Structure of Detailed data export

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This page provides reference information for the schema of Cloud Billing detailed usage cost data that is exported to each table in BigQuery.

The detailed usage cost data provides all of the information included in the standard usage cost data, along with additional fields that provide granular, resource-level cost data, like a virtual machine or SSD that generates service usage. The detailed export includes granular cost information about the following services:

  • Compute Engine
  • Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)

    To view a breakdown of GKE cluster costs in a detailed data export, you must also enable cost allocation for GKE.

  • Cloud Functions

  • Cloud Run

Identify granular cost data by service

To analyze granular cost information in a detailed export, use the table below to identify the column that contains information about specific resources.

Service description Column How to identify resources
Compute Engine service.description, and resource.name or resource.global_name

The service.description column contains the name of the service. The resource.name column contains the name provided by the user. The resource.global_name column contains a unique identifier for the resource.

Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) labels.key

Use the following label keys to filter the resources:

  • goog-k8s-cluster-name: Filter your GKE resources by cluster.
  • k8s-namespace: Filter your GKE resources by namespace.
  • k8s-label: View all your GKE resources.

To view granular GKE cluster costs in your detailed cost data export, you must also enable cost allocation for GKE.

See example queries for filtering GKE data in BigQuery exports.

Cloud Functions service.description and resource.global_name

The service.description column contains the name of the service, and the resource.global_name column contains a unique identifier for the resource.

Cloud Run service.description and resource.global_name

The service.description column contains the name of the service, and the resource.global_name column contains a unique identifier for the resource.

See examples of querying granular data for your resources.

Schema of the detailed usage cost data

In your BigQuery dataset, your detailed Google Cloud usage cost data is loaded into a data table named gcp_billing_export_resource_v1_<BILLING_ACCOUNT_ID>.

When you use the detailed usage cost data in BigQuery, note the following:

  • When selecting or creating a BigQuery dataset for your detailed usage cost data, you can select any supported location for your dataset.
  • When you enable the detailed usage cost data export for the first time in Cloud Billing, if you select a dataset configured to use a multi-region location, Cloud Billing data will be available retroactively from the start of the previous month.
  • If you enable the detailed usage cost data export and select a dataset that is configured to use a region location, your Cloud Billing data will be available starting from the date when you enabled the export.
  • If you have enabled, disabled, and subsequently re-enabled the detailed usage cost data export, the Cloud Billing data might not be available for the period when data export was explicitly disabled.
  • See other limitations that might impact exporting your billing data to BigQuery, such as datasets with customer-managed encryption keys (CMEK) enabled.
  • Consider the additional data volume that your BigQuery tables might need and the additional cost when enabling detailed usage cost data instead of the standard usage cost data export. The increased granularity of resource-level information can increase the number of rows, which are aggregated in the standard usage cost format. We recommend that you review Control costs in BigQuery for further best practices in managing your BigQuery costs.
Field Type Description
billing_account_id String

The Cloud Billing account ID that the usage is associated with.

For resellers: For usage costs generated by a Cloud Billing subaccount, this is the ID of the subaccount, not the ID of the parent reseller Cloud Billing account.

invoice.month String

The year and month (YYYYMM) of the invoice that includes the cost line items. For example: "201901" is equivalent to January, 2019.

You can use this field to get the total charges on the invoice. See Cloud Billing Export to BigQuery Query Examples.

cost_type String

The type of cost this line item represents: regular, tax, adjustment, or rounding error.

service.id String The ID of the service that the usage is associated with.
service.description String The Google Cloud service that reported the Cloud Billing data.
sku.id String The ID of the resource used by the service. For the full list of SKUs, see Google Cloud SKUs.
sku.description String A description of the resource type used by the service. For example, a resource type for Cloud Storage is Standard Storage US.
usage_start_time Timestamp The start time of the hourly usage window within which the given cost was calculated. The usage/costs for all services is displayed with hourly granularity, which means long running service usage is spread across multiple hourly windows.

For more information, see the BigQuery documentation on timestamp data types. See also, Differences between exported data and invoices below.

usage_end_time Timestamp The end time of the hourly usage window within which the given cost was calculated. The usage/costs for all services is displayed with hourly granularity, which means long running service usage is spread across multiple hourly windows.

For more information, see the BigQuery documentation on timestamp data types. See also, Differences between exported data and invoices below.

project Struct project contains fields that describe the Cloud Billing project, such as ID, number, name, ancestry_numbers, and labels.
project.id String The ID of the Google Cloud project that generated the Cloud Billing data.
project.number String An internally-generated, anonymized, unique identifier for the Google Cloud project that generated the Cloud Billing data. In your support cases and other customer communication, Google will refer to your projects by this project number.
project.name String The name of the Google Cloud project that generated the Cloud Billing data.
project.ancestry_numbers String The ancestors in the resource hierarchy for the project identified by the specified project.id (for example, my-project-123).

For example: /ParentOrgNumber/ParentFolderNumber/. Learn more about the Resource Hierarchy.

project.ancestors Struct

This field describes the structure and value of the resource hierarchy of a cost line item, including projects, folders, and organizations. Ancestors are ordered from node to root (project, folder, then organization).

project.ancestors.resource_name String The relative resource name for each ancestor in the format 'resourceType/resourceNumber'. Using project.ancestors.resource_name will offer a more complete view of project.ancestry_numbers.
project.ancestors.display_name String The name that you have created for your resource in your console.
project.labels.key String If labels are present, the key portion of the key:value pair that comprises the label on the Google Cloud project where the usage occurred. For more information about using labels, see Using Labels.
project.labels.value String If labels are present, the value portion of the key:value pair that comprises the label on the Google Cloud project where the usage occurred. For more information about using labels, see Using Labels.
labels.key String If labels are present, the key portion of the key:value pair that comprises the label on the Google Cloud resource where the usage occurred. For more information about using labels, see Using Labels.
labels.value String If labels are present, the value portion of the key:value pair that comprises the label on the Google Cloud resource where the usage occurred. For more information about using labels, see Using Labels.
system_labels.key String If system labels are present, the key portion of the key:value pair that comprises the system-generated label on the resource where the usage occurred. See also, Available system labels.
system_labels.value String If system labels are present, the value portion of the key:value pair that comprises the system-generated label on the resource where the usage occurred. See also, Available system labels.
location.location String Location of usage at the level of a multi-region, country, region, or zone; or global for resources that have no specific location. For more information, see Geography and regions and Google Cloud locations.
location.country String When location.location is a country, region, or zone, this field is the country of usage, e.g. US. For more information, see Geography and regions and Google Cloud locations.
location.region String When location.location is a region or zone, this field is the region of usage, e.g. us-central1. For more information, see Geography and regions and Google Cloud locations.
location.zone String When location.location is a zone, this field is the zone of usage, e.g. us-central1-a. For more information, see Geography and regions and Google Cloud locations.
cost Float The cost of the usage before any credits, to a precision of up to six decimal places. To get the total cost including credits, any credits.amount should be added to cost. See this example query for more information.
currency String The currency that the cost is billed in. For more information, see Local Currency for Billing and Payments.
currency_conversion_rate Float The exchange rate from US dollars to the local currency. That is, cost ÷ currency_conversion_rate is the cost in US dollars.
usage.amount Float The quantity of usage.unit used.
usage.unit String The base unit in which resource usage is measured. For example, the base unit for standard storage is byte-seconds.
usage.amount_in_pricing_units Float The quantity of usage.pricing_unit used.
usage.pricing_unit String The unit in which resource usage is measured, according to the Cloud Billing Catalog API.
credits Struct credits contains fields that describe the structure and value of the credits associated with Google Cloud and Google Maps Platform SKUs.
credits.id String If present, indicates that a credit is associated with the product SKU. credits.id values are either an alphanumeric unique identifier (for example, 12-b34-c56-d78), or a description of the credit type (such as Committed Usage Discount: CPU).

If the credits.id field is empty, then the product SKU is not associated with a credit.

credits.full_name String The name of the credit associated with the product SKU. This is a human-readable description of an alphanumeric credits.id. Examples include Free trial credit or Spend-based committed use discount.

credits.full_name values are only present for SKUs with an alphanumeric credits.id. If the value of the credits.id is a description of the credit type (such as Committed Usage Discount: CPU), then the credits.full_name field will be empty.

credits.type String This field describes the purpose or origin of the credits.id. Credit types include:
  • COMMITTED_USAGE_DISCOUNT: Resource-based committed use contracts purchased for Compute Engine in return for deeply discounted prices for VM usage.
  • COMMITTED_USAGE_DISCOUNT_DOLLAR_BASE: Spend-based committed use contracts purchased for services in exchange for your commitment to spend a minimum amount.
  • DISCOUNT: The discount credit type is used for credits earned after a contractual spending threshold is reached. Note that in the Cloud Billing reports available in the Google Cloud console, the discount credit type is listed as Spending based discounts (contractual).
  • FREE_TIER: Some services offer free resource usage up to specified limits. For these services, credits are applied to implement the free tier usage.
  • PROMOTION: The promotion credit type includes Google Cloud Free Trial and marketing campaign credits, or other grants to use Google Cloud. When available, promotional credits are considered a form of payment and are automatically applied to reduce your total bill.
  • RESELLER_MARGIN: If you are a reseller, the reseller margin credit type indicates the Reseller Program Discounts earned on every eligible line item.
  • SUBSCRIPTION_BENEFIT: Credits earned by purchasing long-term subscriptions to services in exchange for discounts.
  • SUSTAINED_USAGE_DISCOUNT: The sustained use discounts credit type is an automatic discount that you earn for running specific Compute Engine resources for a significant portion of the billing month.
credits.name String A description of the credit applied to the Cloud Billing account.
credits.amount Float The amount of the credit applied to the usage. Credits are always negative amounts.
adjustment_info Struct adjustment_info contains fields that describe the structure and value of an adjustment to cost line items associated with a Cloud Billing account.

adjustment_info values are only present if the cost line item was generated for a Cloud Billing modification. A modification can happen for correction or non-correction reasons. The adjustment_info type contains details about the adjustment, whether it was issued for correcting an error or other reasons.

adjustment_info.id String If present, indicates that an adjustment is associated with a cost line item. adjustment_info.id is the unique ID for all the adjustments associated caused by an issue.
adjustment_info.description String A description of the adjustment and its cause.
adjustment_info.type String

The type of adjustment.

Types include:

  • USAGE_CORRECTION: A correction due to incorrect reported usage.
  • PRICE_CORRECTION: A correction due to incorrect pricing rules.
  • METADATA_CORRECTION: A correction to fix metadata without changing the cost.
  • GOODWILL: A credit issued to the customer for goodwill.
  • SALES_BASED_GOODWILL: A credit issued to the customer for goodwill, as part of a contract.
  • SLA_VIOLATION: A credit issued to the customer due to a service-level objective (SLO) violation.
  • BALANCE_TRANSFER: An adjustment to transfer funds from one payment account to another.
  • ACCOUNT_CLOSURE: An adjustment to bring a closed account to a zero balance.
  • GENERAL_ADJUSTMENT: A general billing account modification.
adjustment_info.mode String

How the adjustment was issued.

Modes include:

  • PARTIAL_CORRECTION: The correction partially negates the original usage and cost.
  • COMPLETE_NEGATION_WITH_REMONETIZATION: The correction fully negates the original usage and cost, and issues corrected line item(s) with updated usage and cost.
  • COMPLETE_NEGATION: The correction fully negates the original usage and cost, and no further usage is remonetized.
  • MANUAL_ADJUSTMENT: The adjustment is allocated to cost and usage manually.
export_time Timestamp A processing time associated with an append of Cloud Billing data. This will always increase with each new export.
See also, Differences between exported data and invoices below.
tags Struct

Fields that describe the tag, such as key, value, and namespace.

tags.key String

The short name or display name of the key associated with this particular tag.

tags.value String

The resources attached to a tags.key. At any given time, exactly one value can be attached to a resource for a given key.

tags.inherited Boolean

Indicates whether a tag binding is inherited (Tags Inherited = True) or direct/non-inherited (Tags Inherited = False). You can create a tag binding to a parent resource in the resource hierarchy.

tags.namespace String

Represents the resource hierarchy that define tag key and values. Namespace can be combined with tag key and tag value short names to create a globally unique, fully qualified name for the tag key or tag value.

Additional fields available to detailed usage cost data export
resource Struct

The fields that describe the structure and value of information relevant to service resources (like a virtual machine or a SSD) that generate service usage.

resource.global_name String

A globally unique service identifier for the resource that generated relevant usage.

resource.name String

A service-specific identifier for the resource that generated relevant usage. This can be input generated by the user.

Understand standard and detailed usage cost data

The following sections describe the standard and detailed usage cost data exported to BigQuery.

About labels

You'll see columns for labels in your BigQuery dataset, but for the current release some label values will be empty. Label export data will be populated at different times for different services, depending on when each service provides it.

Available system labels

System labels are key-value pairs for important metadata about the resource that generated the usage. The following system labels are automatically included on applicable usage.

system_labels.key Example system_labels.value Description
compute.googleapis.com/machine_spec n1-standard-1, custom-2-2048 Configuration of the virtual machine. See Machine Types for more information.
compute.googleapis.com/cores for n1-standard-4 this is 4; for custom-2-2048 this is 2 The number of vCPUs available to the virtual machine.
compute.googleapis.com/memory for n1-standard-4 this is 15360 (i.e. 15 GB * 1024 MB/GB); for custom-2-2048 this is 2048 The amount of memory (in MB) available to the virtual machine.
compute.googleapis.com/is_unused_reservation true; false Indicates usage that was reserved through Zonal Reservations but not used.

Differences between exported data and invoices

Because Google Cloud services report usage and cost data to Cloud Billing processes at varying intervals, sometimes there is a slight delay (up to a few days) in usage reporting. At the end of a calendar month, late-reported usage might not be included on that month's invoice and instead might roll over to the next month's invoice. However, that same usage includes a timestamp by actual usage date and time when the usage is reported to Cloud Billing processes.

When you query your costs using timestamp fields, your returned data might pick up late-reported usage that was not originally included on the invoice that was generated for the same usage month. As a result, the Cloud Billing data returned might not map directly to that invoice.

Timestamp fields include:

  • usage_start_time
  • usage_end_time
  • export_time

To return Cloud Billing data that maps directly to an invoice, query on invoice.month instead of timestamp fields.

Taxes

Starting on September 1, 2020, your usage cost data shows your tax liability for each of your projects, instead of as a single line item. If you have queries or visualizations that depend on tax data, you might need to update the queries to account for these changes.

For example, for costs recorded before September 1, your usage cost data looked similar to the following example, which shows a total tax liability of $10.

billing_account_id project.id cost_type cost
123456-ABCDEF-123456 example-project Regular $60
123456-ABCDEF-123456 test-project Regular $40
123456-ABCDEF-123456 [empty] Tax $10

For costs recorded after September 1, the $10 is broken down to $6 for example-project, and $4 for test-project:

billing_account_id project.id cost_type cost
123456-ABCDEF-123456 example-project Regular $60
123456-ABCDEF-123456 test-project Regular $40
123456-ABCDEF-123456 example-project Tax $6
123456-ABCDEF-123456 test-project Tax $4

Errors and adjustments

You should be aware that in the unlikely event that your Cloud Billing data contains an error or requires an adjustment, your Cloud Billing data will be appended with data that negates the error. All columns will remain the same, except for:

  • cost
  • credit
  • usage.amount
  • export_time

If you need to determine which data is new, you can do so by querying export_time.

In your exported data, the invoice month for Cloud Billing adjustments and associated taxes reflects the month the adjustment was issued. However, the adjustment could be applied to an invoice in a different month than the issue month of the adjustment. To learn if and where an adjustment is applied, you'll need to review the invoice or credit/debit memo documents available in the documents page of the Google Cloud console. For more details on analyzing adjustments and how they are applied, see Understand memos and adjustments.

About tags

Tags are resources in the form of key-value pairs that can be attached to resources directly or through inheritance. You can use tags to perform chargebacks, audits, and other cost allocation analysis. Tags have a robust permission model and can support inheritance, centralized management, nomenclature standardization, and policy engine integration, while labels are a separate tool that allow you to annotate resources.

Tags are limited to resource-level tags in Compute Engine instances only. Tags might take up to an hour to propagate to BigQuery exports. If a tag has been added or removed within an hour, or if a resource has existed for less than an hour, it might not appear in the export.

Tags data appears in BigQuery exports for Resources, Projects, Folders, and Organizations.

Available tags

The Standard costs and Detailed costs exports for Resources, Projects, Folders, and Organizations include these fields for tags data: Tags Key, Tags Value, Tags Inherited, and Tags Namespace.

Detailed usage cost query examples

This section provides examples of how to query the Cloud Billing detailed usage cost data exported to BigQuery.

Because the detailed usage cost schema includes all of the fields from the standard usage cost schema, the query examples provided for the standard data exported to BigQuery also work with the detailed data that is exported. Note that the standard query examples are not written to retrieve any of the resource-level information that is provided with the detailed usage cost export option. When creating queries for the detailed data, you can use a standard query example as a template, update the Table name, and add any of the fields that are available in the detailed usage cost schema.

Common values used in the example detailed cost queries

The query examples in this section use the following value for Table name: project.dataset.gcp_billing_export_resource_v1_XXXXXX_XXXXXX_XXXXXX

Return the resource-level costs on an invoice

The following queries demonstrate two ways of viewing resource-level cost and credit values on an invoice using exported billing data.

  • The total field directly sums the floating point cost and credit values, which can result in floating point rounding errors.
  • The total_exact field converts costs and credit values to micros before summing, then converts back to dollars after summing, avoiding the floating point rounding error.

Sum costs for each resource, per invoice

This query shows the invoice total for each resource.name per month, as a sum of regular costs, taxes, adjustments, and rounding errors. Any costs not associated with a resource-level item are aggregated under the name null for the month.

Standard SQL

SELECT
  invoice.month,
  resource.name,
  SUM(cost)
    + SUM(IFNULL((SELECT SUM(c.amount)
                  FROM UNNEST(credits) c), 0))
    AS total,
  (SUM(CAST(cost * 1000000 AS int64))
    + SUM(IFNULL((SELECT SUM(CAST(c.amount * 1000000 as int64))
                  FROM UNNEST(credits) c), 0))) / 1000000
    AS total_exact
FROM `project.dataset.gcp_billing_export_resource_v1_XXXXXX_XXXXXX_XXXXXX`
GROUP BY 1, 2
ORDER BY 1 ASC, 2 ASC
;

For example, the result of the preceding query might be:

Row month name total total_exact
1 201901 null $1005.004832999999984 $1005.00
2 201901 backend1 $781.8499760000028 $781.85
3 201902 null $953.0034923645475983 $953.03
4 201902 backend1 $992.3101739999999717 $992.31
5 201902 bitnami-launchpad-wordpress-1-wordpress $1.2817819999999998 $1.28

Return details by cost type for each resource, per invoice month

This query shows the totals for each cost_type for each resource.name per month. Cost types include regular costs, taxes, adjustments, and rounding errors. Any costs not associated with a resource-level item are aggregated under the name null for the month.

Standard SQL

SELECT
  invoice.month,
  cost_type,
  resource.name,
  SUM(cost)
    + SUM(IFNULL((SELECT SUM(c.amount)
                  FROM   UNNEST(credits) c), 0))
    AS total,
  (SUM(CAST(cost * 1000000 AS int64))
    + SUM(IFNULL((SELECT SUM(CAST(c.amount * 1000000 as int64))
                  FROM UNNEST(credits) c), 0))) / 1000000
    AS total_exact
FROM `project.dataset.gcp_billing_export_resource_v1_XXXXXX_XXXXXX_XXXXXX`
GROUP BY 1, 2, 3
ORDER BY 1 ASC, 2 ASC, 3 ASC
;

For example, the result of the preceding query might be:

Row month cost_type name total total_exact
1 201901 regular null $1000.501209987994782 $1000.50
2 201901 rounding_error null –$0.500489920049387 –$0.50
3 201901 tax null $10.000329958477891 $10.00
4 201901 adjustment null –$5.002572999387045 –$5.00
5 201901 regular backend1 $410.998795012082947 $411.00
2 201901 rounding_error backend1 –$0.2404900489920378 –$0.24
3 201901 tax backend1 $4.105840329977189 $4.11

Get a breakdown of Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) cluster costs

This section provides examples of filtering GKE cluster costs in your BigQuery export reports. To learn more about GKE cluster costs, visit View breakdown of cluster costs.

Filter GKE costs

The following example queries show you how to filter and group your GKE costs for supported resource types by cluster name, namespace, and label.

GKE cluster costs before credits

SELECT
  SUM(cost) AS cost_before_credits,
  labels.value AS cluster_name
FROM  `project.dataset.gcp_billing_export_resource_v1_XXXXXX_XXXXXX_XXXXXX`
LEFT JOIN UNNEST(labels) as labels
  ON labels.key = "goog-k8s-cluster-name"
GROUP BY labels.value
;

GKE costs after credits by namespace

SELECT
  labels.value as namespace,
  SUM(cost) + SUM(IFNULL((SELECT SUM(c.amount) FROM UNNEST(credits) c), 0)) AS cost_after_credits,
FROM `project.dataset.gcp_billing_export_resource_v1_XXXXXX_XXXXXX_XXXXXX`
LEFT JOIN UNNEST(labels) as labels
  ON labels.key = "k8s-namespace"
GROUP BY namespace
;

GKE costs by SKU

SELECT
  project.id AS project_id,
  labels.value AS cluster_name,
  sku.id AS sku_id,
  sku.description AS sku_description,
  SUM(cost) AS cost
FROM `project.dataset.gcp_billing_export_resource_v1_XXXXXX_XXXXXX_XXXXXX`
JOIN UNNEST(labels) AS labels
  ON labels.key = "goog-k8s-cluster-name"
GROUP BY
  cluster_name, project_id, sku_description, sku_id
;

Query examples with tags

The following examples illustrate ways to query your data with tags.

Calculate costs by invoice month with tags

The following query demonstrates how you can use return costs by invoice month for the cost_center tag.

SELECT
  invoice.month AS invoice_month,
  tag.value AS cost_center,
  ROUND((SUM(CAST(cost AS NUMERIC))
    + SUM(IFNULL((SELECT SUM (CAST(c.amount AS NUMERIC))
                  FROM UNNEST(credits) AS c), 0))), 2)
    AS net_cost
FROM `ivory-vim-309221.billing_export_dataset.gcp_billing_export_resource_v1_018ADD_3CEBBB_A4DF22`, UNNEST(tags) AS tag
WHERE tag.key = "cost_center" AND tag.namespace = "821092389413"
GROUP BY invoice.month, tag.value
ORDER BY invoice.month, tag.value;

For example, the result of the preceding query might be:

Row invoice_month cost_center net_cost
1 202208 android_mobile_apps 9.93
2 202208 ios_mobile_apps 9.93
3 202209 android_mobile_apps 25.42
4 202209 ios_mobile_apps 25.4
5 202209 personalization 16.08

View costs of untagged resources

This query shows the invoice total for untagged resources, grouped by invoice month.

SELECT
 invoice.month AS invoice_month,
 ROUND((SUM(CAST(cost AS NUMERIC))
   + SUM(IFNULL((SELECT SUM(CAST(c.amount AS NUMERIC))
                 FROM UNNEST(credits) AS c), 0))), 2)
   AS net_cost
FROM
 `project.dataset.gcp_billing_export_v1_XXXXXX_XXXXXX_XXXXXX`
WHERE "color" NOT IN (SELECT key FROM UNNEST(tags))
GROUP BY invoice_month
ORDER BY invoice_month;

For example, the result of the preceding query might be:

Row invoice_month net_cost
1 202202 0
2 202203 16.81
3 202204 54.09
4 202205 55.82
5 202206 54.09
6 202207 55.83
7 202208 31.49

Cost and pricing reports available in the Google Cloud console