Getting Started with Endpoints on Kubernetes Engine

This tutorial shows you how to configure and deploy a sample API and the Extensible Service Proxy (ESP) to a Kubernetes Engine cluster. The sample code's REST API is described using the OpenAPI Specification. The tutorial also shows you how to create an API key and use it when sending requests to the API.

The tutorial uses prebuilt container images of the sample code and ESP, which are stored in Google Container Registry.

For an overview of Cloud Endpoints, see About Cloud Endpoints and Cloud Endpoints Architecture.

Task List

Use the following high-level task list as you work through the tutorial. All tasks in Part 1 are required to successfully send requests to the API.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Account.

    If you don't already have one, sign up for a new account.

  2. Select or create a GCP project.

    Go to the Manage resources page

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your project.

    Learn how to enable billing

  4. Note the GCP project ID, because you'll need it later.

Creating a container cluster

You must create a container cluster on Kubernetes Engine for the sample API backend code to run on.

To create a container cluster for the sample API:

  1. In the GCP Console, go to the Kubernetes clusters page.
    Go to the Kubernetes clusters page

  2. Click Create cluster.

  3. Accept the defaults and click Create (this step can take a few minutes to complete).

  4. Note the cluster name and zone because you'll need them when you authenticate kubectl to the container cluster.

Installing and configuring required software

In this tutorial, you'll install the Google Cloud SDK so that you can use the gcloud command line interface to manage your project. You will use kubectl to run commands against Kubernetes clusters. You will also need a way to test the API. This tutorial uses curl, but you could use an application such as Postman for Google Chrome. On Windows, this tutorial uses PowerShell's built in WebRequest support.

In the following procedure, if you already have the required software installed, continue with the next step.

To install and configure required software

  1. Install curl for testing purposes. On Windows, this tutorial uses PowerShell's built in WebRequest support.
  2. Install and initialize the Cloud SDK.
  3. Update the Cloud SDK and install the Endpoints components:
    gcloud components update
  4. Make sure that Cloud SDK (gcloud) is authorized to access your data and services on Google Cloud Platform:
    gcloud auth login
    A new browser tab opens and you are prompted to choose an account.
  5. Set the default project to your project ID:
    gcloud config set project [YOUR-PROJECT-ID]

    Replace [YOUR-PROJECT-ID] with your project ID. If you have other Cloud Platform projects, and you want to use gcloud to manage them, see Managing Cloud SDK Configurations.

  6. Install kubectl:
    gcloud components install kubectl
  7. Acquire new user credentials to use for Application Default Credentials. The user credentials are needed to authorize kubectl.
    gcloud auth application-default login
    A new browser tab opens and you are prompted to choose an account.

Downloading the sample code

To help you get up and running quickly, sample code is provided in several languages.

To download the sample code to your local machine:

Java

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/java-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd java-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Python

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/python-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd python-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Go

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Make sure your GOPATH environment variable is set.
  2. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    go get -u -d github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/endpoints/getting-started
  3. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/endpoints/getting-started
PHP

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/php-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd php-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Ruby

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/ruby-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd ruby-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
NodeJS

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/nodejs-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd nodejs-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started

Configuring Endpoints

The sample code includes the OpenAPI configuration file, openapi.yaml, which is based on OpenAPI Specification v2.0.

To configure Endpoints:

  1. In the sample code directory, open the openapi.yaml configuration file.

    Note the following:

    • The configuration sample displays the lines near the host field, which you need to modify. To deploy openapi.yaml to Cloud Endpoints, the complete OpenAPI document is required.
    • The example openapi.yaml contains a section for configuring authentication that is not needed for this tutorial. You do not need to configure the lines with YOUR-SERVICE-ACCOUNT-EMAIL and YOUR-CLIENT-ID.

  2. In the host field, replace the text with the Cloud Endpoints service name, which should be in the following format:
    host: "echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloud.goog"
    

    Replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your project ID. Do not include the square brackets. For example:

    host: "echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog"
    

Note that echo-api.endpoints.YOUR_PROJECT_ID.cloud.goog is the Endpoints service name. It is not the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that you use for sending requests to the API.

For information about the fields in the OpenAPI document that Cloud Endpoints requires, see Configuring Endpoints.

After you have finished all the following configuration steps such that you can successfully send requests to the sample API using an IP address, see Configuring Endpoints DNS for information on how to configure echo-api.endpoints.YOUR-PROJECT-ID.cloud.goog to be the FQDN.

Deploying the Endpoints configuration

To deploy the Endpoints configuration, you use the gcloud endpoints services deploy command. This command uses Google Service Management, an infrastructure service of GCP that manages other APIs and services, including services created using Cloud Endpoints.

To deploy the Endpoints configuration:

  1. Make sure you are in the endpoints/getting-started directory.

  2. Invoke the following command:

    gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi.yaml
    

The first time you deploy, a new Cloud Endpoints service is created with the name that you specified in the host field of the openapi.yaml file. The service is configured according to the settings in the openapi.yaml file. When you make changes to openapi.yaml, you must redeploy the file to update the Cloud Endpoints service.

As the service is being configured, you will see a great deal of information on the terminal. You can safely ignore the warnings about the paths in openapi.yaml not requiring an API key. On successful completion, you will see a line like the following that displays the service configuration ID and the service name:

Service Configuration [2017-02-13r0] uploaded for service [echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog]

In the example above, 2017-02-13r0 is the service configuration ID. The service configuration ID consists of a date stamp followed by a revision number. If you deploy openapi.yaml again on the same day, the revision number is incremented in the service configuration ID.

If you get an error message, see Troubleshooting Endpoints Configuration Deployment.

See Deploying the Endpoints Configuration for additional information.

Deploying the API backend

So far you have deployed the OpenAPI document to Service Management, but you have not yet deployed the code that will serve the API backend. This section walks you through deploying prebuilt containers for the sample API and ESP to the cluster.

Deploying the containers to the cluster

Containers offer a logical packaging mechanism in which applications can be abstracted from the environment in which they actually run. You use the following procedure to deploy the sample API and ESP to the cluster.

To deploy the containers to the cluster:

  1. Get cluster credentials and make them available to kubectl:
    gcloud container clusters get-credentials [NAME] --zone [ZONE]
    Replace [NAME] with the cluster name and [ZONE] with the cluster zone. Do not include the square brackets.
  2. Deploy a Kubernetes service to the Kubernetes Engine cluster. The Kubernetes service implements the API. Edit the Kubernetes configuration file /endpoints/getting-started/deployment.yaml, and replace SERVICE_NAME in the ESP startup options with the name of your service.

    For example:

      args: [
        "--http_port=8081",
        "--backend=127.0.0.1:8080",
        "--service=echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog ",
        "--rollout_strategy=managed",
      ]
    

    The --rollout_strategy=managed" option configures ESP to use the latest deployed service configuration. When you specify this option, within a minute after you deploy a new service configuration, ESP detects the change and automatically begins using it. We recommend that you specify this option instead of a specific configuration ID for ESP to use. For information about the other ESP options used above, see ESP Startup Options.

  3. Start the Kubernetes service using the kubectl create command:
    kubectl create -f deployment.yaml

If you get an error message, see Troubleshooting Cloud Endpoints in Kubernetes Engine.

See Deploying the API Backend for additional information.

Getting the cluster's external IP address

To send requests to the API, you need the external IP of the service. It can take a few minutes after you start your service in the container before the external IP address is ready.

To view the external IP address:

  1. Invoke the command:

    kubectl get service
    
  2. Note the value for EXTERNAL-IP. You'll use that IP address when you send a request to the sample API.

Sending a request via IP address

Now that the service is running in the container cluster, and you have the external IP address, you can send requests to the API.

To send a request to the API:

  1. In the same GCP project that you used for your API, create an API key on the API credentials page. (See Enabling an API in Your Cloud Project if you want to create an API key in a different GCP project.)

    Create an API key

    1. Click Create credentials, then select API key.
    2. Copy the key to the clipboard.
    3. On the Credentials page, click Save.
  2. Create an environment variable called ENDPOINTS_KEY for the API key:

    • Linux or Mac OS: export ENDPOINTS_KEY=AIza...
    • Windows Powershell: $Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY="AIza...
  3. Send an HTTP request using curl or Invoke-WebRequest using the ENDPOINTS_KEY environment variable set previously:

    • In Linux or Mac OS:
        curl --request POST \
            --header "content-type:application/json" \
            --data '{"message":"hello world"}' \
            "http://[IP_ADDRESS]:80/echo?key=${ENDPOINTS_KEY}"
        
    • In Windows PowerShell:
        (Invoke-WebRequest -Method POST -Body '{"message": "hello world"}' -Headers @{"content-type"="application/json"} -URI "http://[IP_ADDRESS]:80/echo?key=$Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY").Content
        

Replace [IP_ADDRESS] with the external IP address of your instance. Do not include the square brackets. The API echos back the message that you send it, and responds with the following:

{
  "message": "hello world"
}

In the above curl:

  • The -d option specifies the data to post to the API.
  • The -H option specifies the header.
  • The query parameter key is set to the API key. The example uses the environment variable ${ENDPOINTS_KEY}. If you prefer, you can copy/paste the API key as the value for the key query parameter. In that case, don't surround it with ${}.

If you would prefer to use an application such as Postman to send the request, you would configure it as follows:

  • Select POST as the HTTP verb.
  • For the header, select the key content-type and the value application/json.
  • For the body, enter the following:
    {"message":"hello world"}
  • In the URL, use the actual API key rather than the environment variable. For example:
    http://192.0.2.0:80/echo?key=AIzaSyBmDH4jBQhbR7yxKJ9IAq-Dmlio5Wh3rD0

If you did not get a successful response, see Troubleshooting Response Errors.

Tracking API activity

To track API activity:

  1. Look at the activity graphs for your API in the Endpoints page.
    View Endpoints activity graphs
    It may take a few moments for the request to be reflected in the graphs.

  2. Look at the request logs for your API in the Logs Viewer page.
    View Endpoints request logs

Configuring DNS for Endpoints

Because the Cloud Endpoints service name for the API is in the .endpoints.PROJECT-ID.cloud.goog domain, you can use it as the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) by making a small configuration change in your openapi.yaml file. This way, you can send requests to the sample API using echo-api.endpoints.YOUR-PROJECT-ID.cloud.goog instead of the IP address.

To configure Endpoints DNS:

  1. Open your OpenAPI configuration file, openapi.yaml, and add the x-google-endpoints property at the top level of the file (not indented or nested) as shown in the following snippet:
        host: "echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloud.goog"
        x-google-endpoints:
        - name: "echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloud.goog"
          target: "[IP_ADDRESS]"
    
  2. In the name property, replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your project ID. Do not include the square brackets.
  3. In the target property, replace [IP_ADDRESS] with the IP address that you used when you sent a request to the sample API. Do not include the square brackets.
  4. Deploy your updated OpenAPI configuration file to Service Management using the following command:
        gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi.yaml
    

For example, assume openapi.yaml has the following configured:

    host: "echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog"
    x-google-endpoints:
    - name: "echo-api.endpoints.example-project-12345.cloud.goog"
      target: "192.0.2.1"

When you deploy the openapi.yaml using the above gcloud command, Service Management creates a DNS A-record, echo-api.endpoints.my-project-id.cloud.goog, which resolves to the target IP address, 192.0.2.1. Note that it could take a few minutes for the new DNS configuration to propagate.

Configuring SSL

For more details on how to configure DNS & SSL, see Enabling SSL for Cloud Endpoints.

Sending a request via FQDN

Now that you've got the DNS record configured for the sample API, send a request to it using the FQDN (replace [YOUR_PROJECT_ID] with your project ID) and the ENDPOINTS_KEY environment variable set previously:
  • In Linux or Mac OS:
            curl --request POST \
                --header "content-type:application/json" \
                --data '{"message":"hello world"}' \
                "http://echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID].cloud.goog:80/echo?key=${ENDPOINTS_KEY}"
  • In Windows PowerShell:
    (Invoke-WebRequest -Method POST -Body '{"message": "hello world"}' -Headers @{"content-type"="application/json"} -URI "http://echo-api.endpoints.[YOUR_PROJECT_ID]:80/echo?key=$Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY").Content

You just deployed and tested an API in Cloud Endpoints!

Clean up

To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud Platform account for the resources used in this quickstart:

See Deleting an API and API Instances for information on stopping the services used by this tutorial.

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Cloud Endpoints with OpenAPI