Work with JSONB data

Stay organized with collections Save and categorize content based on your preferences.

This page describes how to work with the JSONB data type when using Cloud Spanner.

JSONB is a PostgreSQL data type used for holding semi-structured data in the Spanner PostgreSQL dialect. JSONB holds data in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format, which follows the specification described in RFC 7159.

Specifications

The Spanner JSONB data type stores a normalized representation of the input document. This implies the following:

  • Quotation marks and whitespace characters are not preserved.
  • Comments are not supported. Transactions or queries with comments fail.
  • Object keys are sorted first by key length and then lexicographically by the equivalent object key length. If there are duplicate object keys, only the last one is preserved.
  • Primitive types (string, boolean, number, and null) have their type and value preserved.
    • string type values are preserved exactly.
    • Trailing zeros are preserved. The output format for number type values does not use scientific notation.
  • JSONB null values are treated as SQL non-NULL. For example:

    SELECT null::jsonb IS NULL;  -- Returns true
    SELECT 'null'::jsonb IS NULL; -- Returns false
    
    SELECT '{"a":null}'::jsonb -> 'a' IS NULL; -- Returns false
    SELECT '{"a":null}'::jsonb -> 'b' IS NULL; -- Returns true
    
    SELECT '{"a":null}'::jsonb -> 'a'; -- Returns a JSONB 'null'
    SELECT '{"a":null}'::jsonb -> 'b'; -- Returns a SQL NULL
    

Restrictions

The following restrictions apply with Spanner JSONB:

  • Arguments to the to_jsonb function can be only from the PostgreSQL data types that Spanner supports.
  • Number type values can have 4,932 digits before the decimal point and 16,383 digits after the decimal point.
  • The maximum permitted size of the normalized storage format is 10 MB.
  • JSONB documents must be encoded in UTF-8. Transactions or queries with JSONB documents encoded in other formats return an error.
  • Columns of type JSONB array are not supported.

Create a table with JSONB columns

You can add a JSONB column to a table when you create the table.

CREATE TABLE Venues (
 VenueId   BIGINT PRIMARY KEY,
 VenueName  VARCHAR(1024),
 VenueAddress VARCHAR(1024),
 VenueFeatures JSONB,
 DateOpened  TIMESTAMPTZ
);

A sample VenueFeatures JSONB object follows:

{
    "rating": 4.5,
    "capacity":"1500",
    "construction":"brick",
    "tags": [
        "multi-cuisine",
        "open-seating",
        "stage",
        "public address system"
    ]
}

Add and remove JSONB columns from existing tables

You can add a JSONB column and drop it by using ALTER statements as follows:

ALTER TABLE Venues ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB;
ALTER TABLE Venues DROP COLUMN VenueDetails;

The following sample shows how to add a JSONB column called VenueDetails to the Venues table using Spanner client libraries.

C++

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

void JsonbAddColumn(google::cloud::spanner_admin::DatabaseAdminClient client,
                    google::cloud::spanner::Database const& database) {
  std::vector<std::string> statements = {
      R"""(
        ALTER TABLE Venues
            ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB
      )""",
  };
  auto metadata =
      client.UpdateDatabaseDdl(database.FullName(), statements).get();
  if (!metadata) throw std::move(metadata).status();
  std::cout << "Added JSONB column to table Venues in database "
            << database.FullName() << "\nNew DDL:\n"
            << metadata->DebugString();
}

C#

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class AddJsonbColumnAsyncPostgreSample
{
    public async Task AddJsonbColumnAsyncPostgre(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";
        string alterStatement = $"ALTER TABLE VenueDetails ADD COLUMN Details JSONB";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        using var ddlCmd = connection.CreateDdlCommand(alterStatement);
        await ddlCmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        Console.WriteLine($"Added the JSONB column named Details to VenueDetails table.");
    }
}

Node.js

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';

// Imports the Google Cloud Spanner client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

// Instantiates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

async function pgJsonbAddColumn() {
  // Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database.
  const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
  const database = instance.database(databaseId);

  const request = ['ALTER TABLE Venues ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB'];

  // Updates schema by adding a new table.
  const [operation] = await database.updateSchema(request);
  console.log(`Waiting for operation on ${databaseId} to complete...`);
  await operation.promise();
  console.log(
    `Added jsonb column to table venues to database ${databaseId}.`
  );
}
pgJsonbAddColumn();

PHP

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Add a JSONB column to a table present in a PG Spanner database.
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 * @param string $tableName The table in which the column needs to be added.
 */
function pg_add_jsonb_column(
    string $instanceId,
    string $databaseId,
    string $tableName = 'Venues'
): void {
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $operation = $database->updateDdl(
        sprintf('ALTER TABLE %s ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB', $tableName)
    );

    print('Waiting for operation to complete...' . PHP_EOL);
    $operation->pollUntilComplete();

    print(sprintf('Added column VenueDetails on table %s.', $tableName) . PHP_EOL);
}

Go

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"regexp"

	database "cloud.google.com/go/spanner/admin/database/apiv1"
	adminpb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/spanner/admin/database/v1"
)

// addJsonBColumn creates a column in the database of type JSONB
func addJsonBColumn(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	// db = `projects/<project>/instances/<instance-id>/database/<database-id>`
	matches := regexp.MustCompile("^(.*)/databases/(.*)$").FindStringSubmatch(db)
	if matches == nil || len(matches) != 3 {
		return fmt.Errorf("addJsonbColumn: invalid database id %s", db)
	}

	ctx := context.Background()
	adminClient, err := database.NewDatabaseAdminClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer adminClient.Close()

	op, err := adminClient.UpdateDatabaseDdl(ctx, &adminpb.UpdateDatabaseDdlRequest{
		Database: db,
		Statements: []string{
			"ALTER TABLE Venues ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB",
		},
	})
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if err := op.Wait(ctx); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Added VenueDetails column\n")
	return nil
}

Java

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

import com.google.api.gax.longrunning.OperationFuture;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseAdminClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableList;
import com.google.spanner.admin.database.v1.UpdateDatabaseDdlMetadata;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;

class AddJsonbColumnSample {

  static void addJsonbColumn() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "my-project";
    String instanceId = "my-instance";
    String databaseId = "my-database";

    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService()) {
      DatabaseAdminClient adminClient = spanner.getDatabaseAdminClient();
      addJsonbColumn(adminClient, instanceId, databaseId);
    }
  }

  static void addJsonbColumn(DatabaseAdminClient adminClient, String instanceId, String databaseId)
      throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
    OperationFuture<Void, UpdateDatabaseDdlMetadata> operation =
        adminClient.updateDatabaseDdl(
            instanceId,
            databaseId,
            ImmutableList.of("ALTER TABLE Venues ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB"),
            null);
    // Wait for the operation to finish.
    // This will throw an ExecutionException if the operation fails.
    operation.get();
    System.out.printf("Successfully added column `VenueDetails`%n");
  }
}

Python

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

def add_jsonb_column(instance_id, database_id):
    """
    Alters Venues tables in the database adding a JSONB column.
    You can create the table by running the `create_table_with_datatypes`
    sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
    CREATE TABLE Venues (
      VenueId         BIGINT NOT NULL,
      VenueName       character varying(100),
      VenueInfo       BYTEA,
      Capacity        BIGINT,
      OutdoorVenue    BOOL,
      PopularityScore FLOAT8,
      Revenue         NUMERIC,
      LastUpdateTime  SPANNER.COMMIT_TIMESTAMP NOT NULL,
      PRIMARY KEY (VenueId))
    """
    # instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
    # database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    operation = database.update_ddl(
        ["ALTER TABLE Venues ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB"]
    )

    print("Waiting for operation to complete...")
    operation.result(OPERATION_TIMEOUT_SECONDS)

    print(
        'Altered table "Venues" on database {} on instance {}.'.format(
            database_id, instance_id
        )
    )

Ruby

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

require "google/cloud/spanner"

def spanner_postgresql_jsonb_add_column project_id:, instance_id:, database_id:
  # project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
  # instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
  # database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"


  # Show how to add JSONB column
  db_admin_client = Google::Cloud::Spanner::Admin::Database.database_admin project: project_id

  db_path = db_admin_client.database_path project: project_id,
                                          instance: instance_id,
                                          database: database_id

  add_column_query = "ALTER TABLE Venues ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB"

  job = db_admin_client.update_database_ddl database: db_path,
                                            statements: [add_column_query]

  job.wait_until_done!

  if job.error?
    puts "Error while adding column. Code: #{job.error.code}. Message: #{job.error.message}"
    raise GRPC::BadStatus.new(job.error.code, job.error.message)
  end

  puts "Added Venues column to VenueDetails table in database #{database_id}"
end

Modify JSONB data

You can modify a JSONB column just like any other column.

An example follows:

UPDATE Venues SET VenueFeatures = '{"rating": 4.5, "tags":["multi-cuisine", "open-seating"] }'
  WHERE VenueId = 1;

The following sample shows how to update JSONB data using Spanner client libraries.

C++

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

void JsonbUpdateData(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  auto venue19_details = google::cloud::spanner::JsonB(R"""(
        {"rating": 9, "open": true}
      )""");
  // PG.JSONB takes the last value in the case of duplicate keys.
  auto venue4_details = google::cloud::spanner::JsonB(R"""(
        [
          {"name": null, "available": true},
          {"name": "room 2", "available": false, "name": "room 3"},
          {
            "main hall": {
              "description": "this is the biggest space",
              "size": 200
            }
          }
        ]
      )""");
  auto venue42_details = google::cloud::spanner::JsonB(R"""(
        {
          "name": null,
          "open": {"Monday": true, "Tuesday": false},
          "tags": ["large", "airy"]
        }
      )""");
  auto update_venues = google::cloud::spanner::InsertOrUpdateMutationBuilder(
                           "Venues", {"VenueId", "VenueDetails"})
                           .EmplaceRow(19, venue19_details)
                           .EmplaceRow(4, venue4_details)
                           .EmplaceRow(42, venue42_details)
                           .Build();
  auto commit_result =
      client.Commit(google::cloud::spanner::Mutations{update_venues});
  if (!commit_result) throw std::move(commit_result).status();
  std::cout << "Updated data.\n";
}

C#

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using Newtonsoft.Json;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateDataWithJsonbAsyncPostgreSample
{
    public async Task UpdateDataWithJsonbAsyncPostgre(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        List<VenueInformation> venueInformationList = new List<VenueInformation>
        {
            // If you are using .NET Core 3.1 or later, you can use System.Text.Json for serialization instead.
            new VenueInformation
            {
                VenueId = 19,
                Details = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new
                {
                    rating = 9,
                    open = true,
                })
            },
            new VenueInformation
            {
                VenueId = 4,
                // In the case of repeated field names in the JSON, PostgreSQL JSONB will keep the value of the last field appearance.
                // For instance, in the following example, the value for name will be room 3.
                Details = @"
                {
                    ""name"": ""room 2"",
                    ""available"": false,
                    ""name"": ""room 3""
                }"
            },
            new VenueInformation
            {
                VenueId = 42,
                Details = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(new
                {
                    name = "Central Park",
                    open = new
                    {
                        Monday = true,
                        Tuesday = false,
                    },
                    tags = new string[] {"large", "airy" },
                }),
            },
        };
        // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";
        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        await Task.WhenAll(venueInformationList.Select(venue =>
        {
            // Update rows in the Venues table.
            using var cmd = connection.CreateUpdateCommand("VenueInformation", new SpannerParameterCollection
            {
                { "VenueId", SpannerDbType.Int64, venue.VenueId },
                { "Details", SpannerDbType.PgJsonb, venue.Details }
            });
            return cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        }));
        Console.WriteLine("Data updated.");
    }

    public struct VenueInformation
    {
        public int VenueId { get; set; }
        public string Details { get; set; }
    }
}

Go

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"regexp"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

// updateDataWithJsonBColumn updates database with JsonB type values
func updateDataWithJsonBColumn(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	// db = `projects/<project>/instances/<instance-id>/database/<database-id>`
	matches := regexp.MustCompile("^(.*)/databases/(.*)$").FindStringSubmatch(db)
	if matches == nil || len(matches) != 3 {
		return fmt.Errorf("updateDataWithJsonBColumn: invalid database id %s", db)
	}

	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	type VenueDetails struct {
		Name   spanner.NullString   `json:"name"`
		Rating spanner.NullFloat64  `json:"rating"`
		Open   interface{}          `json:"open"`
		Tags   []spanner.NullString `json:"tags"`
	}

	details_1 := spanner.PGJsonB{Value: []VenueDetails{
		{Name: spanner.NullString{StringVal: "room1", Valid: true}, Open: true},
		{Name: spanner.NullString{StringVal: "room2", Valid: true}, Open: false},
	}, Valid: true}
	details_2 := spanner.PGJsonB{Value: VenueDetails{
		Rating: spanner.NullFloat64{Float64: 9, Valid: true},
		Open:   true,
	}, Valid: true}

	details_3 := spanner.PGJsonB{Value: VenueDetails{
		Name: spanner.NullString{Valid: false},
		Open: map[string]bool{"monday": true, "tuesday": false},
		Tags: []spanner.NullString{{StringVal: "large", Valid: true}, {StringVal: "airy", Valid: true}},
	}, Valid: true}

	cols := []string{"VenueId", "VenueDetails"}
	_, err = client.Apply(ctx, []*spanner.Mutation{
		spanner.Update("Venues", cols, []interface{}{4, details_1}),
		spanner.Update("Venues", cols, []interface{}{19, details_2}),
		spanner.Update("Venues", cols, []interface{}{42, details_3}),
	})

	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Updated data to VenueDetails column\n")

	return nil
}

Java

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseId;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Mutation;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Value;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableList;

class UpdateJsonbDataSample {

  static void updateJsonbData() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "my-project";
    String instanceId = "my-instance";
    String databaseId = "my-database";

    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService()) {
      DatabaseClient client =
          spanner.getDatabaseClient(DatabaseId.of(projectId, instanceId, databaseId));
      updateJsonbData(client);
    }
  }

  static void updateJsonbData(DatabaseClient client) {
    // PG JSONB takes the last value in the case of duplicate keys.
    // PG JSONB sorts first by key length and then lexicographically with
    // equivalent key length.
    client.write(
        ImmutableList.of(
            Mutation.newInsertOrUpdateBuilder("Venues")
                .set("VenueId")
                .to(4L)
                .set("VenueDetails")
                .to(
                    Value.pgJsonb(
                        "[{\"name\":\"room 1\",\"open\":true,\"name\":\"room 3\"},"
                            + "{\"name\":\"room 2\",\"open\":false}]"))
                .build(),
            Mutation.newInsertOrUpdateBuilder("Venues")
                .set("VenueId")
                .to(19L)
                .set("VenueDetails")
                .to(Value.pgJsonb("{\"rating\":9,\"open\":true}"))
                .build(),
            Mutation.newInsertOrUpdateBuilder("Venues")
                .set("VenueId")
                .to(42L)
                .set("VenueDetails")
                .to(
                    Value.pgJsonb(
                        "{\"name\":null,"
                            + "\"open\":{\"Monday\":true,\"Tuesday\":false},"
                            + "\"tags\":[\"large\",\"airy\"]}"))
                .build()));
    System.out.println("Venues successfully updated");
  }
}

Node.js

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';

// Imports the Google Cloud Spanner client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

// Instantiates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

async function pgJsonbUpdateData() {
  // Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database.
  const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
  const database = instance.database(databaseId);
  // Instantiate Spanner table objects.
  const venuesTable = database.table('venues');

  const data = [
    {
      VenueId: '19',
      VenueDetails: {rating: 9, open: true},
    },
    {
      VenueId: '4',
      // PG JSONB sorts first by key length and then lexicographically with equivalent key length
      // and takes the last value in the case of duplicate keys
      VenueDetails: `[
      {
        "name": null,
        "available": true
      },
      {
        "name": "room 2",
        "available": false,
        "name": "room 3"
      },
      {
        "main hall": {
          "description": "this is the biggest space",
          "size": 200
        }
      }
    ]`,
    },
    {
      VenueId: '42',
      VenueDetails: {
        name: null,
        open: {
          Monday: true,
          Tuesday: false,
        },
        tags: ['large', 'airy'],
      },
    },
  ];

  try {
    await venuesTable.update(data);
    console.log('Updated data.');
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    await database.close();
  }
}
pgJsonbUpdateData();

PHP

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Insert/update data in a JSONB column in a Postgres table.
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 * @param string $tableName The table in which the data needs to be updated.
 */
function pg_jsonb_update_data(
    string $instanceId,
    string $databaseId,
    string $tableName = 'Venues'
): void {
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->insertOrUpdateBatch($tableName, [
        [
            'VenueId' => 1,
            'VenueDetails' => '{"rating": 9, "open": true}'
        ],
        [
            'VenueId' => 4,
            'VenueDetails' => '[
                {
                    "name": null,
                    "available": true
                },' .
                // PG JSONB sorts first by key length and then lexicographically with
                // equivalent key length and takes the last value in the case of duplicate keys
                '{
                    "name": "room 2",
                    "available": false,
                    "name": "room 3"
                },
                {
                    "main hall": {
                        "description": "this is the biggest space",
                        "size": 200
                    }
                }
            ]'
        ],
        [
            'VenueId' => 42,
            'VenueDetails' => $spanner->pgJsonb([
                'name' => null,
                'open' => [
                    'Monday' => true,
                    'Tuesday' => false
                ],
                'tags' => ['large', 'airy'],
            ])
        ]
    ]);

    print(sprintf('Inserted/updated 3 rows in table %s', $tableName) . PHP_EOL);
}

Python

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

def update_data_with_jsonb(instance_id, database_id):
    """Updates Venues tables in the database with the JSONB
    column.
    This updates the `VenueDetails` column which must be created before
    running this sample. You can add the column by running the
    `add_jsonb_column` sample or by running this DDL statement
     against your database:
        ALTER TABLE Venues ADD COLUMN VenueDetails JSONB
    """
    # instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
    # database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    """
    PG JSONB takes the last value in the case of duplicate keys.
    PG JSONB sorts first by key length and then lexicographically with
    equivalent key length.
    """

    with database.batch() as batch:
        batch.update(
            table="Venues",
            columns=("VenueId", "VenueDetails"),
            values=[
                (
                    4,
                    JsonObject(
                        [
                            JsonObject({"name": None, "open": True}),
                            JsonObject(
                                {"name": "room 2", "open": False}
                            ),
                        ]
                    ),
                ),
                (19, JsonObject(rating=9, open=True)),
                (
                    42,
                    JsonObject(
                        {
                            "name": None,
                            "open": {"Monday": True, "Tuesday": False},
                            "tags": ["large", "airy"],
                        }
                    ),
                ),
            ],
        )

    print("Updated data.")

Ruby

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

require "google/cloud/spanner"

def spanner_postgresql_jsonb_update_data project_id:, instance_id:, database_id:
  # project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
  # instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
  # database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

  # Insert JSONB data into table
  spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
  client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

  data = [
    {
      VenueId: "19",
      VenueDetails: { rating: 9, open: true }
    },
    {
      VenueId: "4",
      VenueDetails: [
        {
          name: null,
          open: true
        },
        {
          name: "room 2",
          open: false
        },
        {
          main_hall: {
            description: "this is the biggest space",
            size: 200
          }
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      VenueId: "42",
      VenueDetails: {
        name: null,
        open: {
          Monday: true,
          Tuesday: false
        },
        tags: ["large", "airy"]
      }
    }
  ]

  client.upsert "Venues", data
  puts "Inserted data into Venues table"
end

Query JSONB data

You can query JSONB columns based on the values of the underlying fields. The following example extracts VenueId and VenueName from Venues where VenueFeatures has a rating value greater than 3.5.

SELECT VenueId, VenueName FROM Venues WHERE (VenueFeatures->>'rating')::FLOAT8 > 3.5;

The following sample shows how to query JSONB data using Spanner client libraries.

C++

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

void JsonbQueryWithParameter(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  auto sql = google::cloud::spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT VenueId, VenueDetails FROM Venues"
      "  WHERE CAST(VenueDetails ->> 'rating' AS INTEGER) > $1",
      {{"p1", google::cloud::spanner::Value(2)}});
  using RowType =
      std::tuple<std::int64_t, absl::optional<google::cloud::spanner::JsonB>>;
  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(std::move(sql));
  for (auto& row : google::cloud::spanner::StreamOf<RowType>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::move(row).status();
    std::cout << "VenueId: " << std::get<0>(*row) << ", ";
    std::cout << "Details: " << std::string(std::get<1>(*row).value()) << "\n";
  }
}

C#

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class QueryJsonbDataUsingParameterAsyncPostgreSample
{
    public async Task<List<VenueInformation>> QueryJsonbDataUsingParameterAsyncPostgre(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";
        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        // Get all the venues with a rating greater than 2.
        /* Details is a column of type JSONB. Some of the data persisted in the Details column has the following structure:
           [{
                 "name": "string",
                 "available": true,
                 "rating": int // This field is optional.
           }] */
        using var command = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
            "SELECT venueid, details FROM VenueInformation WHERE CAST(details ->> 'rating' AS INTEGER) > $1",
            new SpannerParameterCollection
            {
                { "p1", SpannerDbType.Int64, 2 }
            });
        var venues = new List<VenueInformation>();
        using var reader = await command.ExecuteReaderAsync();
        while (await reader.ReadAsync())
        {
            venues.Add(new VenueInformation
            {
                VenueId = reader.GetFieldValue<int>("venueid"),
                Details = reader.GetFieldValue<string>("details")
            });
        }
        return venues;
    }

    public struct VenueInformation
    {
        public int VenueId { get; set; }
        public string Details { get; set; }
    }
}

Go

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"regexp"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

// queryWithJsonBParameter queries data on the JSON type column of the database
func queryWithJsonBParameter(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	// db = `projects/<project>/instances/<instance-id>/database/<database-id>`
	matches := regexp.MustCompile("^(.*)/databases/(.*)$").FindStringSubmatch(db)
	if matches == nil || len(matches) != 3 {
		return fmt.Errorf("queryWithJsonBParameter: invalid database id %s", db)
	}
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	type VenueDetails struct {
		Name   spanner.NullString   `json:"name"`
		Rating spanner.NullFloat64  `json:"rating"`
		Open   interface{}          `json:"open"`
		Tags   []spanner.NullString `json:"tags"`
	}

	stmt := spanner.Statement{
		SQL: `SELECT VenueId, VenueDetails FROM Venues WHERE CAST(venuedetails ->> 'rating' AS INTEGER) > $1`,
		Params: map[string]interface{}{
			"p1": 2,
		},
	}
	iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
	defer iter.Stop()
	for {
		row, err := iter.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			return nil
		}
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		var venueID int64
		var venueDetails spanner.PGJsonB
		if err := row.Columns(&venueID, &venueDetails); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "The venue details for venue id %v is %v\n", venueID, venueDetails)
	}
}

Java

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseId;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.ResultSet;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Statement;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Value;

class QueryWithJsonbParameterSample {

  static void queryWithJsonbParameter() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "my-project";
    String instanceId = "my-instance";
    String databaseId = "my-database";

    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder().setProjectId(projectId).build().getService()) {
      DatabaseClient client =
          spanner.getDatabaseClient(DatabaseId.of(projectId, instanceId, databaseId));
      queryWithJsonbParameter(client);
    }
  }

  static void queryWithJsonbParameter(DatabaseClient client) {
    int rating = 2;
    Statement statement =
        Statement.newBuilder(
                "SELECT VenueId, VenueDetails\n"
                    + "FROM Venues\n"
                    + "WHERE CAST(venuedetails ->> 'rating' "
                    + "AS INTEGER) > $1")
            .bind("p1")
            .to(Value.int64(rating))
            .build();
    try (ResultSet resultSet = client.singleUse().executeQuery(statement)) {
      while (resultSet.next()) {
        System.out.printf(
            "VenueId: %s, VenueDetails: %s%n",
            resultSet.getLong("venueid"), resultSet.getPgJsonb("venuedetails"));
      }
    }
  }
}

Node.js

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
 */
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';

// Imports the Google Cloud Spanner client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

// Instantiates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

async function pgJsonbDataType() {
  // Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database.
  const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
  const database = instance.database(databaseId);

  const select_query = {
    sql: `SELECT venueid, venuedetails FROM Venues
        WHERE CAST(venuedetails ->> 'rating' AS INTEGER) > $1`,
    params: {
      p1: 2,
    },
    types: {
      p1: 'int64',
    },
    json: true,
  };

  // Queries row from the Venues table.
  try {
    const [rows] = await database.run(select_query);

    rows.forEach(row => {
      console.log(
        `VenueId: ${row.venueid}, Details: ${JSON.stringify(
          row.venuedetails
        )}`
      );
    });
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    await database.close();
  }
}
pgJsonbDataType();

PHP

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.


use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Query data to a jsonb column in a PostgreSQL table.
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 * @param string $tableName The table from which the data needs to be queried.
 */
function pg_jsonb_query_parameter(
    string $instanceId,
    string $databaseId,
    string $tableName = 'Venues'
): void {
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $results = $database->execute(
        sprintf('SELECT venueid, venuedetails FROM %s', $tableName) .
        " WHERE CAST(venuedetails ->> 'rating' AS INTEGER) > $1",
        [
        'parameters' => [
            'p1' => 2
        ],
        'types' => [
            'p1' => Database::TYPE_INT64
        ]
    ]);

    foreach ($results as $row) {
        printf('VenueId: %s, VenueDetails: %s' . PHP_EOL, $row['venueid'], $row['venuedetails']);
    }
}

Python

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

def query_data_with_jsonb_parameter(instance_id, database_id):
    """Queries sample data using SQL with a JSONB parameter."""
    # instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
    # database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    param = {"p1": 2}
    param_type = {"p1": param_types.INT64}

    with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
        results = snapshot.execute_sql(
            "SELECT venueid, venuedetails FROM Venues"
            + " WHERE CAST(venuedetails ->> 'rating' AS INTEGER) > $1",
            params=param,
            param_types=param_type,
        )

        for row in results:
            print("VenueId: {}, VenueDetails: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

To learn how to install and use the client library for Spanner, see Spanner client libraries.

require "google/cloud/spanner"

def spanner_postgresql_jsonb_query_parameter project_id:, instance_id:, database_id:
  # project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
  # instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
  # database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"
  spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
  client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

  sql_query = <<~QUERY
    SELECT venueid, venuedetails
    FROM Venues
    WHERE CAST(venuedetails ->> 'rating' AS INTEGER) > $1
  QUERY

  # pass parameterized query's params represented by position
  results = client.execute sql_query, params: { p1: 5 }
  puts results.rows.first

  # Read JSONB value from table
  results = client.read "Venues", [:VenueId, :VenueDetails], keys: 19
  puts results.rows.first
end

Unsupported PostgreSQL JSONB features

The following PostgreSQL JSONB features are not supported on Spanner JSONB:

  • Ordering, comparison, and aggregation
  • PrimaryKey and ForeignKey
  • Indexing, including the GIN index. For more information, see Indexing.
  • Altering a JSONB column to or from any other data type
  • Using parameterized queries with untyped JSONB parameters in tools that use the PostgreSQL wire protocol
  • Coercion in the query engine. Unlike Standard PostgreSQL, coercion from JSONB to text is not supported. Only valid JSON strings are coerced to JSONB type to match function signatures. Examples:

        SELECT concat('abc'::text,  '{"key1":1}'::jsonb);  -- Returns error
        SELECT concat('abc'::text, CAST('{"key1":1}'::jsonb AS TEXT));  -- This works
    

Indexing

JSONB columns do not support indexing. However, you can create an index on a generated column to extract a scalar value from a JSONB column.

CREATE TABLE Venues (
VenueId   BIGINT PRIMARY KEY,
VenueName  VARCHAR(1024),
VenueAddress VARCHAR(1024),
VenueFeatures JSONB,
TotalCapacity BIGINT GENERATED ALWAYS AS ((VenueFeatures->>'capacity')::BIGINT) STORED,
DateOpened  TIMESTAMPTZ
);

CREATE INDEX VenuesByCapacity ON Venues(TotalCapacity);