storage.hmacKey(hmacKeyAccessId, {projectId});
  const [hmacKeyMetadata] = await hmacKey.setMetadata({state: 'INACTIVE'});

  console.log(`The HMAC key is now inactive.`);
  console.log(`The HMAC key metadata is:`);
  for (const [key, value] of Object.entries(hmacKeyMetadata)) {
    console.log(`${key}: ${value}`);
  }
}

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 활성화합니다.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

// Activate HMAC SA Key
async function activateHmacKey() {
  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following line before running the sample.
   */
  // const hmacKeyAccessId = 'HMAC Access Key Id to update, e.g. GOOG0234230X00';
  // const projectId = 'The project Id this service account belongs to, e.g. serviceAccountProjectId';

  const hmacKey = storage.hmacKey(hmacKeyAccessId, {projectId});
  const [hmacKeyMetadata] = await hmacKey.setMetadata({state: 'ACTIVE'});

  console.log(`The HMAC key is now active.`);
  console.log(`The HMAC key metadata is:`);
  for (const [key, value] of Object.entries(hmacKeyMetadata)) {
    console.log(`${key}: ${value}`);
  }
}

PHP

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage PHP API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 비활성화합니다.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Deactivate an HMAC key.
 *
 * @param string $accessId Access ID for an inactive HMAC key.
 * @param string $projectId Google Cloud Project ID.
 *
 */
function deactivate_hmac_key($accessId, $projectId)
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    // By default hmacKey will use the projectId used by StorageClient().
    $hmacKey = $storage->hmacKey($accessId, $projectId);

    $hmacKey->update('INACTIVE');

    print('The HMAC key is now inactive.' . PHP_EOL);
    printf('HMAC key Metadata: %s' . PHP_EOL, print_r($hmacKey->info(), true));
}

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 활성화합니다.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Activate an HMAC key.
 *
 * @param string $accessId Access ID for an inactive HMAC key.
 * @param string $projectId Google Cloud Project ID.
 *
 */
function activate_hmac_key($accessId, $projectId)
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    // By default hmacKey will use the projectId used by StorageClient().
    $hmacKey = $storage->hmacKey($accessId, $projectId);

    $hmacKey->update('ACTIVE');

    print('The HMAC key is now active.' . PHP_EOL);
    printf('HMAC key Metadata: %s' . PHP_EOL, print_r($hmacKey->info(), true));
}

Python

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Python API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 비활성화합니다.

# project_id = 'Your Google Cloud project ID'
# access_id = 'ID of an active HMAC key'
storage_client = storage.Client(project=project_id)
hmac_key = storage_client.get_hmac_key_metadata(
    access_id,
    project_id=project_id)
hmac_key.state = 'INACTIVE'
hmac_key.update()
print('The HMAC key is now inactive.')
print('The HMAC key metadata is:')
print('Service Account Email: {}'.format(hmac_key.service_account_email))
print('Key ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.id))
print('Access ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.access_id))
print('Project ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.project))
print('State: {}'.format(hmac_key.state))
print('Created At: {}'.format(hmac_key.time_created))
print('Updated At: {}'.format(hmac_key.updated))
print('Etag: {}'.format(hmac_key.etag))

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 활성화합니다.

# project_id = 'Your Google Cloud project ID'
# access_id = 'ID of an inactive HMAC key'
storage_client = storage.Client(project=project_id)
hmac_key = storage_client.get_hmac_key_metadata(
    access_id,
    project_id=project_id)
hmac_key.state = 'ACTIVE'
hmac_key.update()
print('The HMAC key metadata is:')
print('Service Account Email: {}'.format(hmac_key.service_account_email))
print('Key ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.id))
print('Access ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.access_id))
print('Project ID: {}'.format(hmac_key.project))
print('State: {}'.format(hmac_key.state))
print('Created At: {}'.format(hmac_key.time_created))
print('Updated At: {}'.format(hmac_key.updated))
print('Etag: {}'.format(hmac_key.etag))

Ruby

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Ruby API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 비활성화합니다.

# project_id = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# access_id = "ID of an inactive HMAC key"

require "google/cloud/storage"

storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new project_id: project_id

# By default Storage#hmac_keys uses the Storage client project_id
hmac_key = storage.hmac_key access_id, project_id: project_id

hmac_key.inactive!

puts "The HMAC key is now inactive."
puts "The HMAC key metadata is:"
puts "Key ID:                #{hmac_key.id}"
puts "Service Account Email: #{hmac_key.service_account_email}"
puts "Access ID:             #{hmac_key.access_id}"
puts "Project ID:            #{hmac_key.project_id}"
puts "Active:                #{hmac_key.active?}"
puts "Created At:            #{hmac_key.created_at}"
puts "Updated At:            #{hmac_key.updated_at}"
puts "Etag:                  #{hmac_key.etag}"

다음 샘플은 HMAC 키를 활성화합니다.

# project_id = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# access_id = "ID of an inactive HMAC key"

require "google/cloud/storage"

storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new project_id: project_id

# By default Storage#hmac_keys uses the Storage client project_id
hmac_key = storage.hmac_key access_id, project_id: project_id

hmac_key.active!

puts "The HMAC key is now active."
puts "The HMAC key metadata is:"
puts "Key ID:                #{hmac_key.id}"
puts "Service Account Email: #{hmac_key.service_account_email}"
puts "Access ID:             #{hmac_key.access_id}"
puts "Project ID:            #{hmac_key.project_id}"
puts "Active:                #{hmac_key.active?}"
puts "Created At:            #{hmac_key.created_at}"
puts "Updated At:            #{hmac_key.updated_at}"
puts "Etag:                  #{hmac_key.etag}"

REST API

JSON API

  1. OAuth 2.0 Playground에서 승인 액세스 토큰을 가져옵니다. OAuth 사용자 인증 정보를 사용하도록 Playground를 구성합니다.
  2. 다음 정보를 포함하는 .json 파일을 만듭니다. 여기서 [VALUES_IN_BRACKETS]를 적절한 값으로 바꿉니다.

    {
      "metadata": {
          "state": [STATE]
      }
    }
  3. cURL을 사용하여 PUT hmacKeys 요청으로 JSON API를 호출하고 [VALUES_IN_BRACKETS]는 적절한 값으로 바꿉니다.

    curl -X PUT --data-binary @[JSON_FILE_NAME].json \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer [OAUTH2_TOKEN]" \
      -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
      "https://www.googleapis.com/storage/v1/projects/[PROJECT_ID]/hmacKeys/[ACCESS_ID]"

XML API

XML API는 HMAC 키를 업데이트하는 데 사용할 수 없습니다. gsutil 등의 다른 Cloud Storage 도구 중 하나를 대신 사용하세요.

HMAC 키 삭제

HMAC 키는 비활성 상태여야 삭제할 수 있습니다. 비활성 HMAC 키를 삭제하려면 다음 안내를 따르세요.

Console

  1. Google Cloud Platform Console에서 Cloud Storage 브라우저를 엽니다.
    Cloud Storage 브라우저 열기
  2. 설정을 클릭합니다.

  3. 상호 운용성 탭을 선택합니다.

  4. 업데이트하려는 키와 관련된 연필 아이콘을 클릭합니다.

  5. 키의 상태와 관련된 옵션 더보기 버튼(추가 작업 아이콘)을 클릭합니다.

  6. 드롭다운 메뉴에서 삭제를 선택합니다.

  7. 나타나는 텍스트 상자에 HMAC 키의 액세스 키 ID를 창에 표시된 대로 입력합니다.

  8. 삭제를 클릭합니다.

gsutil

hmac delete 명령어를 사용하고 [VALUES_IN_BRACKETS]는 적절한 값으로 바꿉니다.

gsutil hmac delete [KEY_ACCESS_ID]

성공하면 gsutil이 응답을 반환하지 않습니다.

코드 샘플

C++

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage C++ API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

namespace gcs = google::cloud::storage;
[](gcs::Client client, std::string access_id) {
  google::cloud::Status status = client.DeleteHmacKey(access_id);

  if (!status.ok()) {
    throw std::runtime_error(status.message());
  }
  std::cout << "The key is deleted, though it may still appear"
            << " in ListHmacKeys() results.\n";
}

C#

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage C# API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

        private void DeleteHmacKey(String accessId)
        {
            var storage = StorageClient.Create();
            storage.DeleteHmacKey(s_projectId, accessId);

            Console.WriteLine($"Key {accessId} was deleted.");
        }

Go

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Go API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

import (
	"cloud.google.com/go/storage"
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
)

// deleteHMACKey deletes the HMAC key with the given access ID. Key must have state
// INACTIVE in order to succeed.
func deleteHMACKey(w io.Writer, accessID string, projectID string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	// Initialize client.
	client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("storage.NewClient: %v", err)
	}
	defer client.Close() // Closing the client safely cleans up background resources.

	handle := client.HMACKeyHandle(projectID, accessID)
	if err = handle.Delete(ctx); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("Delete: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprintln(w, "The key is deleted, though it may still appear in ListHMACKeys results.")

	return nil
}

자바

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage 자바 API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

// Instantiate a Google Cloud Storage client
Storage storage = StorageOptions.getDefaultInstance().getService();

// The access ID of the HMAC key, e.g. "GOOG0234230X00"
// String accessId = "GOOG0234230X00";
//
// The ID of the project to which the service account belongs.
// String projectId = "project-id";
HmacKeyMetadata metadata =
    storage.getHmacKey(accessId, Storage.GetHmacKeyOption.projectId(projectId));
storage.deleteHmacKey(metadata);

System.out.println(
    "The key is deleted, though it will still appear in getHmacKeys() results given showDeletedKey is true.");

Node.js

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Node.js API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Storage} = require('@google-cloud/storage');

// Creates a client
const storage = new Storage();

// Delete HMAC SA Key
async function deleteHmacKey() {
  /**
   * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following line before running the sample.
   */
  // const hmacKeyAccessId = 'Inactive HMAC Access Key Id to delete, e.g. GOOG0234230X00';
  // const projectId = 'The project Id this service account belongs to, e.g. serviceAccountProjectId';

  const hmacKey = storage.hmacKey(hmacKeyAccessId, {projectId});
  await hmacKey.delete();

  console.log(
    `The key is deleted, though it may still appear in getHmacKeys() results.`
  );
}

PHP

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage PHP API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

use Google\Cloud\Storage\StorageClient;

/**
 * Delete an HMAC key.
 *
 * @param string $accessId Access ID for an HMAC key.
 * @param string $projectId Google Cloud Project ID.
 *
 */
function delete_hmac_key($accessId, $projectId)
{
    $storage = new StorageClient();
    // By default hmacKey will use the projectId used by StorageClient().
    $hmacKey = $storage->hmacKey($accessId, $projectId);

    $hmacKey->delete();
    print(
      'The key is deleted, though it may still appear in the results of calls ' .
      'to StorageClient.hmacKeys([\'showDeletedKeys\' => true])' . PHP_EOL
    );
}

Python

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Python API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

# project_id = 'Your Google Cloud project ID'
# access_id = 'ID of an HMAC key (must be in INACTIVE state)'
storage_client = storage.Client(project=project_id)
hmac_key = storage_client.get_hmac_key_metadata(
    access_id,
    project_id=project_id)
hmac_key.delete()
print('The key is deleted, though it may still appear in list_hmac_keys()'
      ' results.')

Ruby

자세한 내용은 Cloud Storage Ruby API 참조 문서를 확인하세요.

# project_id = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# access_id = "ID of an inactive HMAC key"

require "google/cloud/storage"

storage = Google::Cloud::Storage.new project_id: project_id

# By default Storage#hmac_keys uses the Storage client project_id
hmac_key = storage.hmac_key access_id, project_id: project_id

hmac_key.delete!

puts "The key is deleted, though it may still appear in Client#hmac_keys results."

REST API

JSON API

  1. OAuth 2.0 Playground에서 승인 액세스 토큰을 가져옵니다. OAuth 사용자 인증 정보를 사용하도록 Playground를 구성합니다.
  2. cURL을 사용하여 DELETE hmacKeys 요청으로 JSON API를 호출하고 [VALUES_IN_BRACKETS]는 적절한 값으로 바꿉니다.

    curl -X DELETE \
      -H "Authorization: Bearer [OAUTH2_TOKEN]" \
      "https://www.googleapis.com/storage/v1/projects/[PROJECT_ID]/hmacKeys/[ACCESS_ID]"

XML API

XML API는 HMAC 키를 삭제하는 데 사용할 수 없습니다. gsutil 등의 다른 Cloud Storage 도구 중 하나를 대신 사용하세요.

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