示例:Go“Hello World”应用

本示例是一个非常简单的“hello world”应用,该应用采用 Go 语言编写而成,演示了如何进行以下各项操作:

  • 连接到 Cloud Bigtable 实例。
  • 新建一个表。
  • 将数据写入表中。
  • 重新读取这些数据。
  • 删除表。

运行示例

本示例使用 Go 版 Google Cloud 客户端库Cloud Bigtable 软件包与 Cloud Bigtable 进行通信。

要运行此示例程序,请按照 GitHub 上的示例说明进行操作

将 Cloud 客户端库用于 Cloud Bigtable

示例应用会连接到 Cloud Bigtable 并演示一些简单操作。

导入客户端库

此示例使用以下导入:

import (
	"context"
	"flag"
	"fmt"
	"log"

	"cloud.google.com/go/bigtable"
)

连接到 Cloud Bigtable 以管理表

如需管理表,请使用 bigtable.NewAdminClient() 连接到 Cloud Bigtable。

adminClient, err := bigtable.NewAdminClient(ctx, *project, *instance)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not create admin client: %v", err)
}

创建表

创建一个包含 AdminClient.CreateTable() 的表,然后使用 AdminClient.TableInfo() 获取该表的相关信息。 接着使用 AdminClient.CreateColumnFamily() 创建列族。

tables, err := adminClient.Tables(ctx)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not fetch table list: %v", err)
}

if !sliceContains(tables, tableName) {
	log.Printf("Creating table %s", tableName)
	if err := adminClient.CreateTable(ctx, tableName); err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not create table %s: %v", tableName, err)
	}
}

tblInfo, err := adminClient.TableInfo(ctx, tableName)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not read info for table %s: %v", tableName, err)
}

if !sliceContains(tblInfo.Families, columnFamilyName) {
	if err := adminClient.CreateColumnFamily(ctx, tableName, columnFamilyName); err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not create column family %s: %v", columnFamilyName, err)
	}
}

连接到 Cloud Bigtable 以管理数据

如需管理数据,请使用 bigtable.NewClient() 连接到 Cloud Bigtable。

client, err := bigtable.NewClient(ctx, *project, *instance)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not create data operations client: %v", err)
}

将行写入表

打开要向其写入数据的表。使用 bigtable.NewMutation() 在单一行中创建一项变更,然后使用 Mutation.Set() 在该行中设置值。为每行生成一个唯一的行键。重复这些步骤以创建多项变更。最后,使用 Table.ApplyBulk() 将所有变更应用到您的表。

tbl := client.Open(tableName)
muts := make([]*bigtable.Mutation, len(greetings))
rowKeys := make([]string, len(greetings))

log.Printf("Writing greeting rows to table")
for i, greeting := range greetings {
	muts[i] = bigtable.NewMutation()
	muts[i].Set(columnFamilyName, columnName, bigtable.Now(), []byte(greeting))

	// Each row has a unique row key.
	//
	// Note: This example uses sequential numeric IDs for simplicity, but
	// this can result in poor performance in a production application.
	// Since rows are stored in sorted order by key, sequential keys can
	// result in poor distribution of operations across nodes.
	//
	// For more information about how to design a Bigtable schema for the
	// best performance, see the documentation:
	//
	//     https://cloud.google.com/bigtable/docs/schema-design
	rowKeys[i] = fmt.Sprintf("%s%d", columnName, i)
}

rowErrs, err := tbl.ApplyBulk(ctx, rowKeys, muts)
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not apply bulk row mutation: %v", err)
}
if rowErrs != nil {
	for _, rowErr := range rowErrs {
		log.Printf("Error writing row: %v", rowErr)
	}
	log.Fatalf("Could not write some rows")
}

按行键读取行

通过 Table.ReadRow() 使用行键直接获取行。

log.Printf("Getting a single greeting by row key:")
row, err := tbl.ReadRow(ctx, rowKeys[0], bigtable.RowFilter(bigtable.ColumnFilter(columnName)))
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not read row with key %s: %v", rowKeys[0], err)
}
log.Printf("\t%s = %s\n", rowKeys[0], string(row[columnFamilyName][0].Value))

扫描所有表行

使用 Table.ReadRows() 扫描表中的所有行。 使用完数据客户端后,请将其关闭。

log.Printf("Reading all greeting rows:")
err = tbl.ReadRows(ctx, bigtable.PrefixRange(columnName), func(row bigtable.Row) bool {
	item := row[columnFamilyName][0]
	log.Printf("\t%s = %s\n", item.Row, string(item.Value))
	return true
}, bigtable.RowFilter(bigtable.ColumnFilter(columnName)))

if err = client.Close(); err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not close data operations client: %v", err)
}

删除表

使用 AdminClient.DeleteTable() 删除表。使用完管理员客户端后将其关闭。

log.Printf("Deleting the table")
if err = adminClient.DeleteTable(ctx, tableName); err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not delete table %s: %v", tableName, err)
}

if err = adminClient.Close(); err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Could not close admin client: %v", err)
}

综合应用

以下为不包含注释的完整示例。


package main

import (
	"context"
	"flag"
	"fmt"
	"log"

	"cloud.google.com/go/bigtable"
)

const (
	tableName        = "Hello-Bigtable"
	columnFamilyName = "cf1"
	columnName       = "greeting"
)

var greetings = []string{"Hello World!", "Hello Cloud Bigtable!", "Hello golang!"}

func sliceContains(list []string, target string) bool {
	for _, s := range list {
		if s == target {
			return true
		}
	}
	return false
}

func main() {
	project := flag.String("project", "", "The Google Cloud Platform project ID. Required.")
	instance := flag.String("instance", "", "The Google Cloud Bigtable instance ID. Required.")
	flag.Parse()

	for _, f := range []string{"project", "instance"} {
		if flag.Lookup(f).Value.String() == "" {
			log.Fatalf("The %s flag is required.", f)
		}
	}

	ctx := context.Background()

	adminClient, err := bigtable.NewAdminClient(ctx, *project, *instance)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not create admin client: %v", err)
	}

	tables, err := adminClient.Tables(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not fetch table list: %v", err)
	}

	if !sliceContains(tables, tableName) {
		log.Printf("Creating table %s", tableName)
		if err := adminClient.CreateTable(ctx, tableName); err != nil {
			log.Fatalf("Could not create table %s: %v", tableName, err)
		}
	}

	tblInfo, err := adminClient.TableInfo(ctx, tableName)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not read info for table %s: %v", tableName, err)
	}

	if !sliceContains(tblInfo.Families, columnFamilyName) {
		if err := adminClient.CreateColumnFamily(ctx, tableName, columnFamilyName); err != nil {
			log.Fatalf("Could not create column family %s: %v", columnFamilyName, err)
		}
	}

	client, err := bigtable.NewClient(ctx, *project, *instance)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not create data operations client: %v", err)
	}

	tbl := client.Open(tableName)
	muts := make([]*bigtable.Mutation, len(greetings))
	rowKeys := make([]string, len(greetings))

	log.Printf("Writing greeting rows to table")
	for i, greeting := range greetings {
		muts[i] = bigtable.NewMutation()
		muts[i].Set(columnFamilyName, columnName, bigtable.Now(), []byte(greeting))

		rowKeys[i] = fmt.Sprintf("%s%d", columnName, i)
	}

	rowErrs, err := tbl.ApplyBulk(ctx, rowKeys, muts)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not apply bulk row mutation: %v", err)
	}
	if rowErrs != nil {
		for _, rowErr := range rowErrs {
			log.Printf("Error writing row: %v", rowErr)
		}
		log.Fatalf("Could not write some rows")
	}

	log.Printf("Getting a single greeting by row key:")
	row, err := tbl.ReadRow(ctx, rowKeys[0], bigtable.RowFilter(bigtable.ColumnFilter(columnName)))
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not read row with key %s: %v", rowKeys[0], err)
	}
	log.Printf("\t%s = %s\n", rowKeys[0], string(row[columnFamilyName][0].Value))

	log.Printf("Reading all greeting rows:")
	err = tbl.ReadRows(ctx, bigtable.PrefixRange(columnName), func(row bigtable.Row) bool {
		item := row[columnFamilyName][0]
		log.Printf("\t%s = %s\n", item.Row, string(item.Value))
		return true
	}, bigtable.RowFilter(bigtable.ColumnFilter(columnName)))

	if err = client.Close(); err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not close data operations client: %v", err)
	}

	log.Printf("Deleting the table")
	if err = adminClient.DeleteTable(ctx, tableName); err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not delete table %s: %v", tableName, err)
	}

	if err = adminClient.Close(); err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("Could not close admin client: %v", err)
	}
}