Running the PHP Bookshelf app on Google Kubernetes Engine

This tutorial shows how to run the PHP Bookshelf sample app on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE). Follow this tutorial to containerize and deploy an existing PHP web app to GKE. It's recommended that you work through the Bookshelf app documentation as part of the tutorial for the App Engine standard environment.

This tutorial assumes the following:

Objectives

  • Create a GKE cluster.
  • Containerize a PHP app.
  • Create a replicated frontend for the Bookshelf app.
  • Create a replicated backend for the Bookshelf app.
  • Create a load-balanced service to route HTTP traffic to the Bookshelf app frontend.

Costs

このチュートリアルでは、以下の課金対象の Google Cloud Platform コンポーネントを使用します。

料金計算ツールを使用して、予測される使用量に基づき、費用の見積もりを出すことができます。 GCP を初めてご利用の場合は、無料トライアルをご利用いただけます。

このチュートリアルを終了した後、作成したリソースを削除すると、それ以上の請求は発生しません。詳しくは、クリーンアップをご覧ください。

Before you begin

  1. Google アカウントにログインします。

    Google アカウントをまだお持ちでない場合は、新しいアカウントを登録します。

  2. GCP プロジェクトを選択または作成します。

    [リソースの管理] ページに移動

  3. プロジェクトに対して課金が有効になっていることを確認します。

    課金を有効にする方法について

  4. Cloud Datastore API, GKE API, Cloud Storage API, Cloud Pub/Sub API API を有効にします。

    APIを有効にする

  5. Cloud SDK をインストールして初期化します。
  6. Install Docker. Docker builds container images locally.
  7. Install kubectl.
    gcloud components install kubectl

Creating a GKE cluster

A GKE cluster is a managed set of Compute Engine virtual machines (VMs) that operate as a single GKE cluster. This tutorial needs a cluster with a minimum of two nodes, and these nodes need access to all Google APIs.

  1. Create the cluster. Replace [YOUR_GCP_ZONE] with the GCP zone where you want to host your cluster.

    gcloud container clusters create bookshelf \
        --scopes "cloud-platform" \
        --num-nodes 2 \
        --enable-basic-auth \
        --issue-client-certificate \
        --enable-ip-alias \
        --zone [YOUR_GCP_ZONE]
    
  2. Verify that you have access to the cluster. The following command lists the nodes in your container cluster and indicates that your container cluster is running and that you have access to it.

    kubectl get nodes
    

You use the kubectl command to create resources in a GKE cluster. To learn more about kubectl, see GKE cluster operations. In general, you use gcloud to manage resources in your GCP project, and you use kubectl to manage resources within your GKE cluster. A single project can have multiple clusters, which lets you have clusters made up of different machine types to satisfy different needs.

When you create a cluster with gcloud, authentication is set up automatically for kubectl. If you use the Google Cloud Platform Console to create clusters, you can set up authentication by using the gcloud container clusters get-credentials command.

Cloning the sample app

The sample app is available on GitHub at GoogleCloudPlatform/getting-started-php.

  1. Clone the repository.

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/getting-started-php.git
    
  2. Go to the sample directory.

    cd getting-started-php/optional-kubernetes-engine
    

Initializing Cloud Datastore

The Bookshelf app uses Cloud Datastore to store the books. To initialize Cloud Datastore in your project for the first time, complete the following steps:

  1. In the GCP Console, open the Cloud Datastore page.

    Go to the Cloud Datastore page

  2. Select a region for your datastore.

  3. Click Continue until you reach the Create an Entity page, and then close the window. The Bookshelf app is ready to create entities in Cloud Datastore.

Creating a Cloud Storage bucket

The Bookshelf app uses Cloud Storage to store image files.

The following instructions show how to create a Cloud Storage bucket. Buckets are the basic containers that hold your data in Cloud Storage.

  1. In your terminal window, enter the following command:

    gsutil mb gs://[YOUR_BUCKET_NAME]

    [YOUR_BUCKET_NAME] represents the name of your Cloud Storage bucket.

  2. To view uploaded images in the Bookshelf app, set the bucket's default access control list (ACL) to public-read:

    gsutil defacl set public-read gs://[YOUR_BUCKET_NAME]

Configuring the app

  1. Go to the getting-started-php/optional-kubernetes-engine directory, and copy the settings.yml.dist file:

    cp config/settings.yml.dist config/settings.yml
    
  2. Open config/settings.yml for editing.

  3. Replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your GCP project ID.

  4. Set the value of bookshelf_backend to datastore.

  5. Save and close settings.yml.

Cloud Datastore is a fully managed service that is automatically initialized and connected to your App Engine app. No further configuration is required.

Containerizing the app

The sample app includes a Dockerfile, which is used to create the app's Docker image. This Docker image runs the app on GKE.

# The Google App Engine php runtime is Debian Jessie with PHP installed
# and various os-level packages to allow installation of popular PHP
# libraries. The source is on github at:
#   https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/php-docker
FROM gcr.io/google_appengine/php

# Add our NGINX and php.ini config
ENV DOCUMENT_ROOT=${APP_DIR}/web

# Workaround for AUFS-related permission issue:
# See https://github.com/docker/docker/issues/783#issuecomment-56013588
RUN cp -R ${APP_DIR} ${APP_DIR}-copy; rm -r ${APP_DIR}; mv ${APP_DIR}-copy ${APP_DIR}; chmod -R 550 ${APP_DIR}; chown -R root.www-data ${APP_DIR}
The sample app also includes a .dockerignore file that lists file paths that aren't included in the resulting Docker container. Typically, this file includes build artifacts and local dependency installations.

test/*
coverage/*
  1. Build the app's Docker image.

    docker build -t gcr.io/[YOUR_PROJECT_ID]/bookshelf .
    
  2. Push the image to Container Registry so that your cluster can access the image.

    gcloud docker -- push gcr.io/[YOUR_PROJECT_ID]/bookshelf
    

Containerizing the worker

The sample app includes a Dockerfile, which is used to create the worker's Docker image. This Docker image is used to run the worker on GKE.

# The Google App Engine php runtime is Debian Jessie with PHP installed
# and various os-level packages to allow installation of popular PHP
# libraries. The source is on github at:
#   https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/php-docker
FROM gcr.io/google_appengine/php

# override the default CMD for the pubsub worker
CMD php bin/pubsub/entrypoint.php
  1. Build the app's Docker image.

    docker build -t gcr.io/[YOUR_PROJECT_ID]/bookshelf-worker \
        --file Dockerfile.worker .
    
  2. Push the image to Container Registry so that your cluster can access the image.

    gcloud docker -- push gcr.io/[YOUR_PROJECT_ID]/bookshelf-worker
    

Deploying the Bookshelf frontend

The Bookshelf app has a frontend server that handles the web requests and a backend worker that processes books and adds additional information.

The cluster resources needed to run the frontend are defined in bookshelf-frontend.yaml. These resources are described as a GKE deployment. You can use deployments to create and update a replica set and its associated pods.

# This file configures the bookshelf application frontend. The frontend serves
# public web traffic.

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: bookshelf-frontend
  labels:
    app: bookshelf
# The bookshelf frontend replica set ensures that at least 3
# instances of the bookshelf app are running on the cluster.
# For more info about Pods see:
#   https://cloud.google.com/container-engine/docs/pods/
spec:
  replicas: 3
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: bookshelf
        tier: frontend
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: bookshelf-app
        # Replace $GCLOUD_PROJECT with your project ID or use `make template`.
        image: gcr.io/$GCLOUD_PROJECT/bookshelf
        # This setting makes nodes pull the docker image every time before
        # starting the pod. This is useful when debugging, but should be turned
        # off in production.
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        # The bookshelf process listens on port 8080 for web traffic by default.
        ports:
        - name: http-server
          containerPort: 8080
  1. In bookshelf-frontend.yaml, replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your project ID.

  2. Deploy the resources to the cluster.

    kubectl create -f bookshelf-frontend.yaml
    
  3. Track the status of the deployment.

    kubectl get deployments
    

    Once the deployment has the number of available pods that you want, the deployment is complete. If you run into issues with the deployment, you can delete it and start over.

    kubectl delete deployments bookshelf-frontend
    
  4. Once the deployment is complete, you can see the pods that the deployment created.

    kubectl get pods
    

Deploying the Bookshelf backend

The Bookshelf backend is deployed the same way as the frontend.

# Copyright 2015 Google Inc.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License

# This file configures the bookshelf task worker. The worker is responsible
# for processing book requests and updating book information.

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: bookshelf-worker
  labels:
    app: bookshelf
# The bookshelf worker replica set ensures that at least 2 instances of the
# bookshelf worker pod are running on the cluster.
# For more info about Pods see:
#   https://cloud.google.com/container-engine/docs/pods/
spec:
  replicas: 2
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: bookshelf
        tier: worker
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: bookshelf-app
        # Replace $GCLOUD_PROJECT with your project ID or use `make template`.
        image: gcr.io/$GCLOUD_PROJECT/bookshelf-worker
        # This setting makes nodes pull the docker image every time before
        # starting the pod. This is useful when debugging, but should be turned
        # off in production.
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        # The bookshelf process listens on port 8080 for web traffic by default.
        ports:
        - name: ratchet-server
          containerPort: 8080
  1. In bookshelf-worker.yaml, replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your project ID.

  2. Deploy the resources to the cluster.

    kubectl create -f bookshelf-worker.yaml
    
  3. Verify that the pods are running.

    kubectl get pods
    

Creating the Bookshelf service

GKE services provide a single point of access to a set of pods. While it's possible to access a single pod, pods are ephemeral, and it's more convenient to address a set of pods with a single endpoint. In the Bookshelf app, the Bookshelf service lets you access the Bookshelf frontend pods from a single IP address. This service is defined in bookshelf-service.yaml.

# The bookshelf service provides a load-balancing proxy over the bookshelf
# frontend pods. By specifying the type as a 'LoadBalancer', Container Engine
# will create an external HTTP load balancer.
# For more information about Services see:
#   https://cloud.google.com/container-engine/docs/services/
# For more information about external HTTP load balancing see:
#   https://cloud.google.com/container-engine/docs/load-balancer
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: bookshelf-frontend
  labels:
    app: bookshelf
    tier: frontend
spec:
  type: LoadBalancer
  ports:
  - port: 80
    targetPort: http-server
  selector:
    app: bookshelf
    tier: frontend

Notice that the pods and the service that uses the pods are separate. Kubernetes uses labels to select the pods that a service addresses. With labels, you can have a service that addresses pods from different replica sets and have multiple services that point to an individual pod.

  1. Create the Bookshelf service.

    kubectl create -f bookshelf-service.yaml
    
  2. Get the service's external IP address.

    kubectl describe service bookshelf
    

    It might take up to a minute to allocate the IP address. The external IP address is listed under LoadBalancer Ingress.

Accessing the Bookshelf app

You've now deployed all the resources needed to run the Bookshelf app on GKE. To load the app in your browser and create books, use the external IP address from the previous step.

If you deployed the worker, the books are automatically updated with information from the Google Books API.

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud Platform account for the resources used in this tutorial:

Delete the project

The easiest way to eliminate billing is to delete the project that you created for the tutorial.

To delete the project:

  1. GCP Console で [プロジェクト] ページに移動します。

    プロジェクト ページに移動

  2. プロジェクト リストで、削除するプロジェクトを選択し、[削除] をクリックします。
  3. ダイアログでプロジェクト ID を入力し、[シャットダウン] をクリックしてプロジェクトを削除します。

Delete the cluster

Deleting the cluster removes all GKE and Compute Engine resources, but you need to manually remove any resources in Cloud Storage, Cloud Datastore, and Cloud Pub/Sub.

Delete the cluster by using the following command. Replace [YOUR_GCP_ZONE] with the zone you used when creating the cluster.

gcloud container clusters delete bookshelf --zone [YOUR_GCP_ZONE]

What's next

  • Try out other Google Cloud Platform features for yourself. Have a look at our tutorials.
  • Explore other GCP services.
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