Is Pub/Sub related to Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM) or to the deprecated Google Cloud Messaging (GCM)?
Yes and no. These systems are each used to deliver messages, but FCM is used to deliver messages to and from end-user devices while Pub/Sub is used to communicate between servers. FCM is designed to scale to a very large number of delivery end points, but has low throughput (messages per second per channel). Pub/Sub does not have limits on throughput and has a more generic API.
Is this related to PubSubHubbub?
No. While Googlers were closely involved in originating PubSubHubbub, its strengths in RSS and content syndication generally are not use cases that Pub/Sub is designed to address. Aside from the name, they have very little in common.
Can I use Pub/Sub to communicate between different App Engine modules?
Yes. You can use Pub/Sub to send and receive messages between different modules in a App Engine application, and even between different applications in the same project, without any special ACL configuration. To achieve low latency publishing, cache the publisher client by initializing it as a global variable.
Can I use Pub/Sub with platforms other than App Engine?
Yes. You can use Pub/Sub with applications hosted on Google Compute Engine or even on non-Google platforms. All you need is a Google Cloud Console project to get started. For low latency publishing, consider caching the publisher client by making it global.
How can I connect App Engine and Compute Engine applications?
How can I monitor Pub/Sub metrics?Please refer to this article.
Is Pub/Sub integrated with Cloud KMS?
Yes. Pub/Sub topics can be configured to protect message contents using a key in Cloud KMS. For more information, see Using customer-managed encryption keys.
Are messages delivered in order?
If messages have the same ordering key and publishers send the messages to the same region, the Pub/Sub service can deliver messages in the order that it receives them. For more information, see Ordering messages.
Why am I getting quota errors when my usage is well below the limits?
Quotas are enforced against the project associated with the authenticated client, as explained in
Quotas and Limits. Make sure that you are using a service account or
API_KEY associated with a project that has sufficient quotas. The
command line in particular uses a shared project, and the quotas are very limited.
Why are there too many duplicate messages?
Pub/Sub guarantees at-least-once message delivery, which means that occasional duplicates
are to be expected. However, a high rate of duplicates may indicate that the client is not
acknowledging messages within the configured
ack_deadline_seconds, and Pub/Sub
is retrying the message delivery. This can be observed in the
for pull subscriptions, and
push subscriptions. Look for elevated
/response_code. This is particularly likely if there are many small messages,
since Pub/Sub may batch messages internally and a partially acknowledged batch will be
Another possibility is that the subscriber is not
acknowledging some messages because the code path processing those specific messages fails, and the
Acknowledge call is never made; or the push endpoint never responds or responds
with an error.
How do I detect duplicate messages?
Pub/Sub assigns a unique
message_id to each message, which can be used to detect
duplicate messages received by the subscriber. This will not, however, allow you to detect
duplicates resulting from multiple publish requests on the same data. Detecting those will require
a unique message identifier to be provided by the publisher. See
Pub/Sub I/O for further discussion.