Getting Started with Endpoints on Kubernetes

This tutorial shows you how to configure and deploy a sample API and the Extensible Service Proxy (ESP) to a Kubernetes cluster that is not on Google Cloud Platform (GCP). The sample code's REST API is described using the OpenAPI Specification. The tutorial also shows you how to create an API key and use it when sending requests to the API.

The tutorial uses prebuilt container images of the sample code and ESP, which are stored in Google Container Registry. If you are unfamiliar with containers, see the following for more information:

For an overview of Cloud Endpoints, see About Cloud Endpoints and Cloud Endpoints Architecture.

Prerequisites

This tutorial assumes that you already have Minikube or a Kubernetes cluster setup. For more information, see the Kubernetes Documentation.

Task List

Use the following high-level task list as you work through the tutorial. All tasks in Part 1 are required to successfully send requests to the API.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Account.

    If you don't already have one, sign up for a new account.

  2. Select or create a GCP project.

    Go to the Manage resources page

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your project.

    Learn how to enable billing

  4. Note the GCP project ID, because you'll need it later.

Installing and configuring required software

In this tutorial, you'll install the Google Cloud SDK so that you can use the gcloud command line interface to manage your project. You will use kubectl, a command line interface for running commands against Kubernetes clusters. You will also need a way to test the API.

In the following procedure, if you already have the required software installed, continue with the next step.

To install and configure required software

  1. You will need an application to send requests to the sample API.

    • Linux and Mac users: This tutorial provides an example using curl, which typically comes pre-installed on your operating system. If you don't have curl, you can download it from the curl Releases and Downloads page.
    • Windows users: This tutorial provides an example using Invoke-WebRequest, which is supported in PowerShell 3.0 and later.
  2. Install and initialize the Cloud SDK.
  3. Update the Cloud SDK and install the Endpoints components:
    gcloud components update
  4. Make sure that Cloud SDK (gcloud) is authorized to access your data and services on Google Cloud Platform:
    gcloud auth login
    A new browser tab opens and you are prompted to choose an account.
  5. Set the default project to your project ID:
    gcloud config set project [YOUR-PROJECT-ID]

    Replace [YOUR-PROJECT-ID] with your project ID. If you have other Cloud Platform projects, and you want to use gcloud to manage them, see Managing Cloud SDK Configurations.

  6. Install kubectl:
    gcloud components install kubectl
  7. Acquire new user credentials to use for Application Default Credentials. The user credentials are needed to authorize kubectl.
    gcloud auth application-default login
    A new browser tab opens and you are prompted to choose an account.
  8. Run the following command to make sure your Kubernetes client is properly configured:
    kubectl version

    You should see output similar to the following:

    
       Client Version: version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"8", GitVersion:"v1.8.4",
         GitCommit:"9befc2b8928a9426501d3bf62f72849d5cbcd5a3", GitTreeState:"clean",
         BuildDate:"2017-11-20T05:28:34Z", GoVersion:"go1.8.3", Compiler:"gc",
         Platform:"linux/amd64"}
       Server Version: version.Info{Major:"1", Minor:"7+",
         GitVersion:"v1.7.8-gke.0",
         GitCommit:"a7061d4b09b53ab4099e3b5ca3e80fb172e1b018", GitTreeState:"clean",
         BuildDate:"2017-10-10T18:48:45Z", GoVersion:"go1.8.3", Compiler:"gc",
         Platform:"linux/amd64"}
       

Downloading the sample code

Optionally, download the sample code. In this tutorial, you deploy a prebuilt container image, so you do not have to build a container from the sample code. However, you might want to download the sample code, which is provided in several languages to help you understand how the sample API works.

To download the sample code:

Java

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/java-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd java-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Python

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/python-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd python-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Go

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Make sure your GOPATH environment variable is set.
  2. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    go get -u -d github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/endpoints/getting-started
  3. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/endpoints/getting-started
PHP

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/php-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd php-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Ruby

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/ruby-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd ruby-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
NodeJS

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/nodejs-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd nodejs-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started

Getting the Kubernetes configuration file

  1. Clone the GitHub repository that contains the yaml files used in this tutorial to your local machine:

    git clone https://github.com/googlecloudplatform/endpoints-samples
    

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the configuration files:

    cd endpoints-samples/k8s
    

Configuring Endpoints

The sample code includes the OpenAPI configuration file, openapi.yaml, which is based on OpenAPI Specification v2.0.

To configure Endpoints:

  1. In the sample code directory, open the openapi.yaml configuration file.

    swagger: "2.0"
    info:
      description: "A simple Google Cloud Endpoints API example."
      title: "Endpoints Example"
      version: "1.0.0"
    host: "echo-api.endpoints.YOUR-PROJECT-ID.cloud.goog"

    Note the following:

    • The configuration sample displays the lines near the host field, which you need to modify. To deploy openapi.yaml to Cloud Endpoints, the complete OpenAPI document is required.
    • The example openapi.yaml contains a section for configuring authentication that is not needed for this tutorial. You do not need to configure the lines with YOUR-SERVICE-ACCOUNT-EMAIL and YOUR-CLIENT-ID.

  2. In the host field, replace the text with the Cloud Endpoints service name, which should be in the following format:
    host: "echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloud.goog"
    

    Replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your project ID. Do not include the square brackets. For example:

    host: "echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog"
    

Note that echo-api.endpoints.YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloud.goog is the Endpoints service name. It is not the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that you use for sending requests to the API.

For information about the fields in the OpenAPI document that Cloud Endpoints requires, see Configuring Endpoints.

After you have finished all the following configuration steps such that you can successfully send requests to the sample API using an IP address, see Configuring DNS for Endpoints for information on how to configure echo-api.endpoints.YOUR-PROJECT-ID.cloud.goog to be the FQDN.

Deploying the Endpoints configuration

To deploy the Endpoints configuration, you use the gcloud endpoints services deploy command. This command uses Google Service Management, an infrastructure service of GCP that manages other APIs and services, including services created using Cloud Endpoints.

To deploy the Endpoints configuration:

  1. Make sure you are in the endpoints-samples/k8s directory.

  2. Invoke the following command:

    gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi.yaml
    

The first time you deploy, a new Cloud Endpoints service is created with the name that you specified in the host field of the openapi.yaml file. The service is configured according to the settings in the openapi.yaml file. When you make changes to openapi.yaml, you must redeploy the file to update the Cloud Endpoints service.

As the service is being configured, you will see a great deal of information on the terminal. You can safely ignore the warnings about the paths in openapi.yaml not requiring an API key. On successful completion, you will see a line like the following that displays the service configuration ID and the service name:

Service Configuration [2017-02-13r0] uploaded for service [echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog]

In the example above, 2017-02-13r0 is the service configuration ID. The service configuration ID consists of a date stamp followed by a revision number. If you deploy openapi.yaml again on the same day, the revision number is incremented in the service configuration ID.

If you get an error message, see Troubleshooting Endpoints Configuration Deployment.

See Deploying the Endpoints Configuration for additional information.

Creating credentials for your service

To provide management for your API, ESP requires the services in Google Service Control and Google Service Management. To call these services, ESP must use access tokens.

When you deploy ESP to a non-GCP environment, such as your local desktop, an on-premises Kubernetes cluster, or another cloud provider, you must provide ESP with a service account JSON file that contains a private key. ESP uses the service account to generate access tokens to call the services that it needs to manage your API.

You can use either the GCP Console or the gcloud command-line tool to create the service account and private key file and to assign the service account the following roles:

Console

  1. Open the Service Accounts page in the GCP Console.

    Go to the Service Accounts page

  2. Click Select a project.

  3. Select your project and click Open.

  4. Click add Create Service Account.
  5. In the Service account name field, enter the name for your service account.

  6. Click Role and select:

    • Service Management -> Service Controller
    • Cloud Trace -> Cloud Trace Agent
  7. Click Furnish a new private key.

  8. For the Key type, use the default type,JSON.
  9. Click Save.

This creates the service account and downloads its private key to a JSON file.

gcloud

  1. Enter the following to display the project IDs for your Cloud projects:

    gcloud projects list
    
  2. Replace PROJECT_ID in the following command to set the default project to the one that your API is in:

    gcloud config set project PROJECT_ID
    
  3. Make sure that Cloud SDK (gcloud) is authorized to access your data and services on GCP:

    gcloud auth login
    

    If you have more than one account, make sure to choose the account that is in the GCP project that the API is in. If you run gcloud auth list, the account that you selected is shown as the active account for the project.

  4. To create a service account, run the following command and replace SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME and My Service Account with the name and display name that you want to use:

    gcloud iam service-accounts create SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME \
      --display-name "My Service Account"
    

    The command assigns an email address for the service account in the following format:

    SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME@PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com
    

    This email address is required in the subsequent commands.

  5. Create a service account key file:

    gcloud iam service-accounts keys create ~/service-account-creds.json \
      --iam-account SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME@PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com
    
  6. Add the Service Controller role:

    gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding PROJECT_ID \
        --member serviceAccount:SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME@PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com \
        --role roles/servicemanagement.serviceController
    
  7. Add the Cloud Trace Agent role to enable Stackdriver Trace:

    gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding PROJECT_ID \
        --member serviceAccount:SERVICE_ACCOUNT_NAME@PROJECT_ID.iam.gserviceaccount.com \
        --role roles/cloudtrace.agent
    

See gcloud iam service-accounts for more information about the commands.

Deploying the API backend

So far you have deployed the OpenAPI document to Service Management, but you have not yet deployed the code that will serve the API backend. This section walks you through deploying prebuilt containers for the sample API and ESP to Kubernetes.

Providing ESP with the service credentials

ESP, which will be running inside a container, needs access to the credentials stored locally in the service-account-creds.json file. To provide ESP with access to the credentials, you create a Kubernetes secret and mount the Kubernetes secret as a Kubernetes volume.

To create the Kubernetes secret and mount the volume:

  1. Make sure to rename the JSON file to service-account-creds.json and copy it to endpoints-samples/k8s if it was downloaded to a different directory. This way, the name matches the options specified in the esp_echo_http.yaml deployment manifest file.

  2. Make sure you are in the endpoints-samples/k8s directory.

  3. Create a Kubernetes secret with the service account credentials:

    kubectl create secret generic service-account-creds \
      --from-file=service-account-creds.json
    

On success, you see the message: secret "service-account-creds" created

The deployment manifest file that you will use to deploy the API and ESP to Kubernetes already contains the secret volume, as shown in the following two sections of the file:

volumes:
  - name: service-account-creds
    secret:
      secretName: service-account-creds
volumeMounts:
  - mountPath: /etc/nginx/creds
    name: service-account-creds
    readOnly: true

Configuring the service name and starting the service

ESP needs to know the name of your service to find the configuration that you deployed previously (via the gcloud endpoints services deploy command).

To configure the service name and start the service:

  1. Open the deployment manifest file, esp_echo_http.yaml, and replace SERVICE_NAME in the ESP startup options with the name of your service. This is the same name that you configured in the host field of your OpenAPI document. For example:

    "--service", "echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog"
    

    containers:
      - name: esp
        image: gcr.io/endpoints-release/endpoints-runtime:1
        args: [
          "--http_port", "8080",
          "--backend", "127.0.0.1:8081",
          "--service", "SERVICE_NAME",
          "--rollout_strategy", "managed",
          "--service_account_key", "/etc/nginx/creds/service-account-creds.json",
        ]

    The --rollout_strategy", "managed" option configures ESP to use the latest deployed service configuration. When you specify this option, within a minute after you deploy a new service configuration, ESP detects the change and automatically begins using it. We recommend that you specify this option instead of a specific configuration ID for ESP to use. For information about the other ESP options used above, see ESP Startup Options.

  2. Start the service to deploy the Cloud Endpoints Service on Kubernetes:

    kubectl create -f esp_echo_http.yaml
    

    If you see an error message similar to the following:

    The connection to the server localhost:8080 was refused - did you specify the right host or port?
    

    This indicates that kubectl is not properly configured. See Configure kubectl for more information.

For more information, see Deploying Cloud Endpoints on Kubernetes.

Get the service's external IP address

If you are using Minikube, skip to Sending a request via IP address.

It can take a few minutes after you start your service in the container before the external IP address is ready.

To view the service's external IP address:

  1. Invoke the command:

    kubectl get service
    
  2. Note the value for EXTERNAL-IP; you'll need it to send requests to the API.

Sending a request via IP address

After the sample API is running in the container cluster, you can send requests to the API.

To send a request to the API:

  1. In the same GCP project that you used for your API, create an API key on the API credentials page. (See Enabling an API in Your Cloud Project if you want to create an API key in a different GCP project.)

Create an API key

  1. Click Create credentials, then select API key.

  2. Copy the key, then paste it into the following environment variable statement:

    • In Linux or Mac OS: export ENDPOINTS_KEY=AIza...
    • In Windows PowerShell: $Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY="AIza..."
  3. Send an HTTP request:

    • If you are using minikube:

      • In Linux or Mac OS using the ENDPOINTS_KEY environment variable set previously:

        NODE_PORT=`kubectl get service esp-echo --output='jsonpath={.spec.ports[0].nodePort}'`
        MINIKUBE_IP=`minikube ip`
        curl --request POST \
            --header "content-type:application/json" \
            --data '{"message":"hello world"}' \
            ${MINIKUBE_IP}:${NODE_PORT}/echo?key=${ENDPOINTS_KEY}
        
      • In Windows Powershell using the ENDPOINTS_KEY environment variable set previously:

        $Env:NODE_PORT=$(kubectl get service esp-echo --output='jsonpath={.spec.ports[0].nodePort}')
        $Env:MINIKUBE_IP=$(minikube ip)
        (Invoke-WebRequest -Method POST -Body '{"message": "hello world"}' -Headers @{"content-type"="application/json"} -URI "http://$Env:MINIKUBE_IP:$Env:NODE_PORT/echo?key=$Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY").Content
        
    • Otherwise, use the following curl or Invoke-WebRequest using the ENDPOINTS_KEY environment variable set previously:

      • In Linux or Mac OS:
          curl --request POST \
              --header "content-type:application/json" \
              --data '{"message":"hello world"}' \
              "http://[IP_ADDRESS]:80/echo?key=${ENDPOINTS_KEY}"
          
      • In Windows PowerShell:
        (Invoke-WebRequest -Method POST -Body '{"message": "hello world"}' -Headers @{"content-type"="application/json"} -URI "http://[IP_ADDRESS]:80/echo?key=$Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY").Content

    Replace [IP_ADDRESS] with the external IP address of your instance.

The API echoes back the message that you send it, and responds with the following:

{
  "message": "hello world"
}

In the above curl:

  • The --data option specifies the data to post to the API.
  • The --header option specifies the header.
  • The query parameter key is set to the API key. The example uses the environment variable ${ENDPOINTS_KEY}. If you did not set the environment variable, you can copy/paste the API key as the value for the key query parameter. In that case, do not surround it with ${}.

If you would prefer to use an application such as Postman to send the request, you would configure it as follows:

  • Select POST as the HTTP verb.
  • For the header, select the key content-type and the value application/json.
  • For the body, enter the following:
    {"message":"hello world"}
  • In the URL, use the actual API key rather than the environment variable. For example:
    http://192.0.2.0:80/echo?key=AIzaSyBmDH4jBQhbR7yxKJ9IAq-Dmlio5Wh3rD0

If you did not get a successful response, see Troubleshooting Response Errors.

You just deployed and tested an API in Cloud Endpoints!

Tracking API activity

To track API activity:

  1. Look at the activity graphs for your API in the Endpoints page.
    View Endpoints activity graphs
    It may take a few moments for the request to be reflected in the graphs.

  2. Look at the request logs for your API in the Logs Viewer page.
    View Endpoints request logs

Configuring DNS for Endpoints

Because the Cloud Endpoints service name for the API is in the .endpoints.PROJECT-ID.cloud.goog domain, you can use it as the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) by making a small configuration change in your openapi.yaml file. This way, you can send requests to the sample API using echo-api.endpoints.YOUR-PROJECT-ID.cloud.goog instead of the IP address.

To configure Endpoints DNS:

  1. Open your OpenAPI configuration file, openapi.yaml, and add the x-google-endpoints property at the top level of the file (not indented or nested) as shown in the following snippet:
        host: "echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloud.goog"
        x-google-endpoints:
        - name: "echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloud.goog"
          target: "[IP_ADDRESS]"
    
  2. In the name property, replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your project ID. Do not include the square brackets.
  3. In the target property, replace [IP_ADDRESS] with the IP address that you used when you sent a request to the sample API. Do not include the square brackets.
  4. Deploy your updated OpenAPI configuration file to Service Management using the following command:
        gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi.yaml
    

For example, assume openapi.yaml has the following configured:

    host: "echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog"
    x-google-endpoints:
    - name: "echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog"
      target: "192.0.2.1"

When you deploy the openapi.yaml using the above gcloud command, Service Management creates a DNS A-record, echo-api.endpoints.my-project-id.cloud.goog, which resolves to the target IP address, 192.0.2.1. Note that it could take a few minutes for the new DNS configuration to propagate.

Configuring SSL

For more details on how to configure DNS & SSL, see Enabling SSL for Cloud Endpoints.

Sending a request via FQDN

Now that you've got the DNS record configured for the sample API, send a request to it using the FQDN (replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your project ID) and the ENDPOINTS_KEY environment variable set previously:
  • In Linux or Mac OS:
            curl --request POST \
                --header "content-type:application/json" \
                --data '{"message":"hello world"}' \
                "http://echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloud.goog:80/echo?key=${ENDPOINTS_KEY}"
  • In Windows PowerShell:
    (Invoke-WebRequest -Method POST -Body '{"message": "hello world"}' -Headers @{"content-type"="application/json"} -URI "http://echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID]:80/echo?key=$Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY").Content

Clean up

To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud Platform account for the resources used in this quickstart:

  • Delete the Kubernetes service and deployment:

    kubectl delete -f esp_echo_http.yaml
    

See Deleting an API and API Instances for information on stopping the services used by this tutorial.

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