Quotas & limits

This page describes production quotas and limits for Spanner. Quota and limit might be used interchangeably in the Google Cloud console.

The quota and limit values are subject to change.

Permissions to check and edit quotas

To view your quotas, you must have the serviceusage.quotas.get Identity and Access Management (IAM) permission.

To change your quotas, you must have the serviceusage.quotas.update IAM permission. This permission is included by default for the following predefined roles: Owner, Editor, and Quota Administrator.

These permissions are included by default in the basic IAM roles Owner and Editor, and in the predefined Quota Administrator role.

Check your quotas

To check the current quotas for resources in your project, use the Google Cloud console:

Go to Quotas

Increase your quotas

As your use of Spanner expands over time, your quotas can increase accordingly. If you expect a notable upcoming increase in usage, you should make your request a few days in advance to ensure that your quotas are adequately sized.

You might also need to increase your consumer quota override. For more information, see Creating a consumer quota override.

You can increase your current Spanner instance configuration node limit by using the Google Cloud console.

  1. Go to the Quotas page.

    Go to the Quotas page

  2. Select Spanner API in the Service dropdown list.

    If you do not see Spanner API, the Spanner API has not been enabled. For more information, see Enabling APIs.

  3. Select the quotas that you want to change.

  4. Click Edit Quotas.

  5. In the Quota changes panel that appears, enter your new quota limit.

    Screenshot of the instance creation window

  6. Click Done, then Submit request.

    If you're unable to increase your node limit to your desired limit manually, click apply for higher quota. Fill out the form to submit a request to the Spanner team. You will receive a response within 48 hours of your request.

Increase your quota for a custom instance configuration

You can increase the node quota for your custom instance configuration.

  1. Check the node limit of a custom instance configuration by checking the node limit of the base instance configuration.

    Use the show instance configurations detail command if you don't know or remember the base configuration of your custom instance configuration.

  2. If the node limit required for your custom instance configuration is less than 85, follow the instructions in the previous Increase your quotas section. Use the Google Cloud console to increase the node limit of the base instance configuration associated with your custom instance configuration.

    If the node limit required for your custom instance configuration is more than 85, fill out the Request a Quota Increase for your Spanner Nodes form. Specify the ID of your custom instance configuration in the form.

Node limits

Value Limit
Nodes per instance configuration

Default limits vary by project and instance configuration. To change project quota limits or request a limit increase, see Increase your quotas.

Instance limits

Value Limit
Instance ID length 2 to 64 characters

Free trial instance limits

A Spanner free trial instance has the following additional limits. To raise or remove these limits, upgrade your free trial instance to a paid instance.

Value Limit
Storage capacity 10 GB
Database limit Create up to five databases
Unsupported features Backup and restore
SLA No SLA guarantees
Trial duration 90-day free trial period

Instance configuration limits

Value Limit
Maximum custom instance configurations per project 100
Custom instance configuration ID length

8 to 64 characters

A custom instance configuration ID must start with custom-

Database limits

Value Limit
Databases per instance
  • For instances of 1 node (1000 processing units) and larger: 100 databases
  • For instances smaller than 1 node: 10 databases per 100 processing units
Roles per database 100
Database ID length 2 to 30 characters
Storage size1
  • For instances of 1 node (1000 processing units) and larger: 4 TB per node
  • For instances smaller than 1 node: 409.6 GB per 100 processing units

Increased storage capacity of 10 TB per node is available in select regional and multi-region Spanner instance configurations. For more information, see Performance and storage improvements.

Backups are stored separately and do not count towards this limit. For more information, see Storage utilization metrics.

Note that Spanner bills for actual storage utilized within an instance, and not its total available storage.

Backup and restore limits

Value Limit
Number of ongoing create backup operations per database 1
Number of ongoing restore database operations per instance (in the instance of the restored database, not the backup) 10
Maximum retention time of backup 1 year (including the extra day in a leap year)

Schema limits

DDL statements

Value Limit
DDL statement size for a single schema change 10 MB
DDL statement size for a database's entire schema, as returned by GetDatabaseDdl 10 MB


Value Limit
Tables per database 5,000
Table name length 1 to 128 characters
Columns per table 1,024
Column name length 1 to 128 characters
Size of data per cell 10 MB
Number of columns in a table key


Includes key columns shared with any parent table

Table interleaving depth


A top-level table with child table(s) has depth 1.

A top-level table with grandchild table(s) has depth 2, and so on.

Total size of a table or index key

8 KB

Includes the size of all columns that make up the key

Total size of non-key columns

1600 MB

Includes the size of all non-key columns for a table


Value Limit
Indexes per database 10,000
Indexes per table 128
Index name length 1 to 128 characters
Number of columns in an index key


The number of indexed columns (except for STORING columns) plus the number of primary key columns in the base table


Value Limit
Views per database 5,000
View name length 1 to 128 characters
Nesting depth


A view that refers to another view has nesting depth 1. A view that refers to another view that refers to yet another view has nesting depth 2, and so on.

Query limits

Value Limit
Columns in a GROUP BY clause 1,000
Values in an IN operator 10,000
Function calls 1,000
Joins 20
Nested function calls 75
Nested GROUP BY clauses 35
Nested subquery expressions 25
Nested subselect statements 60
Parameters 950
Query statement length 1 million characters
STRUCT fields 1,000
Subquery expression children 50
Unions in a query 200

Limits for creating, reading, updating, and deleting data

Value Limit
Commit size (including indexes and change streams) 100 MB
Concurrent reads per session 100
Mutations per commit (including indexes)2 80,000
Concurrent Partitioned DML statements per database 20,000

Administrative limits

Value Limit
Administrative actions request size3 1 MB
Rate limit for administrative actions4

5 per second per project per user

(averaged over 100 seconds)

Request limits

Value Limit
Request size other than for commits5 10 MB

Change stream limits

Value Limit
Change streams per database 10
Change streams watching any given non-key column6 3
Concurrent readers per change stream data partition7 5

Data Boost limits

Value Limit
Concurrent Data Boost requests8 200


1. To provide high availability and low latency for accessing a database, Spanner defines storage limits based on the compute capacity of the instance:

  • For instances smaller than 1 node (1000 processing units), Spanner allots 409.6 GB of data for every 100 processing units in the database.
  • For instances of 1 node and larger, Spanner allots 4 TB of data for each node.

For example, to create an instance for a 600 GB database, you need to set its compute capacity to 200 processing units. This amount of compute capacity will keep the instance below the limit until the database grows to more than 819.2 GB. After the database reaches this size, you need to add another 100 processing units to allow the database to grow. Otherwise, writes to the database may be rejected. For more information, see Recommendations for database storage utilization.

For a smooth growth experience, add compute capacity before the limit is reached for your database.

2. Insert and update operations count with the multiplicity of the number of columns they affect, and primary key columns are always affected. For example, inserting a new record may count as five mutations, if values are inserted into five columns. Updating three columns in a record may also count as five mutations if the record has two primary key columns. Delete and delete range operations count as one mutation regardless of the number of columns affected. Deleting a row from a parent table that has the ON DELETE CASCADE annotation is also counted as one mutation regardless of the number of interleaved child rows present. The exception to this is if there are secondary indexes defined on rows being deleted, then the changes to the secondary indexes will be counted individually. For example, if a table has 2 secondary indexes, deleting a range of rows in the table will count as 1 mutation for the table, plus 2 mutations for each row that is deleted because the rows in the secondary index might be scattered over the key-space, making it impossible for Spanner to call a single delete range operation on the secondary indexes. Secondary indexes include the foreign keys backing indexes.

To find the mutation count for a transaction, see Retrieving commit statistics for a transaction.

Change streams do not add any mutations that count towards this limit.

3. The limit for an administrative action request excludes commits, requests listed in note 5, and schema changes.

4. This rate limit includes all calls to the admin API, which includes calls to poll long-running operations on an instance, database, or backup.

5. This limit includes requests for creating a database, updating a database, reading, streaming reads, executing SQL queries, and executing streaming SQL queries.

6. A change stream that watches an entire table or database implicitly watches every column in that table or database, and therefore counts towards this limit.

7. This limit applies to concurrent readers of the same change streams partition, whether the readers are Dataflow pipelines or direct API queries.

8. Default limits vary by project and regions. For more information, see Monitor and manage Data Boost quota usage.