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Getting started with Cloud Endpoints on the App Engine flexible environment

This tutorial shows you how to configure and deploy a sample API and the Extensible Service Proxy (ESP) running on an instance in the App Engine flexible environment. The sample code's REST API is described using the OpenAPI specification. The tutorial also shows you how to create an API key and use it in requests to the API.

For an overview of Cloud Endpoints, see About Endpoints and Endpoints architecture.

Objectives

Use the following high-level task list as you work through the tutorial. All tasks are required to successfully send requests to the API.

  1. Set up a Google Cloud Platform (GCP) project, install the required software, and create an App Engine app. See Before you begin.
  2. Download the sample code. See Getting the sample code.
  3. Configure the openapi-appengine.yaml file, which is used to configure Endpoints. See Configuring Endpoints.
  4. Deploy the Endpoints configuration to create an Endpoints service. See Deploying the Endpoints configuration.
  5. Deploy the API and ESP to App Engine. See Deploying the API backend.
  6. Send a request to the API. See Sending a request to the API.
  7. Track API activity. See Tracking API activity.
  8. Avoid incurring charges to your GCP account. See Clean up.

Costs

This tutorial uses the following billable components of Google Cloud Platform:

You can use the pricing calculator to generate a cost estimate based on your projected usage. New GCP users might be eligible for a free trial.

When you finish this tutorial, you can avoid continued billing by deleting the resources you created. For more information, see Cleaning up.

Before you begin

  1. Sign in to your Google Account.

    If you don't already have one, sign up for a new account.

  2. Select or create a GCP project.

    Go to the Project selector page

  3. Make sure that billing is enabled for your Google Cloud Platform project.

    Learn how to enable billing

  4. Make a note of the project ID because it's needed later.
  5. You need an application to send requests to the sample API.

    • Linux and macOS users: This tutorial provides an example of using curl, which typically comes pre-installed on your operating system. If you don't have curl, you can download it from the curl Releases and downloads page.
    • Windows users: This tutorial provides an example using Invoke-WebRequest, which is supported in PowerShell 3.0 and later.
  6. Download the Cloud SDK.
  7. Update the Cloud SDK and install the Endpoints components.
    gcloud components update
  8. Make sure that the Cloud SDK (gcloud) is authorized to access your data and services on GCP:
    gcloud auth login
    In the new browser tab that opens, select an account.
  9. Set the default project to your project ID.
    gcloud config set project YOUR_PROJECT_ID

    Replace YOUR_PROJECT_ID with your project ID. If you have other GCP projects, and you want to use gcloud to manage them, see Managing Cloud SDK configurations.

  10. Select the region where you want to create your App Engine application. Run the following command to get a list of regions:
    gcloud app regions list
  11. Create an App Engine application. Replace YOUR_PROJECT_ID with your GCP project ID and YOUR_REGION with the region that you want the App Engine application created in.
      gcloud app create \
      --project=YOUR_PROJECT_ID \
      --region=YOUR_REGION
    

Getting the sample code

Java

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. The sample code uses Maven. If you don't have Maven 3.3.9 or higher, download and install it.
  2. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/java-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  3. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd java-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Python

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/python-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd python-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Go

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Make sure your GOPATH environment variable is set.
  2. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    go get -u -d github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/endpoints/getting-started
  3. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/golang-samples/endpoints/getting-started
PHP

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/php-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd php-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
Ruby

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/ruby-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd ruby-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started
NodeJS

To clone or download the sample API:

  1. Clone the sample app repository to your local machine:
    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/nodejs-docs-samples

    Alternatively, download the sample as a zip file and extract it.

  2. Change to the directory that contains the sample code:
    cd nodejs-docs-samples/endpoints/getting-started

Configuring Endpoints

The sample code includes the OpenAPI configuration file, openapi-appengine.yaml, which is based on OpenAPI Specification v2.0.

To configure Endpoints:
  1. In the sample code directory, open the openapi-appengine.yaml configuration file.

    Note the following:

    • The configuration sample displays the lines near the host field, which you need to modify. To deploy openapi-appengine.yaml to Endpoints, the complete OpenAPI document is required.
    • The example openapi-appengine.yaml contains a section for configuring authentication that isn't needed for this tutorial. You don't need to configure the lines with YOUR-SERVICE-ACCOUNT-EMAIL and YOUR-CLIENT-ID.
    • OpenAPI is a language-agnostic specification. The same openapi-appengine.yaml file is in the getting-started sample in each language GitHub repository for convenience.
  2. On the line with the host field, replace YOUR-PROJECT-ID with your GCP project ID. For example:
    host: "example-project-12345.appspot.com"
    

Endpoints uses the text configured in the host field as the service name. When you deploy the API to the App Engine backend, a DNS entry with a name in the format YOUR-PROJECT-ID.appspot.com is created automatically.

For information about the fields in the OpenAPI document that Endpoints requires, see Configuring Endpoints.

Deploying the Endpoints configuration

To deploy the Endpoints configuration, you use the gcloud endpoints services deploy command. This command uses Service Management to create a managed service.

To deploy the Endpoints configuration:

  1. Make sure you are in the endpoints/getting-started directory.
  2. Upload the configuration and create a managed service:
    gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi-appengine.yaml
    

The gcloud command then calls the Service Management API to create a managed service with the name that you specified in the host field of the openapi-appengine.yaml file. Service Management configures the service according to the settings in the openapi-appengine.yaml file. When you make changes to openapi-appengine.yaml, you must redeploy the file to update the Endpoints service.

As it is creating and configuring the service, Service Management outputs information to the terminal. You can safely ignore the warnings about the paths in the openapi-appengine.yaml file not requiring an API key. When it finishes configuring the service, Service Management displays a message with the service configuration ID and the service name, similar to the following:

Service Configuration [2017-02-13r0] uploaded for service [example-project-12345.appspot.com]

In the preceding example, 2017-02-13r0 is the service configuration ID, and example-project-12345.appspot.com is the Endpoints service. The service configuration ID consists of a date stamp followed by a revision number. If you deploy the openapi-appengine.yaml file again on the same day, the revision number is incremented in the service configuration ID. You can view the Endpoints service configuration on the Endpoints > Services page in the GCP Console.

If you get an error message, see Troubleshooting Endpoints configuration deployment.

Checking required services

At a minimum, Endpoints and ESP require the following services:
Name Title
servicemanagement.googleapis.com Service Management API
servicecontrol.googleapis.com Service Control API
endpoints.googleapis.com Google Cloud Endpoints

In most cases, the gcloud endpoints services deploy command enables these required services. However, the gcloud command completes successfully but doesn't enable the required services in the following circumstances:

  • If you used a third-party application such as Terraform, and you don't include these services.

  • You deployed the Endpoints configuration to an existing GCP project in which these services were explicitly disabled.

To confirm that the required services are enabled:

gcloud services list

If you don't see the required services listed, enable them:

gcloud services enable SERVICE_NAME

Replace SERVICE_NAME with the name of the service to enable.

For more information about the gcloud commands, see gcloud services.

Deploying the API backend

So far you have deployed the OpenAPI document to Service Management, but you haven't yet deployed the code that serves the API backend. This section walks you through deploying the sample API and ESP to App Engine.

To deploy the API backend:

  1. Add your service name to the app.yaml file:

    Java

    Open the endpoints/getting-started/src/main/appengine/app.yaml file.

    endpoints_api_service:
      # The following values are to be replaced by information from the output of
      # 'gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi-appengine.yaml' command.
      name: ENDPOINTS-SERVICE-NAME
      rollout_strategy: managed

    Python

    Open the endpoints/getting-started/app.yaml file.

    endpoints_api_service:
      # The following values are to be replaced by information from the output of
      # 'gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi-appengine.yaml' command.
      name: ENDPOINTS-SERVICE-NAME
      rollout_strategy: managed

    Go

    Open the endpoints/getting-started/app.yaml file.

    endpoints_api_service:
      # The following values are to be replaced by information from the output of
      # 'gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi-appengine.yaml' command.
      name: ENDPOINTS-SERVICE-NAME
      rollout_strategy: managed

    PHP

    Open the endpoints/getting-started/app.yaml file.

    endpoints_api_service:
      # The following values are to be replaced by information from the output of
      # 'gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi-appengine.yaml' command. If you have
      # previously run the deploy command, you can list your existing configuration
      # ids using the 'configs list' command as follows:
      #
      #     gcloud endpoints configs list --service=YOUR-PROJECT-ID.appspot.com
      #
      name: ENDPOINTS-SERVICE-NAME
      rollout_strategy: managed

    Ruby

    Open the endpoints/getting-started/app.yaml file.

    endpoints_api_service:
      # The following values are to be replaced by information from the output of
      # 'gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi-appengine.yaml' command.
      name: ENDPOINTS-SERVICE-NAME
      rollout_strategy: managed

    NodeJS

    Open the endpoints/getting-started/app.yaml file.

    endpoints_api_service:
      # The following values are to be replaced by information from the output of
      # 'gcloud endpoints services deploy openapi-appengine.yaml' command.
      name: ENDPOINTS-SERVICE-NAME
      rollout_strategy: managed

    Replace ENDPOINTS-SERVICE-NAME with the name of your Endpoints service. This is the same name that you configured in the host field of your OpenAPI document. For example:

    endpoints_api_service:
      name: example-project-12345.appspot.com
      rollout_strategy: managed
    

    The rollout_strategy: managed option configures ESP to use the latest deployed service configuration. When you specify this option, within a minute after you deploy a new service configuration, ESP detects the change and automatically begins using it. We recommend that you specify this option instead of a specific configuration ID for ESP to use.

  2. Save the app.yaml file.
  3. Because the endpoints_api_service section is included in the app.yaml file, the gcloud app deploy command deploys and configures ESP in a separate container to your App Engine flexible environment. All request traffic is routed through ESP, and it proxies requests and responses to and from the container running your backend server code.

  4. Make sure you are in the endpoints/getting-started directory. This is where your openapi-appengine.yaml configuration file is located.
  5. Run the following command to deploy the sample API and ESP to App Engine:
  6. Java

    Deploy using Maven:

    mvn appengine:stage
    gcloud app deploy target/appengine-staging
    
    Python
    gcloud app deploy
    Go
    gcloud app deploy
    PHP
    gcloud app deploy
    Ruby
    gcloud app deploy
    NodeJS
    gcloud app deploy

    The gcloud app deploy command creates a DNS record in the format YOUR_PROJECT_ID.appspot.com, which you use when you send requests to the API. We recommend that you wait a few minutes before sending requests to your API while App Engine completely initializes.

If you get an error message, see Troubleshooting App Engine flexible deployment.

For more information, see Deploying the API backend.

Sending requests to the API

Now that the service is running on App Engine you can send requests to it.

Create an API key and set an environment variable

The sample code requires an API key. To simplify the request, you set an environment variable for the API key.

  1. In the same GCP project that you used for your API, create an API key on the API credentials page. If you want to create an API key in a different GCP project, see Enabling an API in your GCP project.

    Go to the Credentials page

  2. Click Create credentials, and then select API key.
  3. Copy the key to the clipboard.
  4. Click Close.
  5. On your local computer, paste the API key to assign it to an environment variable:
    • In Linux or macOS: export ENDPOINTS_KEY=AIza...
    • In Windows PowerShell: $Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY="AIza..."

Send the request

Linux or Mac OS

  1. Create an environment variable for your App Engine project URL. Replace YOUR_PROJECT_ID with your GCP project ID:

    export ENDPOINTS_HOST=https://YOUR_PROJECT_ID.appspot.com

  2. Send an HTTP request using the ENDPOINTS_HOST and ENDPOINTS_KEY environment variables you set previously:

    curl --request POST \
        --header "content-type:application/json" \
        --data '{"message":"hello world"}' \
        "${ENDPOINTS_HOST}/echo?key=${ENDPOINTS_KEY}"
    

In the preceding curl:

  • The --data option specifies the data to post to the API.
  • The --header option specifies that the data is in JSON format.

PowerShell

  1. Create an environment variable for your App Engine project URL. Replace YOUR_PROJECT_ID with your GCP project ID:

    $Env:ENDPOINTS_HOST="https://YOUR_PROJECT_ID.appspot.com"

  2. Send an HTTP request using the ENDPOINTS_HOST and ENDPOINTS_KEY environment variables you set previously:

    (Invoke-WebRequest -Method POST -Body '{"message": "hello world"}' `
        -Headers @{"content-type"="application/json"} `
        -URI "$Env:ENDPOINTS_HOST/echo?key=$Env:ENDPOINTS_KEY").Content
    

In the previous example, the first two lines end in a backtick. When you paste the example into PowerShell, make sure there isn't a space following the backticks. For information about the options used in the example request, see Invoke-WebRequest in the Microsoft documentation.

Third-party app

You can use a third-party application such as the Chrome browser extension Postman to send the request:

  • Select POST as the HTTP verb.
  • For the header, select the key content-type and the value application/json.
  • For the body, enter the following:
    {"message":"hello world"}
  • In the URL, use the actual appspot.com address and API key rather than the environment variables. For example:
    https://example-project-12345.appspot.com/echo?key=AIza...

The API echoes back the message that you send it, and responds with the following:

{
  "message": "hello world"
}

If you didn't get a successful response, see Troubleshooting response errors.

You just deployed and tested an API in Endpoints!

Tracking API activity

  1. View the activity graphs for your API in the Endpoints page.

    Go to the Endpoints Services page

    It might take a few moments for the request to be reflected in the graphs.

  2. Look at the request logs for your API in the Logs Viewer page.

    Go to the Logs Viewer page

Creating a developer portal for the API

You can use Cloud Endpoints Portal to create a developer portal, a website that you can use to interact with the sample API. To learn more, see Cloud Endpoints Portal overview.

Cleaning up

To avoid incurring charges to your Google Cloud Platform account for the resources used in this tutorial:

See Deleting an API and API instances for information on stopping the services used by this tutorial.

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