Mit STRUCT-Objekten arbeiten

Mit Cloud Spanner können Sie STRUCT-Objekte aus Daten erstellen und STRUCT-Objekte als gebundene Parameter verwenden, wenn Sie eine SQL-Abfrage mit einer der Cloud Spanner-Clientbibliotheken ausführen.

Weitere Informationen zum Typ STRUCT in Cloud Spanner finden Sie unter Datentypen.

Benutzerdefinierten STRUCT-Objekttyp angeben

Sie können ein STRUCT-Objekt in Abfragen mit der Syntax deklarieren, die unter STRUCT-Typ angeben beschrieben wird.

Ein STRUCT-Objekttyp lässt sich als eine Folge von Feldnamen mit zugehörigen Datentypen definieren. Sie können diesen Typ dann zusammen mit Abfragen bereitstellen, die STRUCT-typisierte Parameterbindungen enthalten. Im Anschluss prüft Cloud Spanner anhand des Typs, ob die STRUCT-Parameterwerte in Ihrer Abfrage gültig sind.

C++

// Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types are represented by std::tuple<...>. The
// following represents a STRUCT<> with two unnamed STRING fields.
using NameType = std::tuple<std::string, std::string>;

C#

var nameType = new SpannerStruct
{
    { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, null},
    { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, null}
};

Go


type nameType struct {
	FirstName string
	LastName  string
}

Java

Type nameType =
    Type.struct(
        Arrays.asList(
            StructField.of("FirstName", Type.string()),
            StructField.of("LastName", Type.string())));

Node.js

const nameType = {
  type: 'struct',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'FirstName',
      type: 'string',
    },
    {
      name: 'LastName',
      type: 'string',
    },
  ],
};

PHP

$nameType = new ArrayType(
    (new StructType)
        ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
        ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
);

Python

name_type = param_types.Struct(
    [
        param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
        param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
    ]
)

Ruby

name_type = client.fields FirstName: :STRING, LastName: :STRING

STRUCT-Objekte erstellen

Das folgende Beispiel zeigt, wie STRUCT-Objekte mithilfe der Cloud Spanner-Clientbibliotheken erstellt werden.

C++

// Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types are represented by std::tuple<...>. The
// following represents a STRUCT<> with two unnamed STRING fields.
using NameType = std::tuple<std::string, std::string>;
auto singer_info = NameType{"Elena", "Campbell"};

C#

var nameStruct = new SpannerStruct
{
    { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" },
    { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" },
};

Go


type name struct {
	FirstName string
	LastName  string
}
var singerInfo = name{"Elena", "Campbell"}

Java

Struct name =
    Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Elena").set("LastName").to("Campbell").build();

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

const nameStruct = Spanner.struct({
  FirstName: 'Elena',
  LastName: 'Campbell',
});

PHP

$nameValue = (new StructValue)
    ->add('FirstName', 'Elena')
    ->add('LastName', 'Campbell');
$nameType = (new StructType)
    ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
    ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING);

Python

record_type = param_types.Struct(
    [
        param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
        param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
    ]
)
record_value = ("Elena", "Campbell")

Ruby

name_struct = { FirstName: "Elena", LastName: "Campbell" }

Sie können mit den Clientbibliotheken auch ein Array von STRUCT-Objekten wie im folgenden Beispiel erstellen:

C++

// Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types with named fields are represented by
// std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, T>...>, create an alias to make it easier
// to follow this code.
using SingerName = std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                              std::pair<std::string, std::string>>;
auto make_name = [](std::string first_name, std::string last_name) {
  return std::make_tuple(std::make_pair("FirstName", std::move(first_name)),
                         std::make_pair("LastName", std::move(last_name)));
};
std::vector<SingerName> singer_info{
    make_name("Elena", "Campbell"),
    make_name("Gabriel", "Wright"),
    make_name("Benjamin", "Martinez"),
};

C#

var bandMembers = new List<SpannerStruct>
{
    new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" }, { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" } },
    new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Gabriel" }, { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Wright" } },
    new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Benjamin" }, { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Martinez" } },
};

Go


var bandMembers = []nameType{
	{"Elena", "Campbell"},
	{"Gabriel", "Wright"},
	{"Benjamin", "Martinez"},
}

Java

List<Struct> bandMembers = new ArrayList<>();
bandMembers.add(
    Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Elena").set("LastName").to("Campbell").build());
bandMembers.add(
    Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Gabriel").set("LastName").to("Wright").build());
bandMembers.add(
    Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Benjamin").set("LastName").to("Martinez").build());

Node.js

const bandMembersType = {
  type: 'array',
  child: nameType,
};

const bandMembers = [
  Spanner.struct({
    FirstName: 'Elena',
    LastName: 'Campbell',
  }),
  Spanner.struct({
    FirstName: 'Gabriel',
    LastName: 'Wright',
  }),
  Spanner.struct({
    FirstName: 'Benjamin',
    LastName: 'Martinez',
  }),
];

PHP

$bandMembers = [
    (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Elena')
        ->add('LastName', 'Campbell'),
    (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Gabriel')
        ->add('LastName', 'Wright'),
    (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Benjamin')
        ->add('LastName', 'Martinez')
];

Python

band_members = [
    ("Elena", "Campbell"),
    ("Gabriel", "Wright"),
    ("Benjamin", "Martinez"),
]

Ruby

band_members = [name_type.struct(["Elena", "Campbell"]),
                name_type.struct(["Gabriel", "Wright"]),
                name_type.struct(["Benjamin", "Martinez"])]

STRUCT-Objekte in SQL-Abfrageergebnissen zurückgeben

Eine Cloud Spanner-SQL-Abfrage kann ein Array von STRUCT-Objekten als Spalte für bestimmte Abfragen zurückgeben. Weitere Informationen finden Sie unter STRUCTs mit SELECT verwenden.

STRUCT-Objekte als gebundene Parameter in SQL-Abfragen verwenden

Sie können STRUCT-Objekte als gebundene Parameter in einer SQL-Abfrage verwenden. Weitere Informationen zu Parametern finden Sie unter Abfrageparameter.

Daten mit einem STRUCT-Objekt abfragen

Das folgende Beispiel zeigt, wie Sie Werte in einem STRUCT-Objekt an Parameter in einer SQL-Abfrageanweisung binden, die Abfrage ausführen und die Ergebnisse ausgeben.

C++

void QueryDataWithStruct(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  // Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types are represented by std::tuple<...>. The
  // following represents a STRUCT<> with two unnamed STRING fields.
  using NameType = std::tuple<std::string, std::string>;
  auto singer_info = NameType{"Elena", "Campbell"};
  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE (FirstName, LastName) = @name",
      {{"name", spanner::Value(singer_info)}}));

  for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<std::tuple<std::int64_t>>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::runtime_error(row.status().message());
    std::cout << "SingerId: " << std::get<0>(*row) << "\n";
  }
  std::cout << "Query completed for [spanner_query_data_with_struct]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class QueryDataWithStructAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<List<int>> QueryDataWithStructAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        var nameStruct = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" },
            { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" },
        };

        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        var singerIds = new List<int>();
        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        using var cmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
            "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers "
            + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
            + "(FirstName, LastName) = @name");

        cmd.Parameters.Add("name", nameStruct.GetSpannerDbType(), nameStruct);
        using var reader = await cmd.ExecuteReaderAsync();
        while (await reader.ReadAsync())
        {
            singerIds.Add(reader.GetFieldValue<int>("SingerId"));
        }
        return singerIds;
    }
}

Go


stmt := spanner.Statement{
	SQL: `SELECT SingerId FROM SINGERS
			WHERE (FirstName, LastName) = @singerinfo`,
	Params: map[string]interface{}{"singerinfo": singerInfo},
}
iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
defer iter.Stop()
for {
	row, err := iter.Next()
	if err == iterator.Done {
		return nil
	}
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	var singerID int64
	if err := row.Columns(&singerID); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d\n", singerID)
}

Java

Statement s =
    Statement.newBuilder(
            "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers "
                + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                + "= @name")
        .bind("name")
        .to(name)
        .build();
try (ResultSet resultSet = dbClient.singleUse().executeQuery(s)) {
  while (resultSet.next()) {
    System.out.printf("%d\n", resultSet.getLong("SingerId"));
  }
}

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const query = {
  sql:
    'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE ' +
    'STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name',
  params: {
    name: nameStruct,
  },
};

// Queries rows from the Singers table
try {
  const [rows] = await database.run(query);

  rows.forEach(row => {
    const json = row.toJSON();
    console.log(`SingerId: ${json.SingerId}`);
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

$results = $database->execute(
    'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers ' .
    'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>' .
    '(FirstName, LastName) = @name',
    [
        'parameters' => [
            'name' => $nameValue
        ],
        'types' => [
            'name' => $nameType
        ]
    ]
);
foreach ($results as $row) {
    printf('SingerId: %s' . PHP_EOL,
        $row['SingerId']);
}

Python

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)

database = instance.database(database_id)

with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
    results = snapshot.execute_sql(
        "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE " "(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
        params={"name": record_value},
        param_types={"name": record_type},
    )

for row in results:
    print(u"SingerId: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
client.execute(
  "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE " +
  "(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
  params: { name: name_struct }
).rows.each do |row|
  puts row[:SingerId].to_s
end

Daten mit einem Array von STRUCT-Objekten abfragen

Das folgende Beispiel zeigt, wie Sie eine Abfrage ausführen, die ein Array von STRUCT-Objekten enthält. Verwenden Sie den Operator UNNEST, um ein Array von STRUCT-Objekten in Zeilen zusammenzufassen:

C++

void QueryDataWithArrayOfStruct(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  // Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types with named fields are represented by
  // std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, T>...>, create an alias to make it easier
  // to follow this code.
  using SingerName = std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                                std::pair<std::string, std::string>>;
  auto make_name = [](std::string first_name, std::string last_name) {
    return std::make_tuple(std::make_pair("FirstName", std::move(first_name)),
                           std::make_pair("LastName", std::move(last_name)));
  };
  std::vector<SingerName> singer_info{
      make_name("Elena", "Campbell"),
      make_name("Gabriel", "Wright"),
      make_name("Benjamin", "Martinez"),
  };

  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers"
      " WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName)"
      "    IN UNNEST(@names)",
      {{"names", spanner::Value(singer_info)}}));

  for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<std::tuple<std::int64_t>>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::runtime_error(row.status().message());
    std::cout << "SingerId: " << std::get<0>(*row) << "\n";
  }
  std::cout << "Query completed for"
            << " [spanner_query_data_with_array_of_struct]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class QueryDataWithArrayOfStructAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<List<int>> QueryDataWithArrayOfStructAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        var nameType = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, null},
            { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, null}
        };

        var bandMembers = new List<SpannerStruct>
        {
            new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" }, { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" } },
            new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Gabriel" }, { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Wright" } },
            new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Benjamin" }, { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Martinez" } },
        };

        var singerIds = new List<int>();
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";
        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        using var cmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
            "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING> "
            + "(FirstName, LastName) IN UNNEST(@names)");
        cmd.Parameters.Add("names", SpannerDbType.ArrayOf(nameType.GetSpannerDbType()), bandMembers);
        using var reader = await cmd.ExecuteReaderAsync();
        while (await reader.ReadAsync())
        {
            singerIds.Add(reader.GetFieldValue<int>("SingerId"));
        }
        return singerIds;
    }
}

Go


stmt := spanner.Statement{
	SQL: `SELECT SingerId FROM SINGERS
		WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName)
		IN UNNEST(@names)`,
	Params: map[string]interface{}{"names": bandMembers},
}
iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
defer iter.Stop()
for {
	row, err := iter.Next()
	if err == iterator.Done {
		return nil
	}
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	var singerID int64
	if err := row.Columns(&singerID); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d\n", singerID)
}

Java

Statement s =
    Statement.newBuilder(
            "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE "
                + "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                + "IN UNNEST(@names) "
                + "ORDER BY SingerId DESC")
        .bind("names")
        .toStructArray(nameType, bandMembers)
        .build();
try (ResultSet resultSet = dbClient.singleUse().executeQuery(s)) {
  while (resultSet.next()) {
    System.out.printf("%d\n", resultSet.getLong("SingerId"));
  }
}

Node.js

const query = {
  sql:
    'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers ' +
    'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) ' +
    'IN UNNEST(@names) ' +
    'ORDER BY SingerId',
  params: {
    names: bandMembers,
  },
  types: {
    names: bandMembersType,
  },
};

// Queries rows from the Singers table
try {
  const [rows] = await database.run(query);

  rows.forEach(row => {
    const json = row.toJSON();
    console.log(`SingerId: ${json.SingerId}`);
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

$results = $database->execute(
    'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers ' .
    'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) ' .
    'IN UNNEST(@names)',
    [
        'parameters' => [
            'names' => $bandMembers
        ],
        'types' => [
            'names' => $nameType
        ]
    ]
);
foreach ($results as $row) {
    printf('SingerId: %s' . PHP_EOL,
        $row['SingerId']);
}

Python

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
    results = snapshot.execute_sql(
        "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE "
        "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
        "(FirstName, LastName) IN UNNEST(@names)",
        params={"names": band_members},
        param_types={"names": param_types.Array(name_type)},
    )

for row in results:
    print(u"SingerId: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

client.execute(
  "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE " +
  "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) IN UNNEST(@names)",
  params: { names: band_members }
).rows.each do |row|
  puts row[:SingerId].to_s
end

Daten mit DML ändern

Im folgenden Codebeispiel wird ein STRUCT mit gebundenen Parametern und der Datenbearbeitungssprache (Data Manipulation Language, DML) verwendet, um einen einzelnen Wert in den Zeilen zu aktualisieren, die der Bedingung der WHERE-Klausel entsprechen. In den Zeilen, in denen der FirstName Timothy und der LastName Campbell ist, wird der LastName in Grant geändert.

C++

void DmlStructs(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  std::int64_t rows_modified = 0;
  auto commit_result =
      client.Commit([&client, &rows_modified](spanner::Transaction const& txn)
                        -> google::cloud::StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto singer_info = std::make_tuple("Marc", "Richards");
        auto sql = spanner::SqlStatement(
            "UPDATE Singers SET FirstName = 'Keith' WHERE "
            "STRUCT<FirstName String, LastName String>(FirstName, LastName) "
            "= @name",
            {{"name", spanner::Value(std::move(singer_info))}});
        auto dml_result = client.ExecuteDml(txn, std::move(sql));
        if (!dml_result) return std::move(dml_result).status();
        rows_modified = dml_result->RowsModified();
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << rows_modified
            << " update was successful [spanner_dml_structs]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingDmlWithStructCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> UpdateUsingDmlWithStructCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        var nameStruct = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Timothy" },
            { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" }
        };
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name");
        cmd.Parameters.Add("name", nameStruct.GetSpannerDbType(), nameStruct);
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) updated...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingDMLStruct(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		type name struct {
			FirstName string
			LastName  string
		}
		var singerInfo = name{"Timothy", "Campbell"}

		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `Update Singers Set LastName = 'Grant'
				WHERE STRUCT<FirstName String, LastName String>(Firstname, LastName) = @name`,
			Params: map[string]interface{}{"name": singerInfo},
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void updateUsingDmlWithStruct(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  Struct name =
      Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Timothy").set("LastName").to("Campbell").build();
  Statement s =
      Statement.newBuilder(
              "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
                  + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                  + "= @name")
          .bind("name")
          .to(name)
          .build();
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(s);
        System.out.printf("%d record updated.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

const nameStruct = Spanner.struct({
  FirstName: 'Timothy',
  LastName: 'Campbell',
});

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: `UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant'
      WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name`,
      params: {
        name: nameStruct,
      },
    });

    console.log(`Successfully updated ${rowCount} record.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructType;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructValue;

/**
 * Update data with a DML statement using Structs.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_dml_structs($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $nameValue = (new StructValue)
            ->add('FirstName', 'Timothy')
            ->add('LastName', 'Campbell');
        $nameType = (new StructType)
            ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
            ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING);

        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
             . 'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) '
             . '= @name',
            [
                'parameters' => [
                    'name' => $nameValue
                ],
                'types' => [
                    'name' => $nameType
                ]
            ]);
        $t->commit();
        printf('Updated %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

record_type = param_types.Struct(
    [
        param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
        param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
    ]
)
record_value = ("Timothy", "Campbell")

def write_with_struct(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
        "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
        "(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
        params={"name": record_value},
        param_types={"name": record_type},
    )
    print("{} record(s) updated.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(write_with_struct)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0
name_struct = { FirstName: "Timothy", LastName: "Campbell" }

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant'
     WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
    params: { name: name_struct }
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record updated."

Auf STRUCT-Feldwerte zugreifen

Sie können auf Felder in einem STRUCT-Objekt anhand des Namens zugreifen.

C++

void FieldAccessOnStructParameters(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;

  // Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> with named fields is represented as
  // tuple<pair<string, T>...>. Create a type alias for this example:
  using SingerName = std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                                std::pair<std::string, std::string>>;
  SingerName name({"FirstName", "Elena"}, {"LastName", "Campbell"});

  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName",
      {{"name", spanner::Value(name)}}));

  for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<std::tuple<std::int64_t>>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::runtime_error(row.status().message());
    std::cout << "SingerId: " << std::get<0>(*row) << "\n";
  }
  std::cout << "Query completed for"
            << " [spanner_field_access_on_struct_parameters]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class QueryDataWithStructFieldAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<List<int>> QueryDataWithStructFieldAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        var structParam = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" },
            { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" },
        };

        var singerIds = new List<int>();
        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        using var cmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand("SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName");

        cmd.Parameters.Add("name", structParam.GetSpannerDbType(), structParam);
        using var reader = await cmd.ExecuteReaderAsync();
        while (await reader.ReadAsync())
        {
            singerIds.Add(reader.GetFieldValue<int>("SingerId"));
        }
        return singerIds;
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func queryWithStructField(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	type structParam struct {
		FirstName string
		LastName  string
	}
	var singerInfo = structParam{"Elena", "Campbell"}
	stmt := spanner.Statement{
		SQL: `SELECT SingerId FROM SINGERS
			WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName`,
		Params: map[string]interface{}{"name": singerInfo},
	}
	iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
	defer iter.Stop()
	for {
		row, err := iter.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			return nil
		}
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		var singerID int64
		if err := row.Columns(&singerID); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d\n", singerID)
	}
}

Java

static void queryStructField(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  Statement s =
      Statement.newBuilder("SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName")
          .bind("name")
          .to(
              Struct.newBuilder()
                  .set("FirstName")
                  .to("Elena")
                  .set("LastName")
                  .to("Campbell")
                  .build())
          .build();
  try (ResultSet resultSet = dbClient.singleUse().executeQuery(s)) {
    while (resultSet.next()) {
      System.out.printf("%d\n", resultSet.getLong("SingerId"));
    }
  }
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const nameStruct = Spanner.struct({
  FirstName: 'Elena',
  LastName: 'Campbell',
});
const query = {
  sql: 'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName',
  params: {
    name: nameStruct,
  },
};

// Queries rows from the Singers table
try {
  const [rows] = await database.run(query);

  rows.forEach(row => {
    const json = row.toJSON();
    console.log(`SingerId: ${json.SingerId}`);
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructType;

/**
 * Queries sample data from the database using a struct field value.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * query_data_with_struct_field($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function query_data_with_struct_field($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $nameType = (new StructType)
        ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
        ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING);
    $results = $database->execute(
        'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName',
        [
            'parameters' => [
                'name' => [
                    'FirstName' => 'Elena',
                    'LastName' => 'Campbell'
                ]
            ],
            'types' => [
                'name' => $nameType
            ]
        ]
    );
    foreach ($results as $row) {
        printf('SingerId: %s' . PHP_EOL,
            $row['SingerId']);
    }
}

Python

def query_struct_field(instance_id, database_id):
    """Query a table using field access on a STRUCT parameter. """
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    name_type = param_types.Struct(
        [
            param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
            param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
        ]
    )

    with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
        results = snapshot.execute_sql(
            "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers " "WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName",
            params={"name": ("Elena", "Campbell")},
            param_types={"name": name_type},
        )

    for row in results:
        print(u"SingerId: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

name_struct = { FirstName: "Elena", LastName: "Campbell" }
client.execute(
  "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName",
  params: { name: name_struct }
).rows.each do |row|
  puts row[:SingerId].to_s
end

Sie können sogar Felder des Typs STRUCT oder ARRAY<STRUCT> innerhalb von STRUCT-Werten platzieren und auf ähnliche Weise darauf zugreifen:

C++

void FieldAccessOnNestedStruct(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;

  // Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> with named fields is represented as
  // tuple<pair<string, T>...>. Create a type alias for this example:
  using SingerFullName = std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                                    std::pair<std::string, std::string>>;
  auto make_name = [](std::string fname, std::string lname) {
    return SingerFullName({"FirstName", std::move(fname)},
                          {"LastName", std::move(lname)});
  };
  using SongInfo =
      std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                 std::pair<std::string, std::vector<SingerFullName>>>;
  auto songinfo = SongInfo(
      {"SongName", "Imagination"},
      {"ArtistNames",
       {make_name("Elena", "Campbell"), make_name("Hannah", "Harris")}});

  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT SingerId, @songinfo.SongName FROM Singers"
      " WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName)"
      "    IN UNNEST(@songinfo.ArtistNames)",
      {{"songinfo", spanner::Value(songinfo)}}));

  using RowType = std::tuple<std::int64_t, std::string>;
  for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<RowType>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::runtime_error(row.status().message());
    std::cout << "SingerId: " << std::get<0>(*row)
              << " SongName: " << std::get<1>(*row) << "\n";
  }
  std::cout << "Query completed for [spanner_field_access_on_nested_struct]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class QueryDataWithNestedStructFieldAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<List<int>> QueryDataWithNestedStructFieldAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        SpannerStruct name1 = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" },
            { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" }
        };
        SpannerStruct name2 = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Hannah" },
            { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Harris" }
        };
        SpannerStruct songInfo = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "song_name", SpannerDbType.String, "Imagination" },
            { "artistNames", SpannerDbType.ArrayOf(name1.GetSpannerDbType()), new[] { name1, name2 } }
        };

        var singerIds = new List<int>();
        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        using var cmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
            "SELECT SingerId, @song_info.song_name "
            + "FROM Singers WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
            + "IN UNNEST(@song_info.artistNames)");

        cmd.Parameters.Add("song_info", songInfo.GetSpannerDbType(), songInfo);

        using var reader = await cmd.ExecuteReaderAsync();
        while (await reader.ReadAsync())
        {
            var singerId = reader.GetFieldValue<int>("SingerId");
            singerIds.Add(singerId);
            Console.WriteLine($"SingerId: {singerId}");
            Console.WriteLine($"Song Name: {reader.GetFieldValue<string>(1)}");
        }
        return singerIds;
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func queryWithNestedStructField(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	type nameType struct {
		FirstName string
		LastName  string
	}
	type songInfoStruct struct {
		SongName    string
		ArtistNames []nameType
	}
	var songInfo = songInfoStruct{
		SongName: "Imagination",
		ArtistNames: []nameType{
			{FirstName: "Elena", LastName: "Campbell"},
			{FirstName: "Hannah", LastName: "Harris"},
		},
	}
	stmt := spanner.Statement{
		SQL: `SELECT SingerId, @songinfo.SongName FROM Singers
			WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName)
			IN UNNEST(@songinfo.ArtistNames)`,
		Params: map[string]interface{}{"songinfo": songInfo},
	}
	iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
	defer iter.Stop()
	for {
		row, err := iter.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			return nil
		}
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		var singerID int64
		var songName string
		if err := row.Columns(&singerID, &songName); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d %s\n", singerID, songName)
	}
}

Java

static void queryNestedStructField(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  Type nameType =
      Type.struct(
          Arrays.asList(
              StructField.of("FirstName", Type.string()),
              StructField.of("LastName", Type.string())));

  Struct songInfo =
      Struct.newBuilder()
          .set("song_name")
          .to("Imagination")
          .set("artistNames")
          .toStructArray(
              nameType,
              Arrays.asList(
                  Struct.newBuilder()
                      .set("FirstName")
                      .to("Elena")
                      .set("LastName")
                      .to("Campbell")
                      .build(),
                  Struct.newBuilder()
                      .set("FirstName")
                      .to("Hannah")
                      .set("LastName")
                      .to("Harris")
                      .build()))
          .build();
  Statement s =
      Statement.newBuilder(
              "SELECT SingerId, @song_info.song_name "
                  + "FROM Singers WHERE "
                  + "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                  + "IN UNNEST(@song_info.artistNames)")
          .bind("song_info")
          .to(songInfo)
          .build();
  try (ResultSet resultSet = dbClient.singleUse().executeQuery(s)) {
    while (resultSet.next()) {
      System.out.printf("%d %s\n", resultSet.getLong("SingerId"), resultSet.getString(1));
    }
  }
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const nameType = {
  type: 'struct',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'FirstName',
      type: 'string',
    },
    {
      name: 'LastName',
      type: 'string',
    },
  ],
};

// Creates Song info STRUCT with a nested ArtistNames array
const songInfoType = {
  type: 'struct',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'SongName',
      type: 'string',
    },
    {
      name: 'ArtistNames',
      type: 'array',
      child: nameType,
    },
  ],
};

const songInfoStruct = Spanner.struct({
  SongName: 'Imagination',
  ArtistNames: [
    Spanner.struct({FirstName: 'Elena', LastName: 'Campbell'}),
    Spanner.struct({FirstName: 'Hannah', LastName: 'Harris'}),
  ],
});

const query = {
  sql:
    'SELECT SingerId, @songInfo.SongName FROM Singers ' +
    'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) ' +
    'IN UNNEST(@songInfo.ArtistNames)',
  params: {
    songInfo: songInfoStruct,
  },
  types: {
    songInfo: songInfoType,
  },
};

// Queries rows from the Singers table
try {
  const [rows] = await database.run(query);

  rows.forEach(row => {
    const json = row.toJSON();
    console.log(`SingerId: ${json.SingerId}, SongName: ${json.SongName}`);
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructType;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructValue;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\ArrayType;

/**
 * Queries sample data from the database using a nested struct field value.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * query_data_with_nested_struct_field($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function query_data_with_nested_struct_field($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $nameType = new ArrayType(
       (new StructType)
            ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
            ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
    );
    $songInfoType = (new StructType)
        ->add('SongName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
        ->add('ArtistNames', $nameType);
    $nameStructValue1 = (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Elena')
        ->add('LastName', 'Campbell');
    $nameStructValue2 = (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Hannah')
        ->add('LastName', 'Harris');
    $songInfoValues = (new StructValue)
        ->add('SongName', 'Imagination')
        ->add('ArtistNames', [$nameStructValue1, $nameStructValue2]);
    $results = $database->execute(
        'SELECT SingerId, @song_info.SongName FROM Singers ' .
        'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) ' .
        'IN UNNEST(@song_info.ArtistNames)',
        [
            'parameters' => [
                'song_info' => $songInfoValues
            ],
            'types' => [
                'song_info' => $songInfoType
            ]
        ]
    );
    foreach ($results as $row) {
        printf('SingerId: %s SongName: %s' . PHP_EOL,
            $row['SingerId'], $row['SongName']);
    }
}

Python

def query_nested_struct_field(instance_id, database_id):
    """Query a table using nested field access on a STRUCT parameter. """
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    song_info_type = param_types.Struct(
        [
            param_types.StructField("SongName", param_types.STRING),
            param_types.StructField(
                "ArtistNames",
                param_types.Array(
                    param_types.Struct(
                        [
                            param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
                            param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
                        ]
                    )
                ),
            ),
        ]
    )

    song_info = ("Imagination", [("Elena", "Campbell"), ("Hannah", "Harris")])

    with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
        results = snapshot.execute_sql(
            "SELECT SingerId, @song_info.SongName "
            "FROM Singers WHERE "
            "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
            "(FirstName, LastName) "
            "IN UNNEST(@song_info.ArtistNames)",
            params={"song_info": song_info},
            param_types={"song_info": song_info_type},
        )

    for row in results:
        print(u"SingerId: {} SongName: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

name_type = client.fields FirstName: :STRING, LastName: :STRING

song_info_struct = {
  SongName:    "Imagination",
  ArtistNames: [name_type.struct(["Elena", "Campbell"]), name_type.struct(["Hannah", "Harris"])]
}

client.execute(
  "SELECT SingerId, @song_info.SongName " \
  "FROM Singers WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) " \
  "IN UNNEST(@song_info.ArtistNames)",
  params: { song_info: song_info_struct }
).rows.each do |row|
  puts (row[:SingerId]).to_s, (row[:SongName]).to_s
end