Troubleshooting the container runtime


This document provides troubleshooting steps for common issues that you might encounter with the container runtime on your Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) nodes.

If you need additional assistance, reach out to Cloud Customer Care.

Mount paths with simple drive letters fail on Windows node pools with containerd

This issue has been resolved in containerd version 1.6.6 and higher.

GKE clusters running Windows Server node pools that use the containerd runtime prior to version 1.6.6 might experience errors when starting containers like the following:

failed to create containerd task : CreateComputeSystem : The parameter is incorrect : unknown

For more details, refer to GitHub issue #6589.

Solution

To resolve this issue, upgrade your node pools to the latest GKE versions that uses containerd runtime version 1.6.6 or higher.

Container images with non-array pre-escaped CMD or ENTRYPOINT command lines fail on Windows node pools with containerd

This issue has been resolved in containerd version 1.6 and higher.

GKE clusters running Windows Server node pools that use the containerd runtime 1.5.X might experience errors when starting containers like the following:

failed to start containerd task : hcs::System::CreateProcess : The system cannot find the file specified.: unknown

For more details, refer to GitHub issue #5067 and GitHub issue #6300.

Solution

To resolve this issue, upgrade your node pools to the latest GKE versions that uses containerd runtime version 1.6.6 or higher.

Container image volumes with non-existing paths or Linux-like (forward slash) paths fail on Windows node pools with containerd

This issue has been resolved in containerd version 1.6 and higher.

GKE clusters running Windows Server node pools that use the containerd runtime 1.5.X might experience errors when starting containers like the following:

failed to generate spec: failed to stat "<volume_path>": CreateFile : The system cannot find the path specified.

For more details, refer to GitHub issue #5671.

Solution

To resolve this issue, upgrade your node pools to the latest GKE versions that uses containerd runtime version 1.6.x or higher.

/etc/mtab: No such file or directory

The Docker container runtime populates this symlink inside the container by default, but the containerd runtime does not.

For more details, refer to GitHub issue #2419.

Solution

To resolve this issue, manually create the symlink /etc/mtab during your image build.

ln -sf /proc/mounts /etc/mtab

Image pull error: not a directory

Affected GKE versions: all

When you build an image with kaniko, it might fail to be pulled with containerd with the error message "not a directory". This error happens if the image is built in a special way: when a previous command removes a directory and the next command recreates the same files in that directory.

The following Dockerfile example with npm that illustrates this problem.

RUN npm cache clean --force
RUN npm install

For more details, refer to GitHub issue #4659.

Solution

To resolve this issue, build your image using docker build, which is unaffected by this issue.

If docker build isn't an option for you, then combine the commands into one. The following Dockerfile example combines RUN npm cache clean --force and RUN npm install:

RUN npm cache clean --force && npm install

Some file system metrics are missing and the metrics format is different

Affected GKE versions: all

The Kubelet /metrics/cadvisor endpoint provides Prometheus metrics, as documented in Metrics for Kubernetes system components. If you install a metrics collector that depends on that endpoint, you might see the following issues:

  • The metrics format on the Docker node is k8s_<container-name>_<pod-name>_<namespace>_<pod-uid>_<restart-count> but the format on the containerd node is <container-id>.
  • Some file system metrics are missing on the containerd node, as follows:

    container_fs_inodes_free
    container_fs_inodes_total
    container_fs_io_current
    container_fs_io_time_seconds_total
    container_fs_io_time_weighted_seconds_total
    container_fs_limit_bytes
    container_fs_read_seconds_total
    container_fs_reads_merged_total
    container_fs_sector_reads_total
    container_fs_sector_writes_total
    container_fs_usage_bytes
    container_fs_write_seconds_total
    container_fs_writes_merged_total
    

Solution

You can mitigate this issue by using cAdvisor as a standalone daemonset.

  1. Find the latest cAdvisor release with the name pattern vX.Y.Z-containerd-cri (for example, v0.42.0-containerd-cri).
  2. Follow the steps in cAdvisor Kubernetes Daemonset to create the daemonset.
  3. Point the installed metrics collector to use the cAdvisor /metrics endpoint that provides the full set of Prometheus container metrics.

Alternatives

  1. Migrate your monitoring solution to Cloud Monitoring, which provides the full set of container metrics.
  2. Collect metrics from the Kubelet summary API with an endpoint of /stats/summary.

Attach-based operations don't function correctly after container-runtime restarts on GKE Windows

Affected GKE versions: 1.21 to 1.21.5-gke.1802, 1.22 to 1.22.3-gke.700

GKE clusters running Windows Server node pools that use the containerd runtime (version 1.5.4 and 1.5.7-gke.0) might experience issues if the container runtime is forcibly restarted, with attach operations to existing running containers not being able to bind IO again. The issue won't cause failures in API calls, however data won't be sent or received. This includes data for attach and logs CLIs and APIs through the cluster API server.

Solution

To resolve this issue, upgrade to patched container runtime version (1.5.7-gke.1) with newer GKE releases.

Pods display failed to allocate for range 0: no IP addresses available in range set error message

Affected GKE versions: 1.24.6-gke.1500 or earlier, 1.23.14-gke.1800 or earlier, and 1.22.16-gke.2000 or earlier

GKE clusters running node pools that use containerd might experience IP leak issues and exhaust all the Pod IPs on a node. A Pod scheduled on an affected node displays an error message similar to the following:

failed to allocate for range 0: no IP addresses available in range set: 10.48.131.1-10.48.131.62

For more information about the issue, see containerd GitHub issue #5438 and GitHub issue #5768.

There is a known issue in GKE Dataplane V2 that can trigger this issue. However, this issue can be triggered by other causes, including runc stuck.

Solution

To resolve this issue, follow the workarounds mentioned in the Workarounds for Standard GKE clusters for GKE Dataplane V2.

Exec probe behavior difference when probe exceeds the timeout

Affected GKE versions: all

Exec probe behavior on containerd images is different from the behavior on dockershim images. When exec probe, defined for the Pod, exceeds the declared Kubernetes timeoutSeconds threshold, on dockershim images, it is treated as a probe failure. On containerd images, probe results returned after the declared timeoutSeconds threshold are ignored.

Solution

In GKE, the feature gate ExecProbeTimeout is set to false and cannot be changed. To resolve this issue, increase the timeoutSeconds threshold for all affected exec probes or implement the timeout functionality as part of the probe logic.

Troubleshoot issues with private registries

This section provides troubleshooting information for private registry configurations in containerd.

Image pull fails with error x509: certificate signed by unknown authority

This issue occurs if GKE couldn't find a certificate for a specific private registry domain. You can check for this error in Cloud Logging using the following query:

  1. Go to the Logs Explorer page in the Google Cloud console:

    Go to Logs Explorer

  2. Run the following query:

    ("Internal error pulling certificate" OR
    "Failed to get credentials from metadata server" OR
    "Failed to install certificate")
    

To resolve this issue, try the following:

  1. In GKE Standard, open the configuration file exists in the following path:

    /etc/containerd/hosts.d/DOMAIN/config.toml
    

    Replace DOMAIN with the FQDN for the registry.

  2. Verify that your configuration file contains the correct FQDN.

  3. Verify that the path to the certificate in the secretURI field in the configuration file is correct.

  4. Verify that the certificate exists in Secret Manager.

Certificate not present

This issue occurs if GKE couldn't pull the certificate from Secret Manager to configure containerd on your nodes.

To resolve this issue, try the following:

  1. Ensure that the affected node runs Container-Optimized OS. Ubuntu and Windows nodes aren't supported.
  2. In your configuration file, ensure that the path to the secret in the secretURI field is correct.
  3. Check that your cluster's IAM service account has the correct permissions to access the secret.
  4. Check that the cluster has the cloud-platform access scope. For instructions, see Check access scopes.

Insecure registry option is not configured for local network (10.0.0.0/8)

Affected GKE versions: all

On containerd images, the insecure registry option is not configured for local network 10.0.0.0/8. If you use insecure private registries, you might notice errors similar to the following:

pulling image: rpc error: code = Unknown desc = failed to pull and unpack image "IMAGE_NAME": failed to do request: Head "IMAGE_NAME": http: server gave HTTP response to HTTPS client

To resolve this issue, try the following:

Configure privileged DaemonSets to modify your containerd configuration

For Standard clusters, try the following steps. This workaround isn't available in Autopilot because privileged containers are a security risk. If your environment is exposed to the internet, consider your risk tolerance before deploying this solution. In all cases, we strongly recommend that you configure TLS for your private registry and use the Secret Manager option instead.

  1. Review the following manifest:

    apiVersion: apps/v1
    kind: DaemonSet
    metadata:
      name: insecure-registries
      namespace: default
      labels:
        k8s-app: insecure-registries
    spec:
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          name: insecure-registries
      updateStrategy:
        type: RollingUpdate
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            name: insecure-registries
        spec:
          nodeSelector:
            cloud.google.com/gke-container-runtime: "containerd"
          hostPID: true
          containers:
            - name: startup-script
              image: gcr.io/google-containers/startup-script:v1
              imagePullPolicy: Always
              securityContext:
                privileged: true
              env:
              - name: ADDRESS
                value: "REGISTRY_ADDRESS"
              - name: STARTUP_SCRIPT
                value: |
                  set -o errexit
                  set -o pipefail
                  set -o nounset
    
                  if [[ -z "$ADDRESS" || "$ADDRESS" == "REGISTRY_ADDRESS" ]]; then
                    echo "Error: Environment variable ADDRESS is not set in containers.spec.env"
                    exit 1
                  fi
    
                  echo "Allowlisting insecure registries"
                  grep -qxF '[plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors."'$ADDRESS'"]' /etc/containerd/config.toml || \
                    echo -e '[plugins."io.containerd.grpc.v1.cri".registry.mirrors."'$ADDRESS'"]\n  endpoint = ["http://'$ADDRESS'"]' >> /etc/containerd/config.toml
                  echo "Reloading systemd management configuration"
                  systemctl daemon-reload
                  echo "Restarting containerd..."
                  systemctl restart containerd

    In the .spec.containers.env field, replace the REGISTRY_ADDRESS value of the ADDRESS variable with the address of your local HTTP registry in the format DOMAIN_NAME:PORT. For example,

    containers:
    - name: startup-script
      ...
      env:
      - name: ADDRESS
        value: "example.com:5000"
    
  2. Deploy the DaemonSet:

    kubectl apply -f insecure-registry-ds.yaml
    

The DaemonSet adds your insecure registry to the containerd configuration on every node.

containerd ignores any device mappings for privileged pods

Affected GKE versions: all

For privileged Kubernetes Pods, the container runtime ignores any device mappings that volumeDevices.devicePath pass to it, and instead makes every device on the host available to the container under /dev.

containerd leaks shim processes when nodes are under I/O pressure

Affected GKE versions: 1.25.0 to 1.25.15-gke.1040000, 1.26.0 to 1.26.10-gke.1030000, 1.27.0 to 1.27.6-gke.1513000, and 1.28.0 to 1.28.3-gke.1061000

When a GKE node is under I/O pressure, containerd might fail to delete the containerd-shim-runc-v2 processes when a Pod is deleted, resulting in process leaks. When the leak happens on a node, you'll see more containerd-shim-runc-v2 processes on the node than the number of Pods on that node. You might also see increased memory and CPU usage along with extra PIDs. For details, see the GitHub issue Fix leaked shim caused by high IO pressure.

To resolve this issue, upgrade your nodes to the following versions or later:

  • 1.25.15-gke.1040000
  • 1.26.10-gke.1030000
  • 1.27.6-gke.1513000
  • 1.28.3-gke.1061000

IPv6 address family is enabled on pods running containerd

Affected GKE versions: 1.18, 1.19, 1.20.0 to 1.20.9

IPv6 image family is enabled for Pods running with containerd. The dockershim image disables IPv6 on all Pods, while the containerd image does not. For example, localhost resolves to IPv6 address ::1 first. This typically isn't a problem, but this might result in unexpected behavior in certain cases.

Solution

To resolve this issue, use an IPv4 address such as 127.0.0.1 explicitly, or configure an application running in the Pod to work on both address families.

Node auto-provisioning only provisions Container-Optimized OS with Docker node pools

Affected GKE versions: 1.18, 1.19, 1.20.0 to 1.20.6-gke.1800

Node auto-provisioning allows autoscaling node pools with any supported image type, but can only create new node pools with the Container-Optimized OS with Docker image type.

Solution

To resolve this issue, upgrade your GKE clusters to version 1.20.6-gke.1800 or later. In these GKE versions, the default image type can be set for the cluster.

Conflict with 172.17/16 IP address range

Affected GKE versions: 1.18.0 to 1.18.14

The 172.17/16 IP address range is occupied by the docker0 interface on the node VM with containerd enabled. Traffic sending to or originating from that range might not be routed correctly (for example, a Pod might not be able to connect to a VPN-connected host with an IP address within 172.17/16).

GPU metrics not collected

Affected GKE versions: 1.18.0 to 1.18.18

GPU usage metrics are not collected when using containerd as a runtime on GKE versions before 1.18.18.

Solution

To resolve this issue, upgrade your clusters to GKE versions 1.18.18 or later.

Images with config.mediaType set to application/octet-stream can't be used on containerd

Affected GKE versions: all

Images with config.mediaType set to "application/octet-stream" cannot be used on containerd. For more information, see GitHub issue #4756. These images are not compatible with the Open Container Initiative specification and are considered incorrect. These images work with Docker to provide backward compatibility, while in containerd these images are not supported.

Symptom and diagnosis

Example error in node logs:

Error syncing pod <pod-uid> ("<pod-name>_<namespace>(<pod-uid>)"), skipping: failed to "StartContainer" for "<container-name>" with CreateContainerError: "failed to create containerd container: error unpacking image: failed to extract layer sha256:<some id>: failed to get reader from content store: content digest sha256:<some id>: not found"

The image manifest can usually be found in the registry where it is hosted. Once you have the manifest, check config.mediaType to determine if you have this issue:

"mediaType": "application/octet-stream",

Solution

As the containerd community decided to not support such images, all versions of containerd are affected and there is no fix. The container image must be rebuilt with Docker version 1.11 or later and you must ensure that the config.mediaType field is not set to "application/octet-stream".

CNI config uninitialized

Affected GKE versions: all

GKE fails to create nodes during an upgrade, resize, or other action.

Symptom and diagnosis

Example error in the Google Cloud console:

Error: "runtime network not ready: NetworkReady=false reason:NetworkPluginNotReady message:docker: network plugin is not ready: cni config uninitialized".

This error might occur in the following situations:

  • During node bootstrapping in log files while GKE installs the CNI config.
  • As a node error status in the Google Cloud console if a custom webhook that intercepts the DaemonSet controller command to create a Pod has errors. This prevents GKE from creating a netd or calico-node Pod. If netd or calico-node Pods started successfully while the error persists, contact support.

Solution

To resolve this issue, try the following solutions:

  • Wait for GKE to finish installing the CNI config.
  • Remove any misconfigured webhooks.
  • Configure webhooks to ignore system Pods.

What's next

If you need additional assistance, reach out to Cloud Customer Care.