Inserire, aggiornare ed eliminare dati utilizzando il linguaggio di manipolazione dei dati (DML)

Questa pagina descrive come inserire, aggiornare ed eliminare i dati di Cloud Spanner utilizzando le istruzioni DML (Data Manipulation Language). Per eseguire le istruzioni DML, puoi utilizzare le librerie client, Google Cloud Console e lo strumento a riga di comando gcloud. Puoi eseguire istruzioni DML partizionate utilizzando le librerie client e lo strumento a riga di comando gcloud.

Per il riferimento completo della sintassi DML, consulta la sintassi del linguaggio di manipolazione dei dati per i database del dialetto SQL standard di Google o il linguaggio di manipolazione dei dati di PostgreSQL per i database del dialetto PostgreSQL

Usa DML

DML supporta le istruzioni INSERT, UPDATE e DELETE nella console, nell'interfaccia a riga di comando di Google Cloud e nelle librerie client.

Blocco

Esegui istruzioni DML all'interno di transazioni di lettura-scrittura. Quando Cloud Spanner legge i dati, acquisisce blocchi di lettura condivisi su parti limitate degli intervalli di righe che leggi. In particolare, acquisisce questi blocchi solo nelle colonne a cui accedi. I blocchi possono includere dati che non corrispondono alla condizione del filtro della clausola WHERE.

Quando Cloud Spanner modifica i dati utilizzando le istruzioni DML, acquisisce blocchi esclusivi sui dati specifici che stai modificando. Inoltre, acquisisce i blocchi condivisi come quando leggi i dati. Se la tua richiesta include intervalli di righe di grandi dimensioni o un'intera tabella, i blocchi condivisi potrebbero impedire il completamento parallelo di altre transazioni.

Per modificare i dati nel modo più efficiente possibile, utilizza una clausola WHERE che consenta a Cloud Spanner di leggere solo le righe necessarie. Puoi raggiungere questo obiettivo con un filtro sulla chiave primaria o sulla chiave di un indice secondario. La clausola WHERE limita l'ambito dei blocchi condivisi e consente a Cloud Spanner di elaborare l'aggiornamento in modo più efficiente.

Ad esempio, supponiamo che uno dei musicisti nella tabella Singers cambi il proprio nome e che sia necessario aggiornare il nome nel tuo database. Puoi eseguire la seguente istruzione DML, ma questo forza a Cloud Spanner di scansionare l'intera tabella e acquisire blocchi condivisi che coprono l'intera tabella. Di conseguenza, Cloud Spanner deve leggere più dati del necessario e le transazioni simultanee non possono modificare i dati in parallelo:

-- ANTI-PATTERN: SENDING AN UPDATE WITHOUT THE PRIMARY KEY COLUMN
-- IN THE WHERE CLAUSE

UPDATE Singers SET FirstName = "Marcel"
WHERE FirstName = "Marc" AND LastName = "Richards";

Per rendere l'aggiornamento più efficiente, includi la colonna SingerId nella clausola WHERE. La colonna SingerId è l'unica colonna di chiave primaria per la tabella Singers:

-- RECOMMENDED: INCLUDING THE PRIMARY KEY COLUMN IN THE WHERE CLAUSE

UPDATE Singers SET FirstName = "Marcel"
WHERE FirstName = "Marc" AND LastName = "Richards" AND SingerId = 1;

Contemporaneità

Cloud Spanner esegue in sequenza tutte le istruzioni SQL (SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE e DELETE) all'interno di una transazione. Non vengono eseguite contemporaneamente. L'unica eccezione è che Cloud Spanner può eseguire contemporaneamente più istruzioni SELECT, perché sono operazioni di sola lettura.

Limiti transazioni

Una transazione che include istruzioni DML ha gli stessi limiti di qualsiasi altra transazione. Se apporti modifiche su larga scala, considera l'utilizzo di DML partizionato.

  • Se le istruzioni DML in una transazione generano più di 20.000 mutazioni, l'istruzione DML che spinge la transazione oltre il limite restituisce un errore BadUsage con un messaggio relativo a troppe mutazioni.

  • Se le istruzioni DML in una transazione generano una transazione superiore a 100 MB, l'istruzione DML che spinge la transazione oltre il limite restituisce un errore BadUsage con un messaggio relativo alla transazione che supera il limite di dimensioni.

Le modifiche eseguite utilizzando DML non vengono restituite al client. Questi vengono uniti nella richiesta di impegno quando questo viene confermato e vengono conteggiati ai fini del raggiungimento dei limiti massimi di dimensione. Anche se le dimensioni della richiesta di commit inviate sono ridotte, la transazione potrebbe comunque superare il limite di dimensioni consentito.

Eseguire le istruzioni nella console

Utilizza i seguenti passaggi per eseguire un'istruzione DML nella console.

  1. Vai alla pagina Istanze di Cloud Spanner.

    Vai alla pagina delle istanze

  2. Seleziona il progetto nell'elenco a discesa della barra degli strumenti.

  3. Fai clic sul nome dell'istanza che contiene il tuo database per andare alla pagina Dettagli istanza.

  4. Nella scheda Panoramica, fai clic sul nome del database. Viene visualizzata la pagina Dettagli database.

  5. Fai clic su Query.

  6. Inserisci un'istruzione DML. Ad esempio, la seguente istruzione aggiunge una nuova riga alla tabella Singers.

    INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
    VALUES (1, 'Marc', 'Richards')
    
  7. Fai clic su Esegui query. Nella Console viene visualizzato il risultato.

Eseguire le istruzioni con l'interfaccia a riga di comando di Google Cloud

Per eseguire le istruzioni DML, utilizza il comando gcloud spanner databases execute-sql. L'esempio seguente aggiunge una nuova riga alla tabella Singers.

gcloud spanner databases execute-sql example-db --instance=test-instance \
    --sql="INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (1, 'Marc', 'Richards')"

Modificare i dati utilizzando la libreria client

Per eseguire istruzioni DML utilizzando la libreria client:

  • Creare una transazione di lettura-scrittura.
  • Chiama il metodo della libreria client per l'esecuzione del DML e passa l'istruzione DML.
  • Utilizza il valore restituito del metodo di esecuzione DML per ottenere il numero di righe inserite, aggiornate o eliminate.

L'esempio di codice riportato di seguito inserisce una nuova riga nella tabella Singers.

C++

La funzione ExecuteDml() serve per eseguire un'istruzione DML.

void DmlStandardInsert(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  std::int64_t rows_inserted;
  auto commit_result = client.Commit(
      [&client, &rows_inserted](
          spanner::Transaction txn) -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto insert = client.ExecuteDml(
            std::move(txn),
            spanner::SqlStatement(
                "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)"
                "  VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')"));
        if (!insert) return std::move(insert).status();
        rows_inserted = insert->RowsModified();
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "Rows inserted: " << rows_inserted;
  std::cout << "Insert was successful [spanner_dml_standard_insert]\n";
}

C#

Utilizzi il metodo ExecuteNonQueryAsync() per eseguire un'istruzione DML.


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class InsertUsingDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> InsertUsingDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')");
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) inserted...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Vai

Utilizzi il metodo Update() per eseguire un'istruzione DML.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func insertUsingDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
					VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')`,
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

Utilizzi il metodo executeUpdate() per eseguire un'istruzione DML.

static void insertUsingDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        String sql =
            "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) "
                + " VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')";
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
        System.out.printf("%d record inserted.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

Utilizzi il metodo runUpdate() per eseguire un'istruzione DML.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: 'INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (10, @firstName, @lastName)',
      params: {
        firstName: 'Virginia',
        lastName: 'Watson',
      },
    });

    console.log(
      `Successfully inserted ${rowCount} record into the Singers table.`
    );

    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

Utilizzi il metodo executeUpdate() per eseguire un'istruzione DML.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Inserts sample data into the given database with a DML statement.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function insert_data_with_dml($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            'INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) '
            . " VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')");
        $t->commit();
        printf('Inserted %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

Utilizzi il metodo execute_update() per eseguire un'istruzione DML.

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

def insert_singers(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) "
        " VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')"
    )

    print("{} record(s) inserted.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(insert_singers)

Ruby

Utilizzi il metodo execute_update() per eseguire un'istruzione DML.

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner   = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client    = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (10, 'Virginia', 'Watson')"
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record inserted."

Il seguente esempio di codice aggiorna la colonna MarketingBudget della tabella Albums in base a una clausola WHERE.

C++

void DmlStandardUpdate(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto commit_result = client.Commit(
      [&client](spanner::Transaction txn) -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto update = client.ExecuteDml(
            std::move(txn),
            spanner::SqlStatement(
                "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2"
                " WHERE SingerId = 1 AND AlbumId = 1"));
        if (!update) return std::move(update).status();
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "Update was successful [spanner_dml_standard_update]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> UpdateUsingDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1");
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) updated...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Vai


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `UPDATE Albums
				SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
				WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1`,
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) updated.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void updateUsingDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        String sql =
            "UPDATE Albums "
                + "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
                + "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1";
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
        System.out.printf("%d record updated.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: `UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
        WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1`,
    });

    console.log(`Successfully updated ${rowCount} record.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Updates sample data in the database with a DML statement.
 *
 * This requires the `MarketingBudget` column which must be created before
 * running this sample. You can add the column by running the `add_column`
 * sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
 *
 *     ALTER TABLE Albums ADD COLUMN MarketingBudget INT64
 *
 * Example:
 * ```
 * update_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_dml($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            'UPDATE Albums '
            . 'SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 '
            . 'WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1');
        $t->commit();
        printf('Updated %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

def update_albums(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "UPDATE Albums "
        "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
        "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1"
    )

    print("{} record(s) updated.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(update_albums)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "UPDATE Albums
     SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
     WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 1"
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record updated."

Il seguente esempio di codice elimina tutte le righe della tabella Singers in cui la colonna FirstName è Alice.

C++

void DmlStandardDelete(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto commit_result = client.Commit([&client](spanner::Transaction txn)
                                         -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
    auto dele = client.ExecuteDml(
        std::move(txn),
        spanner::SqlStatement("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'"));
    if (!dele) return std::move(dele).status();
    return spanner::Mutations{};
  });
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "Delete was successful [spanner_dml_standard_delete]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class DeleteUsingDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> DeleteUsingDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'");
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) deleted...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Vai


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func deleteUsingDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmt := spanner.Statement{SQL: `DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'`}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) deleted.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void deleteUsingDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        String sql = "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'";
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
        System.out.printf("%d record deleted.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'",
    });

    console.log(`Successfully deleted ${rowCount} record.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Deletes sample data in the database with a DML statement.
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function delete_data_with_dml($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'");
        $t->commit();
        printf('Deleted %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

def delete_singers(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'"
    )

    print("{} record(s) deleted.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(delete_singers)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = 'Alice'"
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record deleted."

L'esempio seguente, solo per i database del linguaggio SQL standard di Google, utilizza un elemento STRUCT con parametri associati per aggiornare LastName nelle righe filtrate in base a FirstName e LastName.

SQL standard di Google

C++

void DmlStructs(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  std::int64_t rows_modified = 0;
  auto commit_result =
      client.Commit([&client, &rows_modified](spanner::Transaction const& txn)
                        -> google::cloud::StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto singer_info = std::make_tuple("Marc", "Richards");
        auto sql = spanner::SqlStatement(
            "UPDATE Singers SET FirstName = 'Keith' WHERE "
            "STRUCT<FirstName String, LastName String>(FirstName, LastName) "
            "= @name",
            {{"name", spanner::Value(std::move(singer_info))}});
        auto dml_result = client.ExecuteDml(txn, std::move(sql));
        if (!dml_result) return std::move(dml_result).status();
        rows_modified = dml_result->RowsModified();
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << rows_modified
            << " update was successful [spanner_dml_structs]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingDmlWithStructCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> UpdateUsingDmlWithStructCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        var nameStruct = new SpannerStruct
        {
            { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Timothy" },
            { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" }
        };
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name");
        cmd.Parameters.Add("name", nameStruct.GetSpannerDbType(), nameStruct);
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) updated...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Vai


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingDMLStruct(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		type name struct {
			FirstName string
			LastName  string
		}
		var singerInfo = name{"Timothy", "Campbell"}

		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `Update Singers Set LastName = 'Grant'
				WHERE STRUCT<FirstName String, LastName String>(Firstname, LastName) = @name`,
			Params: map[string]interface{}{"name": singerInfo},
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void updateUsingDmlWithStruct(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  Struct name =
      Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Timothy").set("LastName").to("Campbell").build();
  Statement s =
      Statement.newBuilder(
              "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
                  + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                  + "= @name")
          .bind("name")
          .to(name)
          .build();
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(s);
        System.out.printf("%d record updated.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

const nameStruct = Spanner.struct({
  FirstName: 'Timothy',
  LastName: 'Campbell',
});

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: `UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant'
      WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name`,
      params: {
        name: nameStruct,
      },
    });

    console.log(`Successfully updated ${rowCount} record.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructType;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructValue;

/**
 * Update data with a DML statement using Structs.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_dml_structs($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $nameValue = (new StructValue)
            ->add('FirstName', 'Timothy')
            ->add('LastName', 'Campbell');
        $nameType = (new StructType)
            ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
            ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING);

        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
             . 'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) '
             . '= @name',
            [
                'parameters' => [
                    'name' => $nameValue
                ],
                'types' => [
                    'name' => $nameType
                ]
            ]);
        $t->commit();
        printf('Updated %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

record_type = param_types.Struct(
    [
        param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
        param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
    ]
)
record_value = ("Timothy", "Campbell")

def write_with_struct(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
        "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
        "(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
        params={"name": record_value},
        param_types={"name": record_type},
    )
    print("{} record(s) updated.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(write_with_struct)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0
name_struct = { FirstName: "Timothy", LastName: "Campbell" }

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant'
     WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
    params: { name: name_struct }
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record updated."

Leggere i dati scritti nella stessa transazione

Le modifiche apportate utilizzando le istruzioni DML sono visibili alle istruzioni successive nella stessa transazione. A differenza dell'utilizzo delle mutazioni, in cui le modifiche non sono visibili fino al commit della transazione.

Cloud Spanner controlla i vincoli dopo ogni istruzione DML. L'operazione è diversa dall'utilizzo delle mutazioni, in cui Cloud Spanner esegue il buffer del mutamento nel client fino al commit e controlla i vincoli al momento del commit. La valutazione dei vincoli dopo ogni istruzione consente a Cloud Spanner di garantire che i dati restituiti da un'istruzione DML siano coerenti con lo schema.

L'esempio seguente aggiorna una riga nella tabella Singers, poi esegue un'istruzione SELECT per stampare i nuovi valori.

C++

void DmlWriteThenRead(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  using ::google::cloud::StatusOr;

  auto commit_result = client.Commit(
      [&client](spanner::Transaction txn) -> StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto insert = client.ExecuteDml(
            txn, spanner::SqlStatement(
                     "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)"
                     "  VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')"));
        if (!insert) return std::move(insert).status();
        // Read newly inserted record.
        spanner::SqlStatement select(
            "SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers where SingerId = 11");
        using RowType = std::tuple<std::string, std::string>;
        auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(std::move(txn), std::move(select));
        for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<RowType>(rows)) {
          if (!row) return std::move(row).status();
          std::cout << "FirstName: " << std::get<0>(*row) << "\t";
          std::cout << "LastName: " << std::get<1>(*row) << "\n";
        }
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "Write then read succeeded [spanner_dml_write_then_read]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class WriteAndReadUsingDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> WriteAndReadUsingDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var createDmlCmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand(@"INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')");
        int rowCount = await createDmlCmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) inserted...");

        // Read newly inserted record.
        using var createSelectCmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(@"SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11");
        using var reader = await createSelectCmd.ExecuteReaderAsync();
        while (await reader.ReadAsync())
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"{reader.GetFieldValue<string>("FirstName")}  {reader.GetFieldValue<string>("LastName")}");
        }
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Vai


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func writeAndReadUsingDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		// Insert Record
		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
				VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')`,
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", rowCount)

		// Read newly inserted record
		stmt = spanner.Statement{SQL: `SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11`}
		iter := txn.Query(ctx, stmt)
		defer iter.Stop()

		for {
			row, err := iter.Next()
			if err == iterator.Done || err != nil {
				break
			}
			var firstName, lastName string
			if err := row.ColumnByName("FirstName", &firstName); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			if err := row.ColumnByName("LastName", &lastName); err != nil {
				return err
			}
			fmt.Fprintf(w, "Found record name with %s, %s", firstName, lastName)
		}
		return err
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void writeAndReadUsingDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        // Insert record.
        String sql =
            "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) "
                + " VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')";
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
        System.out.printf("%d record inserted.\n", rowCount);
        // Read newly inserted record.
        sql = "SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11";
        // We use a try-with-resource block to automatically release resources held by
        // ResultSet.
        try (ResultSet resultSet = transaction.executeQuery(Statement.of(sql))) {
          while (resultSet.next()) {
            System.out.printf(
                "%s %s\n",
                resultSet.getString("FirstName"), resultSet.getString("LastName"));
          }
        }
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: `INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName)
        VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')`,
    });

    const [rows] = await transaction.run({
      sql: 'SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers',
    });
    rows.forEach(row => {
      const json = row.toJSON();
      console.log(`${json.FirstName} ${json.LastName}`);
    });

    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Writes then reads data inside a Transaction with a DML statement.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function write_read_with_dml($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            'INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) '
            . " VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')");

        printf('Inserted %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);

        $results = $t->execute('SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11');

        foreach ($results as $row) {
            printf('%s %s' . PHP_EOL, $row['FirstName'], $row['LastName']);
        }

        $t->commit();
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

def write_then_read(transaction):
    # Insert record.
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "INSERT Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) "
        " VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')"
    )
    print("{} record(s) inserted.".format(row_ct))

    # Read newly inserted record.
    results = transaction.execute_sql(
        "SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11"
    )
    for result in results:
        print("FirstName: {}, LastName: {}".format(*result))

database.run_in_transaction(write_then_read)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "INSERT INTO Singers (SingerId, FirstName, LastName) VALUES (11, 'Timothy', 'Campbell')"
  )
  puts "#{row_count} record updated."
  transaction.execute("SELECT FirstName, LastName FROM Singers WHERE SingerId = 11").rows.each do |row|
    puts "#{row[:FirstName]} #{row[:LastName]}"
  end
end

Recupero del piano di query

Puoi recuperare un piano di query utilizzando la console, le librerie client e lo strumento a riga di comando gcloud.

Utilizza DML partizionato

Il DML partizionato è progettato per aggiornamenti collettivi ed eliminazioni, in particolare per operazioni di pulizia e backfill periodici.

Eseguire le istruzioni con l'interfaccia a riga di comando di Google Cloud

Per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata, utilizza il comando gcloud spanner databases execute-sql con l'opzione --enable-partitioned-dml. L'esempio seguente aggiorna le righe nella tabella Albums.

gcloud spanner databases execute-sql example-db \
    --instance=test-instance --enable-partitioned-dml \
    --sql='UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 0 WHERE MarketingBudget IS NULL'

Modificare i dati utilizzando la libreria client

Il seguente esempio di codice aggiorna la colonna MarketingBudget della tabella Albums.

C++

Utilizza la funzione ExecutePartitionedDml() per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata.

void DmlPartitionedUpdate(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto result = client.ExecutePartitionedDml(
      spanner::SqlStatement("UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000"
                            " WHERE SingerId > 1"));
  if (!result) throw std::runtime_error(result.status().message());
  std::cout << "Update was successful [spanner_dml_partitioned_update]\n";
}

C#

Utilizza il metodo ExecutePartitionedUpdateAsync() per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata.


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingPartitionedDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<long> UpdateUsingPartitionedDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1");
        long rowCount = await cmd.ExecutePartitionedUpdateAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) updated...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Vai

Utilizza il metodo PartitionedUpdate() per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingPartitionedDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	stmt := spanner.Statement{SQL: "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1"}
	rowCount, err := client.PartitionedUpdate(ctx, stmt)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) updated.\n", rowCount)
	return nil
}

Java

Utilizza il metodo executePartitionedUpdate() per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata.

static void updateUsingPartitionedDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  String sql = "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1";
  long rowCount = dbClient.executePartitionedUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
  System.out.printf("%d records updated.\n", rowCount);
}

Node.js

Utilizza il metodo runPartitionedUpdate() per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

try {
  const [rowCount] = await database.runPartitionedUpdate({
    sql: 'UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1',
  });
  console.log(`Successfully updated ${rowCount} records.`);
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

Utilizza il metodo executePartitionedUpdate() per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Updates sample data in the database by partition with a DML statement.
 *
 * This updates the `MarketingBudget` column which must be created before
 * running this sample. You can add the column by running the `add_column`
 * sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
 *
 *     ALTER TABLE Albums ADD COLUMN MarketingBudget INT64
 *
 * Example:
 * ```
 * update_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_partitioned_dml($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $rowCount = $database->executePartitionedUpdate(
        'UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1'
    );

    printf('Updated %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
}

Python

Utilizza il metodo execute_partitioned_dml() per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata.

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

row_ct = database.execute_partitioned_dml(
    "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1"
)

print("{} records updated.".format(row_ct))

Ruby

Utilizza il metodo execute_partitioned_update() per eseguire un'istruzione DML partizionata.

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

row_count = client.execute_partition_update(
  "UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = 100000 WHERE SingerId > 1"
)

puts "#{row_count} records updated."

Il seguente esempio di codice elimina le righe dalla tabella Singers, in base alla colonna SingerId.

C++

void DmlPartitionedDelete(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  auto result = client.ExecutePartitionedDml(
      spanner::SqlStatement("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10"));
  if (!result) throw std::runtime_error(result.status().message());
  std::cout << "Delete was successful [spanner_dml_partitioned_delete]\n";
}

C#


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class DeleteUsingPartitionedDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<long> DeleteUsingPartitionedDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        using var cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10");
        long rowCount = await cmd.ExecutePartitionedUpdateAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) deleted...");
        return rowCount;
    }
}

Vai


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func deleteUsingPartitionedDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	stmt := spanner.Statement{SQL: "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10"}
	rowCount, err := client.PartitionedUpdate(ctx, stmt)
	if err != nil {
		return err

	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) deleted.", rowCount)
	return nil
}

Java

static void deleteUsingPartitionedDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  String sql = "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10";
  long rowCount = dbClient.executePartitionedUpdate(Statement.of(sql));
  System.out.printf("%d records deleted.\n", rowCount);
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

try {
  const [rowCount] = await database.runPartitionedUpdate({
    sql: 'DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10',
  });
  console.log(`Successfully deleted ${rowCount} records.`);
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;

/**
 * Delete sample data in the database by partition with a DML statement.
 *
 * This updates the `MarketingBudget` column which must be created before
 * running this sample. You can add the column by running the `add_column`
 * sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
 *
 *     ALTER TABLE Albums ADD COLUMN MarketingBudget INT64
 *
 * Example:
 * ```
 * update_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function delete_data_with_partitioned_dml($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $rowCount = $database->executePartitionedUpdate(
        'DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10'
    );

    printf('Deleted %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"
spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

row_ct = database.execute_partitioned_dml("DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10")

print("{} record(s) deleted.".format(row_ct))

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

row_count = client.execute_partition_update(
  "DELETE FROM Singers WHERE SingerId > 10"
)

puts "#{row_count} records deleted."

Usa DML batch

Se devi evitare la latenza extra derivante da più richieste in serie, utilizza il DML batch per inviare più istruzioni INSERT, UPDATE o DELETE in un'unica transazione:

C++

Utilizza la funzione ExecuteBatchDml() per eseguire un elenco di istruzioni DML.

void DmlBatchUpdate(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;

  auto commit_result =
      client.Commit([&client](spanner::Transaction const& txn)
                        -> google::cloud::StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        std::vector<spanner::SqlStatement> statements = {
            spanner::SqlStatement("INSERT INTO Albums"
                                  " (SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle,"
                                  " MarketingBudget)"
                                  " VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)"),
            spanner::SqlStatement("UPDATE Albums"
                                  " SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2"
                                  " WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3")};
        auto result = client.ExecuteBatchDml(txn, statements);
        if (!result) return std::move(result).status();
        for (std::size_t i = 0; i < result->stats.size(); ++i) {
          std::cout << result->stats[i].row_count << " rows affected"
                    << " for the statement " << (i + 1) << ".\n";
        }
        // Batch operations may have partial failures, in which case
        // ExecuteBatchDml returns with success, but the application should
        // verify that all statements completed successfully
        if (!result->status.ok()) return result->status;
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << "Update was successful [spanner_dml_batch_update]\n";
}

C#

Utilizza il metodo connection.CreateBatchDmlCommand() per creare il comando batch, il metodo Add per aggiungere istruzioni DML ed eseguire le istruzioni con il metodo ExecuteNonQueryAsync().


using Google.Cloud.Spanner.Data;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

public class UpdateUsingBatchDmlCoreAsyncSample
{
    public async Task<int> UpdateUsingBatchDmlCoreAsync(string projectId, string instanceId, string databaseId)
    {
        string connectionString = $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";

        using var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString);
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        SpannerBatchCommand cmd = connection.CreateBatchDmlCommand();

        cmd.Add("INSERT INTO Albums (SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)");

        cmd.Add("UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3");

        IEnumerable<long> affectedRows = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();

        Console.WriteLine($"Executed {affectedRows.Count()} " + "SQL statements using Batch DML.");
        return affectedRows.Count();
    }
}

Vai

Utilizza il metodo BatchUpdate() per eseguire un array di oggetti DML Statement.


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingBatchDML(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		stmts := []spanner.Statement{
			{SQL: `INSERT INTO Albums
				(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget)
				VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)`},
			{SQL: `UPDATE Albums
				SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
				WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3`},
		}
		rowCounts, err := txn.BatchUpdate(ctx, stmts)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "Executed %d SQL statements using Batch DML.\n", len(rowCounts))
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

Utilizza il metodo transaction.batchUpdate() per eseguire ArrayList di più oggetti DML Statement.

static void updateUsingBatchDml(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        List<Statement> stmts = new ArrayList<Statement>();
        String sql =
            "INSERT INTO Albums "
                + "(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) "
                + "VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000) ";
        stmts.add(Statement.of(sql));
        sql =
            "UPDATE Albums "
                + "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
                + "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3";
        stmts.add(Statement.of(sql));
        long[] rowCounts;
        try {
          rowCounts = transaction.batchUpdate(stmts);
        } catch (SpannerBatchUpdateException e) {
          rowCounts = e.getUpdateCounts();
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < rowCounts.length; i++) {
          System.out.printf("%d record updated by stmt %d.\n", rowCounts[i], i);
        }
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

Utilizza transaction.batchUpdate() per eseguire un elenco di istruzioni DML.

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const insert = {
  sql: `INSERT INTO Albums (SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget)
    VALUES (1, 3, "Test Album Title", 10000)`,
};

const update = {
  sql: `UPDATE Albums SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2
    WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3`,
};

const dmlStatements = [insert, update];

try {
  await database.runTransactionAsync(async transaction => {
    const [rowCounts] = await transaction.batchUpdate(dmlStatements);
    await transaction.commit();
    console.log(
      `Successfully executed ${rowCounts.length} SQL statements using Batch DML.`
    );
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
  throw err;
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

Usa executeUpdateBatch() per creare un elenco di istruzioni DML, quindi utilizza commit() per eseguire le istruzioni.

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;

/**
 * Updates sample data in the database with Batch DML.
 *
 * This requires the `MarketingBudget` column which must be created before
 * running this sample. You can add the column by running the `add_column`
 * sample or by running this DDL statement against your database:
 *
 *     ALTER TABLE Albums ADD COLUMN MarketingBudget INT64
 *
 * Example:
 * ```
 * update_data_with_batch_dml($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_batch_dml($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $batchDmlResult = $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) {
        $result = $t->executeUpdateBatch([
            [
                'sql' => 'INSERT INTO Albums '
                . '(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) '
                . "VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)"
            ],
            [
                'sql' => 'UPDATE Albums '
                . 'SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 '
                . 'WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3'
            ],
        ]);
        $t->commit();
        $rowCounts = count($result->rowCounts());
        printf('Executed %s SQL statements using Batch DML.' . PHP_EOL,
            $rowCounts);
    });
}

Python

Utilizza transaction.batch_update() per eseguire più stringhe di istruzione DML.

from google.rpc.code_pb2 import OK

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

insert_statement = (
    "INSERT INTO Albums "
    "(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) "
    "VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)"
)

update_statement = (
    "UPDATE Albums "
    "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "
    "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3"
)

def update_albums(transaction):
    status, row_cts = transaction.batch_update([insert_statement, update_statement])

    if status.code != OK:
        # Do handling here.
        # Note: the exception will still be raised when
        # `commit` is called by `run_in_transaction`.
        return

    print("Executed {} SQL statements using Batch DML.".format(len(row_cts)))

database.run_in_transaction(update_albums)

Ruby

Utilizza transaction.batch_update per eseguire più stringhe di istruzione DML.

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

row_counts = nil
client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_counts = transaction.batch_update do |b|
    b.batch_update "INSERT INTO Albums "\
      "(SingerId, AlbumId, AlbumTitle, MarketingBudget) "\
      "VALUES (1, 3, 'Test Album Title', 10000)"
    b.batch_update "UPDATE Albums "\
      "SET MarketingBudget = MarketingBudget * 2 "\
      "WHERE SingerId = 1 and AlbumId = 3"
  end
end

statement_count = row_counts.count

puts "Executed #{statement_count} SQL statements using Batch DML."