Bucket locations

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This page explains the concept of bucket location and the different locations where you can create buckets. A bucket's location defines the physical place where object data in the bucket resides.

To learn how to set the location for your bucket, see Create storage buckets.

Key concepts

  • You permanently set a geographic location for storing your object data when you create a bucket.

  • You can select from the following location types:

    • A region is a specific geographic place, such as São Paulo.

    • A dual-region is a specific pair of regions, such as Tokyo and Osaka.

    • A multi-region is a large geographic area, such as the United States, that contains two or more geographic places.

  • All Cloud Storage data is redundant across at least two zones within at least one geographic place as soon as you upload it.

  • Additionally, objects stored in a multi-region or dual-region are geo-redundant. Objects that are geo-redundant are stored redundantly in at least two separate geographic places separated by at least 100 miles.

    • Default replication is designed to provide geo-redundancy for 99.9% of newly written objects within a target of one hour. Newly written objects include uploads, rewrites, copies, and compositions.

    • Turbo replication provides geo-redundancy for all newly written objects within a target of 15 minutes. Applicable only for dual-region buckets.

  • Cloud Storage stores object data in the selected location in accordance with the Service Specific Terms.

Location considerations

A good location balances latency, availability, and bandwidth costs for data consumers.

  • Use a region to help optimize latency and network bandwidth for data consumers, such as analytics pipelines, that are run in the same region.

    • Regions are particularly good choices for short-lived data since there are no data replication charges assessed in regional locations.
  • Use a dual-region when you want similar performance advantages as regions, but also want the higher availability that comes with being geo-redundant.

    • While traditional storage models often rely on primary and secondary geographic locations, dual-regions simplify the business continuity and disaster recovery process by eliminating the need to redirect network usage between primary and secondary locations. Cloud Storage always understands the current state of the bucket and will transparently serve objects from either region as required. Dual-region buckets are designed to have a recovery time objective (RTO) of zero and temporary regional failures are normally invisible to users.

    • Dual-regions are particularly well suited for high performance analytics workloads which can run active-active in both regions simultaneously. This means users can read and write data in both regions to the same bucket and experience high performance. Dual-regions are strongly consistent so that the view of data is always the same regardless of where the reads and writes are taking place.

    • Use turbo replication when you want a shorter, more predictable recovery point objective (RPO). This feature is designed to asynchronously replicate newly written and rewritten Cloud Storage objects to a separate region within a target of 15 minutes.

    • Dual-regions give users the power to choose where their data is stored to help address compliance requirements. For example, addressing industry-specific requirements regarding the physical distance between copies of the data.

  • Use a multi-region when you want to serve content to data consumers that are outside of the Google network and distributed across large geographic areas.

  • Generally, you should store your data in a location that is convenient or contains the majority of the users of your data. For instance, for EU data you might choose an EU bucket, and for US data you might choose a US bucket.

  • See the data storage pricing table for storage costs in each location.

Compute Engine VM notes

  • Storing data in the same region as your Compute Engine VM instances can provide better performance. This advantage applies to both regions and dual-regions.
  • While you can't specify a Compute Engine zone as a bucket location, all Compute Engine VM instances in zones within a given region have similar performance when accessing buckets in that region.

Available locations

The following sections list the Cloud Storage locations available for storing your data.

Regions

All regions are at least 100 miles apart.

Continent Region Name Region Description
North America
NORTHAMERICA-NORTHEAST1 Montréal leaf icon Low CO2
NORTHAMERICA-NORTHEAST2 Toronto leaf icon Low CO2
US-CENTRAL1 Iowa leaf icon Low CO2
US-EAST1 South Carolina
US-EAST4 Northern Virginia
US-EAST5 Columbus
US-SOUTH1 Dallas
US-WEST1 Oregon leaf icon Low CO2
US-WEST2 Los Angeles
US-WEST3 Salt Lake City
US-WEST4 Las Vegas
South America
SOUTHAMERICA-EAST1 São Paulo leaf icon Low CO2
SOUTHAMERICA-WEST1 Santiago
Europe
EUROPE-CENTRAL2 Warsaw
EUROPE-NORTH1 Finland leaf icon Low CO2
EUROPE-SOUTHWEST1 Madrid leaf icon Low CO2
EUROPE-WEST1 Belgium leaf icon Low CO2
EUROPE-WEST2 London
EUROPE-WEST3 Frankfurt
EUROPE-WEST4 Netherlands
EUROPE-WEST6 Zürich leaf icon Low CO2
EUROPE-WEST8 Milan
EUROPE-WEST9 Paris leaf icon Low CO2
Asia
ASIA-EAST1 Taiwan
ASIA-EAST2 Hong Kong
ASIA-NORTHEAST1 Tokyo
ASIA-NORTHEAST2 Osaka
ASIA-NORTHEAST3 Seoul
ASIA-SOUTH1 Mumbai
ASIA-SOUTH2 Delhi
ASIA-SOUTHEAST1 Singapore
Indonesia
ASIA-SOUTHEAST2 Jakarta
Australia
AUSTRALIA-SOUTHEAST1 Sydney
AUSTRALIA-SOUTHEAST2 Melbourne

Dual-regions

The following regions are currently supported:

Continent Region Name Region Description
North America
US-CENTRAL1 Iowa
US-EAST1 South Carolina
US-EAST4 Northern Virginia
US-WEST1 Oregon
Asia
ASIA-EAST1 Taiwan
ASIA-SOUTHEAST1 Singapore
Europe
EUROPE-NORTH1 Finland
EUROPE-WEST1 Belgium
EUROPE-WEST4 Netherlands

Predefined dual-regions

The following predefined dual-regions are also supported. For more information, see Create a dual-region bucket.

Dual-Region Name Dual-Region Description
NAM4 Iowa and South Carolina
ASIA1 Tokyo and Osaka
EUR4 Finland and Netherlands

Multi-regions

Multi-Region Name Multi-Region Description
ASIA Data centers in Asia
EU Data centers within member states of the European Union*
US Data centers in the United States

* Object data added to a bucket in the EU multi-region is not stored in the EUROPE-WEST2 (London) or EUROPE-WEST6 (Zurich) regions.

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