Architectural overview of Cloud Endpoints

Endpoints is a distributed API management system comprising services, runtimes, and tools. Endpoints provides management, monitoring, and authentication.

The components that make up Endpoints are:

  • Extensible Service Proxy (ESP) or Extensible Service Proxy V2 Beta (ESPv2 Beta) - for injecting Endpoints functionality.

  • Service Control - for applying API management rules.

  • Service Management - for configuring API management rules.

  • Cloud SDK - for deploying and management.

  • Google Cloud Console - for logging, monitoring and sharing.

Endpoints architecture

Endpoints architecture

Endpoints components

ESP

ESP is a NGINX-based proxy that runs in front of the backend and injects Endpoints functionality such as authentication, monitoring, and logging. ESP retrieves a service configuration from Service Management and uses it to validate incoming requests.

ESP is designed for you to deploy it in a containerized environment and validate JWTs and Google ID tokens. It employs a variety of techniques, such as heavy caching and asynchronous calls to remain lightweight and highly performant.

ESP support is available for the following platforms:

ESPv2 Beta

ESPv2 Beta is an Envoy-based high-performance, scalable proxy that runs in front of an OpenAPI or gRPC API backend. Endpoints on ESPv2 Beta supports version 2 of the OpenAPI Specification and gRPC specifications.

ESPv2 Beta integrates with Google Service Infrastructure to enable API management features at scale, including authentication, telemetry reports, metrics, and security.

ESPv2 Beta support is available for the following platforms:

Service Control

Service Control applies API management rules at runtime, such as key authentication, monitoring, and logging. Service Control provides the following methods:

  • Check - verifies authentication and API keys, and indicates whether a call should be permitted

  • Report - notifies the systems of record for logging and monitoring

Service Management

You use the OpenAPI specification to describe the surface and the behavior of your API in a text file referred to as the Endpoints configuration. You deploy the Endpoints configuration to Service Management by using the Cloud SDK, which configures the API management rules. Other configuration related tasks also happen here, such as sharing your API with other developers, enabling or disabling the API in different projects, and generating API keys.

The Cloud SDK

The Cloud SDK provides the gcloud command-line tool that you can use to make calls to various Google Cloud services. You use the gcloud command-line tool to deploy your Endpoints configuration to Service Management.

Google Cloud Console

Cloud Console is the graphical user interface for Google Cloud. Endpoints uses the Cloud Console to expose monitoring and logging data that are sent from ESP or ESPv2 Beta and recorded by Service Control and share APIs with other developers, and for them to generate API keys to call the API.

Deployment scenarios

Options for deployment vary depending upon the use of ESP or ESPv2 Beta as the Endpoints proxy. ESPv2 Beta can be deployed as a remote proxy and both ESPv2 Beta and ESP can be deployed in sidecar mode, as explained in the following sections.

Remote proxy mode

If using ESPv2 Beta, Endpoints can be deployed as a remote proxy. This mode is used to support applications running on serverless platforms such as Cloud Run, Cloud Functions, and App Engine for standard environments.

In this mode, ESPv2 Beta is deployed as a Cloud Run application. The application is configured to use ESPv2 Beta as a remote backend using the x-google-backend field in the OpenAPI service config. When functioning as a remote proxy in this deployment mode, a single ESPv2 Beta can support multiple remote backends.

See Configuring Endpoints for more details.

Sidecar mode

Both ESP and ESPv2 Beta support deployment in a container alongside each instance of your backend. This server-local topology is ideal for both web-facing APIs as well as microservices. It avoids the network hop typically associated with centralized proxies and allows API management that is highly performant as well as scalable.

Typically, load balancing is applied before traffic hits ESP or ESPv2 Beta. On App Engine, load balancing happens automatically. On Compute Engine, it is accomplished by Cloud Load Balancing. For Kubernetes deployments, you can use an ingress proxy for load balancing. In Google Kubernetes Engine, you can use either Cloud Load Balancing or an ingress proxy for load balancing.

Upon startup, ESP or ESPv2 Beta obtains its service configuration from Service Management. The service configuration is generated from the OpenAPI specification or from gRPC, the service configuration YAML file. It tells ESP or ESPv2 Beta both the surface of the API to be managed along with the policies, such as which methods require authentication, and which require API keys.

Request routing

When a request is received, ESP or ESPv2 Beta creates a trace token for Cloud Trace.

Next, ESP or ESPv2 Beta matches the path of the incoming requests with the surface of the API. After finding a matching route, ESP or ESPv2 Beta performs any authentication steps for the specified method.

If JWT validation is necessary, ESP or ESPv2 Beta validates the authentication using the appropriate public key for the signer, and validates the audience field in the JWT. If an API key is required, ESP or ESPv2 Beta calls the Service Control API to validate the key.

Service Control looks up the key to validate it, and ensures that the project associated with the key has enabled the API. If the key isn't valid or the project hasn't enabled the API, the call is rejected and it is logged via the Service Control API.

If Service Control successfully validates the key, the request along with all original headers, plus a JWT validation header, if appropriate, is forwarded to the backend.

When a response is received from the backend, ESP or ESPv2 Beta returns the response to the caller and sends the final timing information to Trace. The call points are logged by the Service Control API, which writes metrics and logs to their appropriate destinations.

ESP or ESPv2 Beta on Kubernetes

The following diagram shows the overall architecture where ESP runs as a side-car container in front of the API service application container, with my-api API hosted at my-api.com and backed by a Kubernetes service. The architecture would be the same for a sidecar deployment with ESPv2 Beta.

Endpoints on Kubernetes overview

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