Quotas & limits

This page describes production limits for Cloud Spanner.

These values are subject to change.

Checking your quotas

To check the current quotas for resources in your project, go to the Quotas page in the Google Cloud Platform Console.

Increasing your quotas

As your use of Cloud Spanner expands over time, your quotas can increase accordingly. If you expect a notable upcoming increase in usage, you should make your request a few days in advance to ensure your quotas are adequately sized.

  1. On the Quotas page, select Cloud Spanner API in the Service dropdown list.

    If you do not see Cloud Spanner API, the Cloud Spanner API has not been enabled.

  2. Select the quotas you want to change.

  3. Click Edit Quotas.

  4. Fill in your name, email, and phone number and click Next.

  5. Fill in your quota request and click Submit request.

You will receive a response from the Cloud Spanner team within 48 hours of your request.

Instance limits

Value Limit
Instance ID length2 to 64 characters

Database limits

Value Limit
Databases per instance100
Database ID length2 to 30 characters
Storage size per node2 TB1

Schema limits

Value Limit
Schema size10 MB
Schema change size10 MB
Tables per database2,048
Table name length1 to 128 characters
Columns per table1,024
Column name length1 to 128 characters
Size of data per column10 MB
Number of columns in a table key


Includes key columns shared with any parent table

Table interleaving depth


A top-level table with child table(s) has depth 1.

A top-level table with grandchild table(s) has depth 2, and so on.

Total size of a table or index key

8 KB

Includes the size of all columns that make up the key

Indexes per database4,096
Indexes per table32
Index name length1 to 128 characters
Number of columns in an index key


The number of indexed columns (except for STORING columns) plus the number of primary key columns in the base table

Query limits

Value Limit
Columns in a GROUP BY clause1000
Function calls1000
Nested function calls75
Nested GROUP BY clauses35
Nested subquery expressions25
Nested subselect statements60
Query statement length1 million characters
STRUCT fields1000
Subquery expression children40
Unions in a query200

Limits for creating, reading, updating, and deleting data

Value Limit
Commit size (including indexes)100 MB
Concurrent reads per session100
Mutations per commit (including indexes)220,000
Sessions per database per node10,000
Concurrent Partitioned DML statements per database20,000

Administrative limits

Value Limit
Administrative actions request size31 MB
Rate for administrative actions

5 per second per project

(averaged over 100 seconds)

Node limits

Value Limit
Nodes per project per instance configuration25

Request limits

Value Limit
Request size other than for commits410 MB


1. To provide high availability and low latency for accessing a database, Cloud Spanner requires that there is a node for every 2 TB of data in the database. For example, if you have a database of size 3.5 TB, you need to provision at least 2 nodes. That will handle your database until it grows to 4 TB. Once your database reaches 4 TB, you need to add another node to allow the database to grow. Otherwise, writes to the database will fail. For a smooth growth experience, add nodes before this limit is reached for your database.

2. Insert and update operations count with the multiplicity of the number of columns they affect. For example, inserting values into one key column and four non-key columns count as five mutations total for the insert. Delete and delete range operations count as one mutation regardless of the number of columns affected.

3. The limit for an administrative action request excludes commits, requests listed in note 4, and schema changes.

4. This includes requests for creating a database, updating a database, reading, streaming reads, executing SQL queries, and executing streaming SQL queries.

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Cloud Spanner Documentation