Insert, update, and delete data using data manipulation language (DML)

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This page describes how to insert, update, and delete Spanner data using Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements. You can run DML statements using the client libraries, the Google Cloud console, and the gcloud command-line tool. You can run Partitioned DML statements using the client libraries and the gcloud command-line tool.

For the complete DML syntax reference, see Data Manipulation Language syntax for Google Standard SQL-dialect databases or PostgreSQL data manipulation language for PostgreSQL-dialect databases

Use DML

DML supports INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements in the Google Cloud console, Google Cloud CLI, and client libraries.

Locking

You execute DML statements inside read-write transactions. When Spanner reads data, it acquires shared read locks on limited portions of the row ranges that you read. Specifically, it acquires these locks only on the columns you access. The locks can include data that does not match the filter condition of the WHERE clause.

When Spanner modifies data using DML statements, it acquires exclusive locks on the specific data that you are modifying. In addition, it acquires shared locks in the same way as when you read data. If your request includes large row ranges, or an entire table, the shared locks might prevent other transactions from completing in parallel.

To modify data as efficiently as possible, use a WHERE clause that enables Spanner to read only the necessary rows. You can achieve this goal with a filter on the primary key, or on the key of a secondary index. The WHERE clause limits the scope of the shared locks and enables Spanner to process the update more efficiently.

For example, suppose that one of the musicians in the Singers table changes their first name, and you need to update the name in your database. You could execute the following DML statement, but it forces Spanner to scan the entire table and acquires shared locks that cover the entire table. As a result, Spanner must read more data than necessary, and concurrent transactions cannot modify the data in parallel:

-- ANTI-PATTERN: SENDING AN UPDATE WITHOUT THE PRIMARY KEY COLUMN
-- IN THE WHERE CLAUSE

UPDATE Singers SET FirstName = "Marcel"
WHERE FirstName = "Marc" AND LastName = "Richards";

To make the update more efficient, include the SingerId column in the WHERE clause. The SingerId column is the only primary key column for the Singers table:

-- RECOMMENDED: INCLUDING THE PRIMARY KEY COLUMN IN THE WHERE CLAUSE

UPDATE Singers SET FirstName = "Marcel"
WHERE FirstName = "Marc" AND LastName = "Richards" AND SingerId = 1;

Concurrency

Spanner sequentially executes all the SQL statements (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE) within a transaction. They are not executed concurrently. The only exception is that Spanner might execute multiple SELECT statements concurrently, because they are read-only operations.

Transaction limits

A transaction that includes DML statements has the same limits as any other transaction. If you have large-scale changes, consider using Partitioned DML.

  • If the DML statements in a transaction result in more than 40,000 mutations, the DML statement that pushes the transaction over the limit returns a BadUsage error with a message about too many mutations.

  • If the DML statements in a transaction result in a transaction that is larger than 100 MB, the DML statement that pushes the transaction over the limit returns a BadUsage error with a message about the transaction exceeding the size limit.

Mutations performed using DML are not returned to the client. They are merged into the commit request when it is committed, and they count towards the maximum size limits. Even if the size of the commit request that you send is small, the transaction might still exceed the allowed size limit.

Run statements in the Google Cloud console

Use the following steps to execute a DML statement in the Google Cloud console.

  1. Go to the Spanner Instances page.

    Go to the instances page

  2. Select your project in the drop-down list in the toolbar.

  3. Click the name of the instance that contains your database to go to the Instance details page.

  4. In the Overview tab, click the name of your database. The Database details page appears.

  5. Click Query.

  6. Enter a DML statement. For example, the following statement adds a new row to the Singers table.

    INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
    VALUES (1, 'Marc', 'Richards')
    
  7. Click Run query. The Google Cloud console displays the result.

Execute statements with the Google Cloud CLI

To execute DML statements, use the gcloud spanner databases execute-sql command. The following example adds a new row to the Singers table.

gcloud spanner databases execute-sql example-db --instance=test-instance \
    --sql="INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (1, 'Marc', 'Richards')"

Modify data using the client library

To execute DML statements using the client library:

  • Create a read-write transaction.
  • Call the client library method for DML execution and pass in the DML statement.
  • Use the return value of the DML execution method to get the number of rows inserted, updated, or deleted.

The following code example inserts a new row into the Singers table.

C++

You use the ExecuteDml() function to execute a DML statement.

void DmlStandardInsert(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  std::int64_t rows_inserted;
  auto commit_result = client.Commit(
      [&client, &rows_inserted](
          spanner::Transaction txn) -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto insert = client.ExecuteDml(
            std::move(txn),
            spanner::SqlStatement(
                "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)"
                "  VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')"));
        if (!insert) return std::move(insert).status();
        rows_inserted = insert->RowsModified();
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) throw std::move(commit_result).status();
  std::cout << "Rows inserted: " << rows_inserted;
  std::cout << "Insert was successful [spanner_dml_standard_insert]\n";
}

C#

You use the ExecuteNonQueryAsync() method to execute a DML statement.


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class InsertUsingDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> InsertUsingDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')");
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) inserted...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Go

You use the Update() method to execute a DML statement.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func insertUsingDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
					VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')`,
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

You use the executeUpdate() method to execute a DML statement.

static void insertUsingDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        String sql =
            "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) "
                + " VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')";
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
        System.out.printf("%d record inserted.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

You use the runUpdate() method to execute a DML statement.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: 'INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (10, @firstName, @lastName)',
      params: {
        firstName: 'Virginia',
        lastName: 'Watson',
      },
    });

    console.log(
      `Successfully inserted ${rowCount} record into the Singers table.`
    );

    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

You use the executeUpdate() method to execute a DML statement.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Inserts sample data into the given database with a DML statement.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function insert_data_with_dml(string $instanceId, string $databaseId): void
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            'INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) '
            . " VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')");
        $t->commit();
        printf('Inserted %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

You use the execute_update() method to execute a DML statement.

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

def insert_singers(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) "
        " VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')"
    )

    print("{} record(s) inserted.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(insert_singers)

Ruby

You use the execute_update() method to execute a DML statement.

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner   = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client    = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')"
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record inserted."

The following code example updates the MarketingBudget column of the Albums table based on a WHERE clause.

C++

void DmlStandardUpdate(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto commit_result = client.Commit(
      [&client](spanner::Transaction txn) -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto update = client.ExecuteDml(
            std::move(txn),
            spanner::SqlStatement(
                "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2"
                "  WHERE SingerId = 1 AND AlbumId = 1"));
        if (!update) return std::move(update).status();
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) throw std::move(commit_result).status();
  std::cout << "Update was successful [spanner_dml_standard_update]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> UpdateUsingDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1");
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) updated...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `UPDATE Albums
				SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
				WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1`,
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) updated.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void updateUsingDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        String sql =
            "UPDATE Albums "
                + "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
                + "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1";
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
        System.out.printf("%d record updated.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: `UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
        WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1`,
    });

    console.log(`Successfully updated ${rowCount} record.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Updates sample data in the database with a DML statement.
 *
 * This requires the `MarketingBudget` column which must be created before
 * running this sample. You can add the column by running the `add_column`
 * sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
 *
 *     ALTER TABLE Albums ADD COLUMN MarketingBudget INT64
 *
 * Example:
 * ```
 * update_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_dml(string $instanceId, string $databaseId): void
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            'UPDATE Albums '
            . 'SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 '
            . 'WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1');
        $t->commit();
        printf('Updated %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

def update_albums(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "UPDATE Albums "
        "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
        "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1"
    )

    print("{} record(s) updated.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(update_albums)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "UPDATE Albums
     SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
     WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1"
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record updated."

The following code example deletes all the rows in the Singers table where the FirstName column is Alice.

C++

void DmlStandardDelete(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto commit_result = client.Commit([&client](spanner::Transaction txn)
                                         -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
    auto dele = client.ExecuteDml(
        std::move(txn),
        spanner::SqlStatement("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'"));
    if (!dele) return std::move(dele).status();
    return spanner::Mutations{};
  });
  if (!commit_result) throw std::move(commit_result).status();
  std::cout << "Delete was successful [spanner_dml_standard_delete]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class DeleteUsingDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> DeleteUsingDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'");
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) deleted...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func deleteUsingDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{SQL: `DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'`}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) deleted.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void deleteUsingDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        String sql = "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'";
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
        System.out.printf("%d record deleted.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'",
    });

    console.log(`Successfully deleted ${rowCount} record.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Deletes sample data in the database with a DML statement.
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function delete_data_with_dml(string $instanceId, string $databaseId): void
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'");
        $t->commit();
        printf('Deleted %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

def delete_singers(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'"
    )

    print("{} record(s) deleted.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(delete_singers)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'"
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record deleted."

The following example, for Google Standard SQL-dialect databases only, uses a STRUCT with bound parameters to update the LastName in rows filtered by FirstName and LastName.

Google Standard SQL

C++

void DmlStructs(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  std::int64_t rows_modified = 0;
  auto commit_result =
      client.Commit([&client, &rows_modified](spanner::Transaction const& txn)
                        -> google::cloud::StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto singer_info = std::make_tuple("Marc", "Richards");
        auto sql = spanner::SqlStatement(
            "UPDATE Singers SET FirstName = 'Keith' WHERE "
            "STRUCT<FirstName String, LastName String>(FirstName, LastName) "
            "= @name",
            {{"name", spanner::Value(std::move(singer_info))}});
        auto dml_result = client.ExecuteDml(txn, std::move(sql));
        if (!dml_result) return std::move(dml_result).status();
        rows_modified = dml_result->RowsModified();
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) throw std::move(commit_result).status();
  std::cout << rows_modified
            << " update was successful [spanner_dml_structs]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingDmlWithStructCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> UpdateUsingDmlWithStructCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        var nameStruct = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Timothy" },
            { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" }
        };
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name");
        cmd.Parameters.Add("name", nameStruct.GetSpannerDbType(), nameStruct);
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) updated...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingDMLStruct(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		type name struct {
			FirstName string
			LastName  string
		}
		var singerInfo = name{"Timothy", "Campbell"}

		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `Update Singers Set LastName = 'Grant'
				WHERE STRUCT<FirstName String, LastName String>(Firstname, LastName) = @name`,
			Params: map[string]interface{}{"name": singerInfo},
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void updateUsingDmlWithStruct(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  Struct name =
      Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Timothy").set("LastName").to("Campbell").build();
  Statement s =
      Statement.newBuilder(
              "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
                  + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                  + "= @name")
          .bind("name")
          .to(name)
          .build();
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(s);
        System.out.printf("%d record updated.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

const nameStruct = Spanner.struct({
  FirstName: 'Timothy',
  LastName: 'Campbell',
});

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: `UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant'
      WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name`,
      params: {
        name: nameStruct,
      },
    });

    console.log(`Successfully updated ${rowCount} record.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructType;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructValue;

/**
 * Update data with a DML statement using Structs.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_dml_structs(string $instanceId, string $databaseId): void
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $nameValue = (new StructValue)
            ->add('FirstName', 'Timothy')
            ->add('LastName', 'Campbell');
        $nameType = (new StructType)
            ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
            ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING);

        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
             . 'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) '
             . '= @name',
            [
                'parameters' => [
                    'name' => $nameValue
                ],
                'types' => [
                    'name' => $nameType
                ]
            ]);
        $t->commit();
        printf('Updated %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

record_type = param_types.Struct(
    [
        param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
        param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
    ]
)
record_value = ("Timothy", "Campbell")

def write_with_struct(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
        "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
        "(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
        params={"name": record_value},
        param_types={"name": record_type},
    )
    print("{} record(s) updated.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(write_with_struct)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0
name_struct = { FirstName: "Timothy", LastName: "Campbell" }

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant'
     WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
    params: { name: name_struct }
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record updated."

Modify data with the returning DML statements

The THEN RETURN clause (Google Standard SQL-dialect databases) or RETURNING clause (PostgreSQL-dialect databases) is intended for scenarios where you want to fetch data from modified rows. This is especially useful when you want to view unspecified values in the DML statements, default values, or generated columns.

To execute returning DML statements using the client library:

  • Create a read-write transaction.
  • Call the client library method for query execution and pass in the returning DML statement to obtain results.

The following code example inserts a new row into the Singers table, and it returns the generated column FullName of the inserted records.

Google Standard SQL

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func insertUsingDMLReturning(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Insert records into the SINGERS table and returns the
	// generated column FullName of the inserted records using
	// 'THEN RETURN FullName'.
	// It is also possible to return all columns of all the
	// inserted records by using 'THEN RETURN *'.
	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
			        VALUES (21, 'Melissa', 'Garcia'),
			               (22, 'Russell', 'Morales'),
			               (23, 'Jacqueline', 'Long'),
			               (24, 'Dylan', 'Shaw')
			        THEN RETURN FullName`,
		}
		iter := txn.Query(ctx, stmt)
		defer iter.Stop()
		for {
			row, err := iter.Next()
			if err == iterator.Done {
				break
			}
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			var fullName string
			if err := row.Columns(&fullName); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "%s\n", fullName)
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", iter.RowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseId;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.ResultSet;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Statement;

public class InsertUsingDmlReturningSample {

  static void insertUsingDmlReturning() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    final String projectId = "my-project";
    final String instanceId = "my-instance";
    final String databaseId = "my-database";
    insertUsingDmlReturning(projectId, instanceId, databaseId);
  }

  static void insertUsingDmlReturning(String projectId, String instanceId, String databaseId) {
    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder()
            .setProjectId(projectId)
            .build()
            .getService()) {
      final DatabaseClient dbClient =
          spanner.getDatabaseClient(DatabaseId.of(projectId, instanceId, databaseId));
      // Insert records into the SINGERS table and returns the
      // generated column FullName of the inserted records using
      // ‘THEN RETURN FullName’.
      // It is also possible to return all columns of all the
      // inserted records by using ‘THEN RETURN *’.
      dbClient
          .readWriteTransaction()
          .run(
              transaction -> {
                String sql =
                    "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES "
                        + "(12, 'Melissa', 'Garcia'), "
                        + "(13, 'Russell', 'Morales'), "
                        + "(14, 'Jacqueline', 'Long'), "
                        + "(15, 'Dylan', 'Shaw') THEN RETURN FullName";

                // readWriteTransaction.executeQuery(..) API should be used for executing
                // DML statements with RETURNING clause.
                try (ResultSet resultSet = transaction.executeQuery(Statement.of(sql))) {
                  while (resultSet.next()) {
                    System.out.println(resultSet.getString(0));
                  }
                  System.out.printf(
                      "Inserted row(s) count: %d\n", resultSet.getStats().getRowCountExact());
                }
                return null;
              });
    }
  }
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

# Insert records into the SINGERS table and returns the
# generated column FullName of the inserted records using
# 'THEN RETURN FullName'.
# It is also possible to return all columns of all the
# inserted records by using 'THEN RETURN *'.
def insert_singers(transaction):
    results = transaction.execute_sql(
        "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES "
        "(21, 'Luann', 'Chizoba'), "
        "(22, 'Denis', 'Patricio'), "
        "(23, 'Felxi', 'Ronan'), "
        "(24, 'Dominik', 'Martyna') "
        "THEN RETURN FullName"
    )
    for result in results:
        print("FullName: {}".format(*result))
    print("{} record(s) inserted.".format(results.stats.row_count_exact))

database.run_in_transaction(insert_singers)

PostgreSQL

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func pgInsertUsingDMLReturning(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Insert records into the SINGERS table and returns the
	// generated column FullName of the inserted records using
	// 'RETURNING FullName'.
	// It is also possible to return all columns of all the
	// inserted records by using 'RETURNING *'.
	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
			        VALUES (21, 'Melissa', 'Garcia'),
			               (22, 'Russell', 'Morales'),
			               (23, 'Jacqueline', 'Long'),
			               (24, 'Dylan', 'Shaw')
			        RETURNING FullName`,
		}
		iter := txn.Query(ctx, stmt)
		defer iter.Stop()
		for {
			row, err := iter.Next()
			if err == iterator.Done {
				break
			}
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			var fullName string
			if err := row.Columns(&fullName); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "%s\n", fullName)
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", iter.RowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseId;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.ResultSet;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Statement;

public class PgInsertUsingDmlReturningSample {

  static void insertUsingDmlReturning() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    final String projectId = "my-project";
    final String instanceId = "my-instance";
    final String databaseId = "my-database";
    insertUsingDmlReturning(projectId, instanceId, databaseId);
  }

  static void insertUsingDmlReturning(String projectId, String instanceId, String databaseId) {
    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder()
            .setProjectId(projectId)
            .build()
            .getService()) {
      final DatabaseClient dbClient =
          spanner.getDatabaseClient(DatabaseId.of(projectId, instanceId, databaseId));
      // Insert records into SINGERS table and returns the
      // generated column FullName of the inserted records
      // using ‘RETURNING FullName’.
      // It is also possible to return all columns of all the
      // inserted records by using ‘RETURNING *’.
      dbClient
          .readWriteTransaction()
          .run(
              transaction -> {
                String sql =
                    "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES "
                        + "(12, 'Melissa', 'Garcia'), "
                        + "(13, 'Russell', 'Morales'), "
                        + "(14, 'Jacqueline', 'Long'), "
                        + "(15, 'Dylan', 'Shaw') RETURNING FullName";

                // readWriteTransaction.executeQuery(..) API should be used for executing
                // DML statements with RETURNING clause.
                try (ResultSet resultSet = transaction.executeQuery(Statement.of(sql))) {
                  while (resultSet.next()) {
                    System.out.println(resultSet.getString(0));
                  }
                  System.out.printf(
                      "Inserted row(s) count: %d\n", resultSet.getStats().getRowCountExact());
                }
                return null;
              });
    }
  }
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

# Insert records into the SINGERS table and returns the
# generated column FullName of the inserted records using
# 'RETURNING FullName'.
# It is also possible to return all columns of all the
# inserted records by using 'RETURNING *'.
def insert_singers(transaction):
    results = transaction.execute_sql(
        "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES "
        "(21, 'Luann', 'Chizoba'), "
        "(22, 'Denis', 'Patricio'), "
        "(23, 'Felxi', 'Ronan'), "
        "(24, 'Dominik', 'Martyna') "
        "RETURNING FullName"
    )
    for result in results:
        print("FullName: {}".format(*result))
    print("{} record(s) inserted.".format(results.stats.row_count_exact))

database.run_in_transaction(insert_singers)

The following code example updates the MarketingBudget column of the Albums table based on a WHERE clause, and it returns the modified MarketingBudget column of the updated records.

Google Standard SQL

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func updateUsingDMLReturning(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Update MarketingBudget column for records satisfying
	// a particular condition and returns the modified
	// MarketingBudget column of the updated records using
	// 'THEN RETURN MarketingBudget'.
	// It is also possible to return all columns of all the
	// updated records by using 'THEN RETURN *'.
	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `UPDATE Albums
				SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
				WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1
				THEN RETURN MarketingBudget`,
		}
		iter := txn.Query(ctx, stmt)
		defer iter.Stop()
		for {
			row, err := iter.Next()
			if err == iterator.Done {
				break
			}
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			var marketingBudget int64
			if err := row.Columns(&marketingBudget); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d\n", marketingBudget)
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) updated.\n", iter.RowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseId;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.ResultSet;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Statement;

public class UpdateUsingDmlReturningSample {

  static void updateUsingDmlReturning() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    final String projectId = "my-project";
    final String instanceId = "my-instance";
    final String databaseId = "my-database";
    updateUsingDmlReturning(projectId, instanceId, databaseId);
  }

  static void updateUsingDmlReturning(String projectId, String instanceId, String databaseId) {
    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder()
            .setProjectId(projectId)
            .build()
            .getService()) {
      final DatabaseClient dbClient =
          spanner.getDatabaseClient(DatabaseId.of(projectId, instanceId, databaseId));
      // Update MarketingBudget column for records satisfying
      // a particular condition and returns the modified
      // MarketingBudget column of the updated records using
      // ‘THEN RETURN MarketingBudget’.
      // It is also possible to return all columns of all the
      // updated records by using ‘THEN RETURN *’.
      dbClient
          .readWriteTransaction()
          .run(
              transaction -> {
                String sql =
                    "UPDATE Albums "
                        + "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
                        + "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1 "
                        + "THEN RETURN MarketingBudget";

                // readWriteTransaction.executeQuery(..) API should be used for executing
                // DML statements with RETURNING clause.
                try (ResultSet resultSet = transaction.executeQuery(Statement.of(sql))) {
                  while (resultSet.next()) {
                    System.out.printf("%d\n", resultSet.getLong(0));
                  }
                  System.out.printf(
                      "Updated row(s) count: %d\n", resultSet.getStats().getRowCountExact());
                }
                return null;
              });
    }
  }
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

# Update MarketingBudget column for records satisfying
# a particular condition and returns the modified
# MarketingBudget column of the updated records using
# 'THEN RETURN MarketingBudget'.
# It is also possible to return all columns of all the
# updated records by using 'THEN RETURN *'.
def update_albums(transaction):
    results = transaction.execute_sql(
        "UPDATE Albums "
        "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
        "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1 "
        "THEN RETURN MarketingBudget"
    )
    for result in results:
        print("MarketingBudget: {}".format(*result))
    print("{} record(s) updated.".format(results.stats.row_count_exact))

database.run_in_transaction(update_albums)

PostgreSQL

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func pgUpdateUsingDMLReturning(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Update MarketingBudget column for records satisfying
	// a particular condition and returns the modified
	// MarketingBudget column of the updated records using
	// 'RETURNING MarketingBudget'.
	// It is also possible to return all columns of all the
	// updated records by using 'RETURNING *'.
	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `UPDATE Albums
				SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
				WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1
				RETURNING MarketingBudget`,
		}
		iter := txn.Query(ctx, stmt)
		defer iter.Stop()
		for {
			row, err := iter.Next()
			if err == iterator.Done {
				break
			}
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			var marketingBudget int64
			if err := row.Columns(&marketingBudget); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d\n", marketingBudget)
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) updated.\n", iter.RowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseId;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.ResultSet;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Statement;

public class PgUpdateUsingDmlReturningSample {

  static void updateUsingDmlReturning() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    final String projectId = "my-project";
    final String instanceId = "my-instance";
    final String databaseId = "my-database";
    updateUsingDmlReturning(projectId, instanceId, databaseId);
  }

  static void updateUsingDmlReturning(String projectId, String instanceId, String databaseId) {
    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder()
            .setProjectId(projectId)
            .build()
            .getService()) {
      final DatabaseClient dbClient =
          spanner.getDatabaseClient(DatabaseId.of(projectId, instanceId, databaseId));
      // Update MarketingBudget column for records satisfying
      // a particular condition and returns the modified
      // MarketingBudget column of the updated records using
      // ‘RETURNING MarketingBudget’.
      // It is also possible to return all columns of all the
      // updated records by using ‘RETURNING *’.
      dbClient
          .readWriteTransaction()
          .run(
              transaction -> {
                String sql =
                    "UPDATE Albums "
                        + "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
                        + "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1 "
                        + "RETURNING MarketingBudget";

                // readWriteTransaction.executeQuery(..) API should be used for executing
                // DML statements with RETURNING clause.
                try (ResultSet resultSet = transaction.executeQuery(Statement.of(sql))) {
                  while (resultSet.next()) {
                    System.out.printf("%d\n", resultSet.getLong(0));
                  }
                  System.out.printf(
                      "Updated row(s) count: %d\n", resultSet.getStats().getRowCountExact());
                }
                return null;
              });
    }
  }
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

# Update MarketingBudget column for records satisfying
# a particular condition and returns the modified
# MarketingBudget column of the updated records using
# 'RETURNING MarketingBudget'.
# It is also possible to return all columns of all the
# updated records by using 'RETURNING *'.
def update_albums(transaction):
    results = transaction.execute_sql(
        "UPDATE Albums "
        "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
        "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1 "
        "RETURNING MarketingBudget"
    )
    for result in results:
        print("MarketingBudget: {}".format(*result))
    print("{} record(s) updated.".format(results.stats.row_count_exact))

database.run_in_transaction(update_albums)

The following code example deletes all the rows in the Singers table where the FirstName column is Alice, and it returns the SingerId and FullName column of the deleted records.

Google Standard SQL

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func deleteUsingDMLReturning(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Delete records from SINGERS table satisfying a
	// particular condition and returns the SingerId
	// and FullName column of the deleted records using
	// 'THEN RETURN SingerId, FullName'.
	// It is also possible to return all columns of all the
	// deleted records by using 'THEN RETURN *'.
	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'
			        THEN RETURN SingerId, FullName`,
		}
		iter := txn.Query(ctx, stmt)
		defer iter.Stop()
		for {
			row, err := iter.Next()
			if err == iterator.Done {
				break
			}
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			var (
				singerID int64
				fullName string
			)
			if err := row.Columns(&singerID, &fullName); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d %s\n", singerID, fullName)
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) deleted.\n", iter.RowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseId;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.ResultSet;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Statement;

public class DeleteUsingDmlReturningSample {

  static void deleteUsingDmlReturningSample() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    final String projectId = "my-project";
    final String instanceId = "my-instance";
    final String databaseId = "my-database";
    deleteUsingDmlReturningSample(projectId, instanceId, databaseId);
  }

  static void deleteUsingDmlReturningSample(
      String projectId, String instanceId, String databaseId) {
    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder()
            .setProjectId(projectId)
            .build()
            .getService()) {
      final DatabaseClient dbClient =
          spanner.getDatabaseClient(DatabaseId.of(projectId, instanceId, databaseId));
      // Delete records from SINGERS table satisfying a
      // particular condition and returns the SingerId
      // and FullName column of the deleted records using
      // ‘THEN RETURN SingerId, FullName’.
      // It is also possible to return all columns of all the
      // deleted records by using ‘THEN RETURN *’.
      dbClient
          .readWriteTransaction()
          .run(
              transaction -> {
                String sql =
                    "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice' THEN RETURN SingerId, FullName";

                // readWriteTransaction.executeQuery(..) API should be used for executing
                // DML statements with RETURNING clause.
                try (ResultSet resultSet = transaction.executeQuery(Statement.of(sql))) {
                  while (resultSet.next()) {
                    System.out.printf("%d %s\n", resultSet.getLong(0), resultSet.getString(1));
                  }
                  System.out.printf(
                      "Deleted row(s) count: %d\n", resultSet.getStats().getRowCountExact());
                }
                return null;
              });
    }
  }
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

# Delete records from SINGERS table satisfying a
# particular condition and returns the SingerId
# and FullName column of the deleted records using
# 'THEN RETURN SingerId, FullName'.
# It is also possible to return all columns of all the
# deleted records by using 'THEN RETURN *'.
def delete_singers(transaction):
    results = transaction.execute_sql(
        "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'David' "
        "THEN RETURN SingerId, FullName"
    )
    for result in results:
        print("SingerId: {}, FullName: {}".format(*result))
    print("{} record(s) deleted.".format(results.stats.row_count_exact))

database.run_in_transaction(delete_singers)

PostgreSQL

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func pgDeleteUsingDMLReturning(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	// Delete records from SINGERS table satisfying a
	// particular condition and returns the SingerId
	// and FullName column of the deleted records using
	// 'RETURNING SingerId, FullName'.
	// It is also possible to return all columns of all the
	// deleted records by using 'RETURNING *'.
	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'
			        RETURNING SingerId, FullName`,
		}
		iter := txn.Query(ctx, stmt)
		defer iter.Stop()
		for {
			row, err := iter.Next()
			if err == iterator.Done {
				break
			}
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			var (
				singerID int64
				fullName string
			)
			if err := row.Columns(&singerID, &fullName); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d %s\n", singerID, fullName)
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) deleted.\n", iter.RowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java


import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseClient;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.DatabaseId;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.ResultSet;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Spanner;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.SpannerOptions;
import com.google.cloud.spanner.Statement;

public class PgDeleteUsingDmlReturningSample {

  static void deleteUsingDmlReturningSample() {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    final String projectId = "my-project";
    final String instanceId = "my-instance";
    final String databaseId = "my-database";
    deleteUsingDmlReturningSample(projectId, instanceId, databaseId);
  }

  static void deleteUsingDmlReturningSample(
      String projectId, String instanceId, String databaseId) {
    try (Spanner spanner =
        SpannerOptions.newBuilder()
            .setProjectId(projectId)
            .build()
            .getService()) {
      final DatabaseClient dbClient =
          spanner.getDatabaseClient(DatabaseId.of(projectId, instanceId, databaseId));
      // Delete records from SINGERS table satisfying a
      // particular condition and returns the SingerId
      // and FullName column of the deleted records using
      // ‘RETURNING SingerId, FullName’.
      // It is also possible to return all columns of all the
      // deleted records by using ‘RETURNING *’.
      dbClient
          .readWriteTransaction()
          .run(
              transaction -> {
                String sql =
                    "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice' RETURNING SingerId, FullName";

                // readWriteTransaction.executeQuery(..) API should be used for executing
                // DML statements with RETURNING clause.
                try (ResultSet resultSet = transaction.executeQuery(Statement.of(sql))) {
                  while (resultSet.next()) {
                    System.out.printf("%d %s\n", resultSet.getLong(0), resultSet.getString(1));
                  }
                  System.out.printf(
                      "Deleted row(s) count: %d\n", resultSet.getStats().getRowCountExact());
                }
                return null;
              });
    }
  }
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

# Delete records from SINGERS table satisfying a
# particular condition and returns the SingerId
# and FullName column of the deleted records using
# 'RETURNING SingerId, FullName'.
# It is also possible to return all columns of all the
# deleted records by using 'RETURNING *'.
def delete_singers(transaction):
    results = transaction.execute_sql(
        "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'David' "
        "RETURNING SingerId, FullName"
    )
    for result in results:
        print("SingerId: {}, FullName: {}".format(*result))
    print("{} record(s) deleted.".format(results.stats.row_count_exact))

database.run_in_transaction(delete_singers)

Read data written in the same transaction

Changes you make using DML statements are visible to subsequent statements in the same transaction. This is different from using mutations, where changes are not visible until the transaction commits.

Spanner checks the constraints after every DML statement. This is different from using mutations, where Spanner buffers mutations in the client until commit and checks constraints at commit time. Evaluating the constraints after each statement allows Spanner to guarantee that the data that a DML statement returns is consistent with the schema.

The following example updates a row in the Singers table, then executes a SELECT statement to print the new values.

C++

void DmlWriteThenRead(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;

  auto commit_result = client.Commit(
      [&client](spanner::Transaction txn) -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto insert = client.ExecuteDml(
            txn, spanner::SqlStatement(
                     "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)"
                     "  VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')"));
        if (!insert) return std::move(insert).status();
        // Read newly inserted record.
        spanner::SqlStatement select(
            "SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers where SingerId = 11");
        using RowType = std::tuple<std::string, std::string>;
        auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(std::move(txn), std::move(select));
        for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<RowType>(rows)) {
          if (!row) return std::move(row).status();
          std::cout << "FirstName: " << std::get<0>(*row) << "\t";
          std::cout << "LastName: " << std::get<1>(*row) << "\n";
        }
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) throw std::move(commit_result).status();
  std::cout << "Write then read succeeded [spanner_dml_write_then_read]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class WriteAndReadUsingDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> WriteAndReadUsingDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var createDmlCmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand(@"INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')");
        int rowCount = await createDmlCmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) inserted...");

        // Read newly inserted record.
        using var createSelectCmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(@"SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11");
        using var reader = await createSelectCmd.ExecuteReaderAsync();
        while (await reader.ReadAsync())
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"{reader.GetFieldValue<string>("FirstName")}  {reader.GetFieldValue<string>("LastName")}");
        }
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func writeAndReadUsingDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		// Insert Record
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
				VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')`,
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", rowCount)

		// Read newly inserted record
		stmt = spanner.Statement{SQL: `SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11`}
		iter := txn.Query(ctx, stmt)
		defer iter.Stop()

		for {
			row, err := iter.Next()
			if err == iterator.Done || err != nil {
				break
			}
			var firstName, lastName string
			if err := row.ColumnByName("FirstName", &firstName); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			if err := row.ColumnByName("LastName", &lastName); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Found record name with %s, %s", firstName, lastName)
		}
		return err
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void writeAndReadUsingDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        // Insert record.
        String sql =
            "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) "
                + " VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')";
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
        System.out.printf("%d record inserted.\n", rowCount);
        // Read newly inserted record.
        sql = "SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11";
        // We use a try-with-resource block to automatically release resources held by
        // ResultSet.
        try (ResultSet resultSet = transaction.executeQuery(Statement.of(sql))) {
          while (resultSet.next()) {
            System.out.printf(
                "%s %s\n",
                resultSet.getString("FirstName"), resultSet.getString("LastName"));
          }
        }
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: `INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
        VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')`,
    });

    const [rows] = await transaction.run({
      sql: 'SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers',
    });
    rows.forEach(row => {
      const json = row.toJSON();
      console.log(`${json.FirstName} ${json.LastName}`);
    });

    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Writes then reads data inside a Transaction with a DML statement.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function write_read_with_dml(string $instanceId, string $databaseId): void
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            'INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) '
            . " VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')");

        printf('Inserted %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);

        $results = $t->execute('SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11');

        foreach ($results as $row) {
            printf('%s %s' . PHP_EOL, $row['FirstName'], $row['LastName']);
        }

        $t->commit();
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

def write_then_read(transaction):
    # Insert record.
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) "
        " VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')"
    )
    print("{} record(s) inserted.".format(row_ct))

    # Read newly inserted record.
    results = transaction.execute_sql(
        "SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11"
    )
    for result in results:
        print("FirstName: {}, LastName: {}".format(*result))

database.run_in_transaction(write_then_read)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')"
  )
  puts "#{row_count} record updated."
  transaction.execute("SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11").rows.each do |row|
    puts "#{row[:FirstName]} #{row[:LastName]}"
  end
end

Get the query plan

You can retrieve a query plan using the Google Cloud console, the client libraries, and the gcloud command-line tool.

Use Partitioned DML

Partitioned DML is designed for bulk updates and deletes, particularly periodic cleanup and backfilling.

Execute statements with the Google Cloud CLI

To execute a Partitioned DML statement, use the gcloud spanner databases execute-sql command with the --enable-partitioned-dml option. The following example updates rows in the Albums table.

gcloud spanner databases execute-sql example-db \
    --instance=test-instance --enable-partitioned-dml \
    --sql='UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 0 WHERE MarketingBudget IS NULL'

Modify data using the client library

The following code example updates the MarketingBudget column of the Albums table.

C++

You use the ExecutePartitionedDml() function to execute a Partitioned DML statement.

void DmlPartitionedUpdate(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto result = client.ExecutePartitionedDml(
      spanner::SqlStatement("UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000"
                            "  WHERE SingerId > 1"));
  if (!result) throw std::move(result).status();
  std::cout << "Update was successful [spanner_dml_partitioned_update]\n";
}

C#

You use the ExecutePartitionedUpdateAsync() method to execute a Partitioned DML statement.


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingPartitionedDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<long> UpdateUsingPartitionedDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1");
        long rowCount = await cmd.ExecutePartitionedUpdateAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) updated...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Go

You use the PartitionedUpdate() method to execute a Partitioned DML statement.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingPartitionedDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	stmt := spanner.Statement{SQL: "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1"}
	rowCount, err := client.PartitionedUpdate(ctx, stmt)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) updated.\n", rowCount)
	return nil
}

Java

You use the executePartitionedUpdate() method to execute a Partitioned DML statement.

static void updateUsingPartitionedDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  String sql = "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1";
  long rowCount = dbClient.executePartitionedUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
  System.out.printf("%d records updated.\n", rowCount);
}

Node.js

You use the runPartitionedUpdate() method to execute a Partitioned DML statement.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

try {
  const [rowCount] = await database.runPartitionedUpdate({
    sql: 'UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1',
  });
  console.log(`Successfully updated ${rowCount} records.`);
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

You use the executePartitionedUpdate() method to execute a Partitioned DML statement.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Updates sample data in the database by partition with a DML statement.
 *
 * This updates the `MarketingBudget` column which must be created before
 * running this sample. You can add the column by running the `add_column`
 * sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
 *
 *     ALTER TABLE Albums ADD COLUMN MarketingBudget INT64
 *
 * Example:
 * ```
 * update_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_partitioned_dml(string $instanceId, string $databaseId): void
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $rowCount = $database->executePartitionedUpdate(
        'UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1'
    );

    printf('Updated %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
}

Python

You use the execute_partitioned_dml() method to execute a Partitioned DML statement.

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

row_ct = database.execute_partitioned_dml(
    "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1"
)

print("{} records updated.".format(row_ct))

Ruby

You use the execute_partitioned_update() method to execute a Partitioned DML statement.

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

row_count = client.execute_partition_update(
  "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1"
)

puts "#{row_count} records updated."

The following code example deletes rows from the Singers table, based on the SingerId column.

C++

void DmlPartitionedDelete(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto result = client.ExecutePartitionedDml(
      spanner::SqlStatement("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10"));
  if (!result) throw std::move(result).status();
  std::cout << "Delete was successful [spanner_dml_partitioned_delete]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class DeleteUsingPartitionedDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<long> DeleteUsingPartitionedDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10");
        long rowCount = await cmd.ExecutePartitionedUpdateAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) deleted...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func deleteUsingPartitionedDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	stmt := spanner.Statement{SQL: "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10"}
	rowCount, err := client.PartitionedUpdate(ctx, stmt)
	if err != nil {
		return err

	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) deleted.", rowCount)
	return nil
}

Java

static void deleteUsingPartitionedDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  String sql = "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10";
  long rowCount = dbClient.executePartitionedUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
  System.out.printf("%d records deleted.\n", rowCount);
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

try {
  const [rowCount] = await database.runPartitionedUpdate({
    sql: 'DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10',
  });
  console.log(`Successfully deleted ${rowCount} records.`);
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Delete sample data in the database by partition with a DML statement.
 *
 * This updates the `MarketingBudget` column which must be created before
 * running this sample. You can add the column by running the `add_column`
 * sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
 *
 *     ALTER TABLE Albums ADD COLUMN MarketingBudget INT64
 *
 * Example:
 * ```
 * update_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function delete_data_with_partitioned_dml(string $instanceId, string $databaseId): void
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $rowCount = $database->executePartitionedUpdate(
        'DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10'
    );

    printf('Deleted %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"
spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

row_ct = database.execute_partitioned_dml("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10")

print("{} record(s) deleted.".format(row_ct))

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

row_count = client.execute_partition_update(
  "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10"
)

puts "#{row_count} records deleted."

Use batch DML

If you need to avoid the extra latency incurred from multiple serial requests, use batch DML to send multiple INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements in a single transaction:

C++

Use the ExecuteBatchDml() function to execute a list of DML statements.

void DmlBatchUpdate(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;

  auto commit_result =
      client.Commit([&client](spanner::Transaction const& txn)
                        -> google::cloud::StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        std::vector<spanner::SqlStatement> statements = {
            spanner::SqlStatement("INSERT INTO Albums"
                                  " (SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle,"
                                  " MarketingBudget)"
                                  " VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)"),
            spanner::SqlStatement("UPDATE Albums"
                                  " SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2"
                                  "  WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3")};
        auto result = client.ExecuteBatchDml(txn, statements);
        if (!result) return std::move(result).status();
        for (std::size_t i = 0; i < result->stats.size(); ++i) {
          std::cout << result->stats[i].row_count << " rows affected"
                    << " for the statement " << (i + 1) << ".\n";
        }
        // Batch operations may have partial failures, in which case
        // ExecuteBatchDml returns with success, but the application should
        // verify that all statements completed successfully
        if (!result->status.ok()) return result->status;
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) throw std::move(commit_result).status();
  std::cout << "Update was successful [spanner_dml_batch_update]\n";
}

C#

Use the connection.CreateBatchDmlCommand() method to create your batch command, use the Add method to add DML statements, and execute the statements with the ExecuteNonQueryAsync() method.


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingBatchDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> UpdateUsingBatchDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        SpannerBatchCommand cmd = connection.CreateBatchDmlCommand();

        cmd.Add("INSERT INTO Albums (SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)");

        cmd.Add("UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3");

        IEnumerable<long> affectedRows = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"Executed {affectedRows.Count()} " + "SQL statements using Batch DML.");
        return affectedRows.Count();
    }
}

Go

Use the BatchUpdate() method to execute an array of DML Statement objects.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingBatchDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmts := []spanner.Statement{
			{SQL: `INSERT INTO Albums
				(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget)
				VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)`},
			{SQL: `UPDATE Albums
				SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
				WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3`},
		}
		rowCounts, err := txn.BatchUpdate(ctx, stmts)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Executed %d SQL statements using Batch DML.\n", len(rowCounts))
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

Use the transaction.batchUpdate() method to execute an ArrayList of multiple DML Statement objects.

static void updateUsingBatchDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        List<Statement> stmts = new ArrayList<Statement>();
        String sql =
            "INSERT INTO Albums "
                + "(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) "
                + "VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000) ";
        stmts.add(Statement.of(sql));
        sql =
            "UPDATE Albums "
                + "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
                + "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3";
        stmts.add(Statement.of(sql));
        long[] rowCounts;
        try {
          rowCounts = transaction.batchUpdate(stmts);
        } catch (SpannerBatchUpdateException e) {
          rowCounts = e.getUpdateCounts();
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < rowCounts.length; i++) {
          System.out.printf("%d record updated by stmt %d.\n", rowCounts[i], i);
        }
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

Use transaction.batchUpdate() to execute a list of DML statements.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const insert = {
  sql: `INSERT INTO Albums (SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget)
    VALUES (1, 3, "Test Album Title", 10000)`,
};

const update = {
  sql: `UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
    WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3`,
};

const dmlStatements = [insert, update];

try {
  await database.runTransactionAsync(async transaction => {
    const [rowCounts] = await transaction.batchUpdate(dmlStatements);
    await transaction.commit();
    console.log(
      `Successfully executed ${rowCounts.length} SQL statements using Batch DML.`
    );
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
  throw err;
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

Use executeUpdateBatch() to create a list of DML statements, then use commit() to execute the statements.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Updates sample data in the database with Batch DML.
 *
 * This requires the `MarketingBudget` column which must be created before
 * running this sample. You can add the column by running the `add_column`
 * sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
 *
 *     ALTER TABLE Albums ADD COLUMN MarketingBudget INT64
 *
 * Example:
 * ```
 * update_data_with_batch_dml($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_batch_dml(string $instanceId, string $databaseId): void
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $batchDmlResult = $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) {
        $result = $t->executeUpdateBatch([
            [
                'sql' => 'INSERT INTO Albums '
                . '(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) '
                . "VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)"
            ],
            [
                'sql' => 'UPDATE Albums '
                . 'SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 '
                . 'WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3'
            ],
        ]);
        $t->commit();
        $rowCounts = count($result->rowCounts());
        printf('Executed %s SQL statements using Batch DML.' . PHP_EOL,
            $rowCounts);
    });
}

Python

Use transaction.batch_update() to execute multiple DML statement strings.

from google.rpc.code_pb2 import OK

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

insert_statement = (
    "INSERT INTO Albums "
    "(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) "
    "VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)"
)

update_statement = (
    "UPDATE Albums "
    "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
    "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3"
)

def update_albums(transaction):
    status, row_cts = transaction.batch_update([insert_statement, update_statement])

    if status.code != OK:
        # Do handling here.
        # Note: the exception will still be raised when
        # `commit` is called by `run_in_transaction`.
        return

    print("Executed {} SQL statements using Batch DML.".format(len(row_cts)))

database.run_in_transaction(update_albums)

Ruby

Use transaction.batch_update to execute multiple DML statement strings.

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

row_counts = nil
client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_counts = transaction.batch_update do |b|
    b.batch_update(
      "INSERT INTO Albums " \
      "(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) " \
      "VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)"
    )
    b.batch_update(
      "UPDATE Albums " \
      "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 " \
      "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3"
    )
  end
end

statement_count = row_counts.count

puts "Executed #{statement_count} SQL statements using Batch DML."