Spanner: Becoming a SQL System (SIGMOD 2017)
This paper highlights the database DNA of Spanner. It describes distributed query execution in the presence of resharding, query restarts upon transient failures, range extraction that drives query routing and index seeks, and the improved blockwise-columnar storage format.
Spanner, TrueTime, and the CAP Theorem
How Spanner provides scale, ACID transactions, high availability, and low latency.
Life of Spanner Reads and Writes
How writes and reads work in Spanner and how Spanner ensures strong consistency.
Life of a Spanner Query
How Spanner supports SQL queries.
Optimizing Schema Design for Spanner
How to model your data to ensure that your application can scale and perform as it grows in various dimensions.
Spanner: Google's Globally Distributed Database (OSDI 2012)
This paper describes the systems aspects of Spanner, such as scalability, automatic sharding, fault tolerance, consistent replication, external consistency, and wide-area distribution.
Except as otherwise noted, the content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, and code samples are licensed under the Apache 2.0 License. For details, see the Google Developers Site Policies. Java is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.