Troubleshooting and operations for Multi Cluster Ingress

The GKE Enterprise Ingress controller manages Compute Engine resources. MultiClusterIngress and MultiClusterService resources map to different Compute Engine resources, so understanding the relationship between these resources helps you troubleshoot. For example, examine the following MultiClusterIngress resource:

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: MultiClusterIngress
  name: foo-ingress
  - host:
      - backend:
          serviceName: store-foo
          servicePort: 80
  - host:
      - backend:
          serviceName: search-foo
          servicePort: 80

Compute Engine to Multi Cluster Ingress resource mappings

The table below shows the mapping of fleet resources to resources created in the Kubernetes clusters and Google Cloud:

Kubernetes resource Google Cloud resource Description
MultiClusterIngress Forwarding rule HTTP(S) load balancer VIP.
Target proxy HTTP/S terminations settings taken from annotations and the TLS block.
URL map Virtual host path mapping from the rules section.
MultiClusterService Kubernetes Service Derived resource from template.
Backend service A backend service is created for each (Service, ServicePort) pair.
Network endpoint groups Set of backend Pods participating in the Service.

Inspecting Compute Engine load balancer resources

After creating a load balancer, the Multi Cluster Ingress status will contain the names of every Compute Engine resource that was created to construct the load balancer. For example:

Name:         shopping-service
Namespace:    prod
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:
Kind:         MultiClusterIngress
  Creation Timestamp:  2019-07-16T17:23:14Z
        Service Name:  shopping-service
        Service Port:  80
    Firewalls: "mci-l7"
    ForwardingRules: "mci-abcdef-myforwardingrule"
    TargetProxies: "mci-abcdef-mytargetproxy"
    UrlMap: "mci-abcdef-myurlmap"
    HealthChecks: "mci-abcdef-80-myhealthcheck"
    BackendServices: "mci-abcdef-80-mybackendservice"
    NetworkEndpointGroups: "k8s1-neg1", "k8s1-neg2", "k8s1-neg3"

VIP not created

If you do not see a VIP, then an error may have occurred during its creation. To see if an error did occur, run the following command:

kubectl describe mci shopping-service

The output may look similar to:

Name:         shopping-service
Namespace:    prod
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  <none>
API Version:
Kind:         MultiClusterIngress
  Creation Timestamp:  2019-07-16T17:23:14Z
        Service Name:  shopping-service
        Service Port:  80
  Type     Reason  Age   From                              Message
  ----     ------  ----  ----                              -------
  Warning  SYNC    29s   multi-cluster-ingress-controller  error translating MCI prod/shopping-service: exceeded 4 retries with final error: error translating MCI prod/shopping-service: multiclusterservice prod/shopping-service does not exist

In this example, the error was that the user did not create a MultiClusterService resource that was referenced by a MultiClusterIngress.

502 response

If your load balancer acquired a VIP but is consistently serving a 502 response, the load balancer health checks may be failing. Health checks could fail for two reasons:

  1. Application Pods are not healthy (see Cloud console debugging for example).
  2. A misconfigured firewall is blocking Google health checkers from performing health checks.

In the case of #1, make sure that your application is in fact serving a 200 response on the "/" path.

In the case of #2, make sure that a firewall named "mci-default-l7" exists in your VPC. The Ingress controller creates the firewall in your VPC to ensure Google health checkers can reach your backends. If the firewall does not exist, make sure there is no external automation that deletes this firewall upon its creation.

Traffic not added to or removed from cluster

When adding a new Membership, traffic should reach the backends in the underlying cluster when applicable. Similarly, if a Membership is removed, no traffic should reach the backends in the underlying cluster. If you are not observing this behavior, check for errors on the MultiClusterIngress and MultiClusterService resource.

Common cases in which this error would occur include adding a new Membership on a GKE cluster that is not in VPC-native mode or adding a new Membership but not deploying an application in the GKE cluster.

  1. Describe the MultiClusterService:

    kubectl describe mcs zone-svc
  2. Describe the MultiClusterIngress:

    kubectl describe mci zone-mci

Config cluster migration

To understand more about the use cases for migration, see the Config cluster design concept.

Config cluster migration can be a disruptive operation if not handled correctly. Follow these guidelines when performing a config cluster migration:

  1. Make sure to use the static-ip annotation on your MultiClusterIngress resources. Failing to do so will result in disrupted traffic while migrating. Ephemeral IPs will be recreated when migrating config clusters.
  2. The MultiClusterIngress and MultiClusterService resources must be deployed identically to the existing and new config cluster. Differences between them will result in the reconciliation of MultiClusterService and MultiClusterIngress resources that are different in the new config cluster.
  3. Only a single config cluster is active at any time. Until the config cluster is changed, the MultiClusterIngress and MultiClusterService resources in the new config cluster will not impact load balancer resources.

To migrate the config cluster, run the following command:

  gcloud container fleet ingress update \

Verify the command worked by ensuring there are no visible errors in the Feature state:

  gcloud container fleet ingress describe

Console debugging

In most cases, checking the exact state of the load balancer is helpful when debugging an issue. You can find the load balancer by going to Load balancing in the Google Cloud console.

Error/Warning codes

Multi Cluster Ingress emits error and warning codes on MultiClusterIngress and MultiClusterService resources as well as the gcloud multiclusteringress Description field for known issues. These messages have documented error and warning codes to make it easier to understand what it means when something is not operating as expected. Each code consists of an error ID in the format AVMBR123 where 123 is a unique number that corresponds to an error or warning and suggestions on how to solve it.

AVMBR101: Annotation [NAME] not recognized

This error displays when an annotation is specified on a MultiClusterIngress or MultiClusterService manifest that is not recognized. There are a couple reasons why the annotation might not be recognized:

  1. The annotation is not supported in Multi Cluster Ingress. This may be expected if annotating resources that are not expected to be used by the GKE Enterprise Ingress controller.

  2. The annotation is supported, but is misspelled and thus not recognized.

In both cases, please refer to documentation to understand the supported annotations and how they are specified.

AVMBR102: [RESOURCE_NAME] not found

This error displays when a supplementary resource is specified in a MultiClusterIngress but cannot be found in the Config Membership. For example, this error is thrown when a MultiClusterIngress refers to a MultiClusterService that cannot be found or a MultiClusterService refers to a BackendConfig that cannot be found. There are a couple reasons why a resource could not be found:

  1. It is not in the proper namespace. Ensure that resources which reference each other are all in the same namespace.
  2. The resource name is misspelled.
  3. The resource truly does not exist with the proper namespace + name. In this case, please create it.


This error displays when a cluster selector specified on a MultiClusterService is invalid. There are a couple reasons why this selector could be invalid:

  1. The provided string contains a typo.
  2. The provided string refers to a cluster membership that no longer exists in the fleet.

AVMBR104: Cannot find NEGs for Service Port [SERVICE_PORT]

This error is thrown when the NetworkEndpointGroup's (NEGs) for a given MultiClusterService and service port pair cannot be found. NEGs are the resources which contain the Pod endpoints in each of your backend clusters. The main reason why the NEGs might not exist is because there was an error creating or updating the Derived Services in your backend clusters. Check the Events on your MultiClusterService resource for more information.

AVMBR105: Missing GKE Enterprise license.

This error displays under Feature state, and indicates that the GKE Enterprise API ( is not enabled.

AVMBR106: Derived service is invalid: [REASON].

This error displays under the events of the MultiClusterService resource. One common reason for this error is that the Service resource derived from MultiClusterService has an invalid spec.

For example, this MultiClusterService does not have any ServicePort defined in its spec.

kind: MultiClusterService
  name: zone-mcs
  namespace: whereami
  - link: "us-central1-a/gke-us"
  - link: "europe-west1-c/gke-eu"

This error displays under Feature state and occurs because there is no GKE cluster underlying the Membership resource. You can verify this by running the following command:

gcloud container fleet memberships describe membership-name

and ensuring that there is no GKE cluster resource link under the endpoint field.

AVMBR108: GKE cluster [NAME] not found.

This error displays under Feature state and is thrown if the underlying GKE cluster for the Membership does not exist.

AVMBR109: [NAME] is not a VPC-native GKE cluster.

This error displays under Feature state. This error is thrown if the specified GKE cluster is a route-based cluster. The Multi Cluster Ingress controller creates a container-native load balancer using NEGs. Clusters must be VPC-native to use a container-native load balancer.

For more information, see Creating a VPC-native cluster.

AVMBR110: [IAM_PERMISSION] permission missing for GKE cluster [NAME].

This error displays under Feature state. There are a couple reasons for this error:

  1. The underlying GKE cluster for the Membership is located in a different project from the Membership itself.
  2. The specified IAM permission was removed from the MultiClusterIngress service agent.

AVMBR111: Failed to get Config Membership: [REASON].

This error displays under Feature state. The main reason this error occurs is because the Config Membership was deleted while the Feature is enabled.

You should never need to delete the Config Membership. If you would like to change it, follow the config cluster migration steps.

AVMBR112: HTTPLoadBalancing Addon is disabled in GKE Cluster [NAME].

This error displays under Feature state and occurs when the HTTPLoadBalancing addon is disabled in a GKE cluster. You can update your GKE cluster to enable the HTTPLoadBalancing addon:

gcloud container clusters update name --update-addons=HttpLoadBalancing=ENABLED

AVMBR113: This resource is orphaned.

In some cases, the usefulness of a resource depends on it being referenced by another resource. This error is thrown when a Kubernetes resource is created but is not referenced by another resource. For example, you will see this error if you create a BackendConfig resource that is not being referenced by a MultiClusterService.