OWASP Top 10 2021 mitigation options on Google Cloud

This document helps you identify Google Cloud products and mitigation strategies that can help you defend against common application-level attacks that are outlined in OWASP Top 10. OWASP Top 10 is a list by the Open Web Application Security (OWASP) Foundation of the top 10 security risks that every application owner should be aware of. Although no security product can guarantee full protection against these risks, applying these products and services when they make sense in your architecture can contribute to a strong multi-layer security solution.

For the OWASP Top Ten 2017 mitigation options, see OWASP Top Ten 2017 mitigation options on Google Cloud.

Google infrastructure is designed to help you build, deploy, and operate services in a secure way. Physical and operational security, data encryption at rest and in transit, and many other important facets of a secure infrastructure are managed by Google. You inherit these benefits by deploying your applications to Google Cloud, but you might need to take additional measures to protect your application against specific attacks.

The mitigation strategies listed in this document are sorted by application security risk and Google Cloud product. Many products play a role in creating a defense-in-depth strategy against web security risks. This document provides information about how other products can mitigate OWASP Top 10 risks, but it provides additional detail about how Google Cloud Armor and Apigee can mitigate a wide range of those risks. Google Cloud Armor, acting as a web application firewall (WAF), and Apigee, acting as an API gateway, can be especially helpful in blocking different kinds of attacks. These products are in the traffic path from the internet and can block external traffic before it reaches your applications in Google Cloud.

Product overviews

The Google Cloud products listed in the following table can help defend against the top 10 security risks:

Product Summary A01 A02 A03 A04 A05 A06 A07 A08 A09 A10
Access Transparency Expand visibility and control over your cloud provider with admin access logs and approval controls
Artifact Registry Centrally stores artifacts and build dependencies
Apigee Design, secure, and scale application programming interfaces
Binary Authorization Ensure only trusted container images are deployed on Google Kubernetes Engine
Chronicle Automatically find threats in real time and at scale using Google's infrastructure, detection techniques, and signals
Cloud Asset Inventory View, monitor, and analyze all your Google Cloud and Anthos on-prem or multi-cloud assets across projects and services
Cloud Build Build, test, and deploy in Google Cloud
Cloud Data Loss Prevention Discover, classify, and protect your most sensitive data
Cloud Load Balancing Control which ciphers your SSL proxy or HTTPS load balancer negotiates
Cloud Logging Real-time log management and analysis at scale
Cloud Monitoring Collect and analyze metrics, events, and metadata from Google Cloud services and a wide variety of applications and third-party services
Cloud Source Repositories Store, manage, and track code in a single place for your team
Container Threat Detection Continuously monitor the state of container images, evaluate all changes, and monitor remote access attempts to detect runtime attacks in near-real time
Event Threat Detection Monitor your organization's Cloud Logging stream and detect threats in near-real time
Forseti Inventory Collect and store snapshots of your architecture
Forseti Scanner Scan inventory data according to custom-defined policies and alert on unexpected deviations
Google Cloud Armor A web application firewall (WAF) deployed at the edge of Google's network to help defend against common attack vectors
Google Cloud security bulletins The latest security bulletins related to Google Cloud products
Identity-Aware Proxy (IAP) Use identity and context to guard access to your applications and VMs
Identity Platform Add identity and access management functionality to applications, protect user accounts, and scale identity management
Cloud Key Management Service Manage encryption keys on Google Cloud
reCAPTCHA Enterprise Help protect your website from fraudulent activity, spam, and abuse
Secret Manager Store API keys, passwords, certificates, and other sensitive data
Security Command Center Centralized visibility for security analytics and threat intelligence to surface vulnerabilities in your applications
Security Health Analytics (SHA) Generate vulnerability findings that are available in Security Command Center
Titan Security Keys Help protect high-value users with phishing-resistant 2FA devices that are built with a hardware chip (with firmware engineered by Google) to verify the integrity of the key
Virtual Private Cloud firewalls Allow or deny connections to or from your virtual machine (VM) instances
VPC Service Controls Isolate resources of multi-tenant Google Cloud services to mitigate data exfiltration risks
VirusTotal Analyze suspicious files and URLs to detect types of malware; automatically share them with the security community
Web Security Scanner Generate vulnerability finding types that are available in Security Command Center

A01: Broken access control

Broken access control refers to access controls that are only partially enforced on the client side, or weakly implemented. Mitigating these controls often requires a rewrite on the application side to properly enforce that resources are accessed only by authorized users.

Apigee

Use case:

  • Access control enforcement
  • Limit data manipulation

Apigee supports a layered approach to implement access controls to keep the bad actors from making unauthorized changes or accessing the system.

Configure role-based access control (RBAC) to only allow users access to the functionality and configuration that they need. Create encrypted key value maps to store sensitive key-value pairs, which appear masked in the Edge UI and in management API calls. Configure single sign-on with your company's identity provider.

Configure developer portals to show specific API products according to user role. Configure the portal to show or hide content based on user role.

Cloud Asset Inventory

Use case:

  • Monitor for unauthorized IT (also known as "shadow IT")
  • Outdated compute instances

One of the most common vectors for data exposure is orphaned or unauthorized IT infrastructure. Set up real-time notifications to alert you for unexpected running resources, which might be improperly secured or using outdated software.

Cloud Load Balancing

Use case:

  • Fine-grained SSL and TLS cipher control

Prevent the use of weak SSL or TLS ciphers by assigning a predefined group or custom list of ciphers that Cloud Load Balancing can use.

Forseti Scanner

Use case:

  • Access control configuration monitoring

Systematically monitor your Google Cloud resources with the goal of ensuring access controls are set as you intended. Create rule-based policies to codify your security stance. If the configuration unexpectedly changes, Forseti Scanner notifies you so that you can automatically revert to a known state.

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • Filter cross-origin requests
  • Filter local or remote file inclusion attacks
  • Filter HTTP parameter pollution attacks

Many cases of broken access control cannot be mitigated by using a web application firewall, because applications don't require or don't properly check access tokens for every request, and data can be manipulated client side. Multiple Juice Shop challenges related to broken access control. For example, posting feedback in another user's name uses the fact that some requests are not authenticated server side. As you can see in the challenge solution, the exploit for this vulnerability is completely client-side and can therefore not be mitigated using Google Cloud Armor.

Some challenges can be partially mitigated server side if the application cannot be immediately patched.

For example, if cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks are possible because your web server implements cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) poorly, as demonstrated in the CSRF Juice Shop challenge, you can mitigate this issue by blocking requests from unexpected origins altogether with a custom rule. The following rule matches all requests with origins other than example.com and google.com:

has(request.headers['origin']) &&
!((request.headers['origin'] == 'https://example.com')||
(request.headers['origin'] == 'https://google.com') )

When traffic that matches such a rule is denied, the solution for the CSRF challenge stops working.

The basket manipulation challenge uses HTTP parameter pollution (HPP) so that you can see how to attack the shop by following the challenge solution. HPP is detected as part of the protocol attack rule set. To help block this kind of attack, use the following rule: evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('protocolattack-stable').

Identity-Aware Proxy and Context-Aware Access

Use case:

  • Centralized access control
  • Works with cloud and on-premises
  • Protects HTTP and TCP connections
  • Context-Aware Access

IAP lets you use identity and context to form a secure authentication and authorization wall around your application. Prevent broken authorization or access control to your public-facing application with a centrally managed authentication and authorization system built on Cloud Identity and IAM.

Enforce granular access controls to web applications, VMs, Google Cloud APIs, and Google Workspace applications based on a user's identity and the context of the request without the need for a traditional VPN. Use a single platform for both your cloud and on-premises applications and infrastructure resources.

Security Command Center Security Health Analytics

Use case:

  • MFA or 2FA enforcement
  • API key protection
  • SSL policy monitoring

Prevent broken access control by monitoring for multi-factor authentication compliance, SSL policy, and the health of your API keys.

A02: Cryptographic failures

Cryptographic failures can happen due to a lack of encryption or weak encryption in transit, or accidentally exposed sensitive data. Attacks against those vulnerabilities are usually specific to the application and therefore, need a defense-in-depth approach to mitigate.

Apigee

Use case:

  • Protect sensitive data

Use one-way and two-way TLS to guard sensitive information at the protocol level.

Use policies such as Assign Message policy and JavaScript policy to remove sensitive data before it's returned to the client.

Use standard OAuth techniques and consider adding HMAC, hash, state, nonce, PKCE, or other techniques to improve the level of authentication for each request.

Mask sensitive data in the Edge Trace tool.

Encrypt sensitive data at rest in key value maps.

Cloud Asset Inventory

Use case:

  • Search service
  • Access analyzer

One of the most common vectors for data exposure is orphaned or unauthorized IT infrastructure. You can identify servers that nobody is maintaining and buckets with over-broad sharing rules by analyzing the cloud asset time series data.

Set up real-time notifications to alert you to unexpected provisioning of resources which might be improperly secured or unauthorized.

Cloud Data Loss Prevention API

Use case:

  • Sensitive data discovery and classification
  • Automatic data masking

Cloud Data Loss Prevention API (DLP API) lets you scan for any potentially sensitive data stored in buckets or databases to prevent unintended information leakage. If disallowed data is identified, it can be automatically flagged or redacted.

Cloud Key Management Service

Use case:

  • Secure cryptographic key management

(Cloud KMS) helps to prevent potential exposure of your cryptographic keys. Use this cloud-hosted key management service to manage symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic keys for your cloud services the same way that you do on-premises. You can generate, use, rotate, and destroy AES256, RSA 2048, RSA 3072, RSA 4096, EC P256, and EC P384 cryptographic keys.

Cloud Load Balancing

Use case:

  • Fine-grained SSL and TLS cipher control

SSL policies can help prevent sensitive data exposure by giving you control over the SSL and TLS features and ciphers that are allowed in a load balancer. Block unapproved or insecure ciphers as needed.

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • Filter known attack URLs
  • Restrict sensitive endpoint access

In general, sensitive data exposure should be stopped at the source, but because every attack is application specific, web application firewalls can only be used in a limited way to stop data exposure broadly. However, if your application can't be immediately patched, you can restrict access to vulnerable endpoints or request patterns by using Google Cloud Armor custom rules.

For example, several Juice Shop challenges about sensitive data exposure can be exploited due to insecure directory traversal and null byte injection attacks. You can mitigate these injections by checking for the strings in the URL with the following custom expression:

request.path.contains("%00") || request.path.contains("%2500")

You can solve the exposed metrics challenge by accessing the /metrics subdirectory that is used by Prometheus. If you have a sensitive endpoint that is exposed and you can't immediately remove access, you can restrict access to it except for certain IP address ranges. Use a rule similar to the following custom expression:

request.path.contains("/metrics") && !(inIpRange(origin.ip, '1.2.3.4/32')

Replace 1.2.3.4/32 with the IP address range that should have access to the metrics interface.

Accidentally exposed log files are used to solve one of the Juice Shop challenges. To avoid exposing logs, set a rule disallowing access to log files completely: request.path.endsWith(".log").

Identity-Aware Proxy and Context-Aware Access

Use case:

  • Secure remote access to sensitive services
  • Centralized access control
  • Context-Aware Access

Use identity and context to form a secure authentication and authorization perimeter around your application. Deploy tools, such as internal bug reporting, corporate knowledge base, or email behind IAP, in order to allow Context-Aware Access to only authorized individuals from anywhere on the internet.

With Context-Aware Access, you can enforce granular access controls to web applications, virtual machines (VMs), Google Cloud APIs, and Google Workspace applications based on a user's identity and context of the request without a traditional VPN. Based on the zero-trust security model and Google's BeyondCorp implementation, Context-Aware Access lets you provide access for your users, enforce granular controls, and use a single platform for both your cloud and on-premises applications and infrastructure resources.

Secret Manager

Use case:

  • Crypto keys
  • API keys
  • Other system credentials

Secret Manager is a secure storage service for your most valuable data such as API keys, service account passwords, and cryptographic assets. Centrally storing these secrets lets you rely on Google Cloud's authentication and authorization systems, including IAM, to determine whether any given request for access is valid.

Secret Manager isn't designed for massive scale operations such as credit card tokenization or individual user password storage. Such applications should rely on Identity Platform for CIAM, Cloud Identity for members of your organization, or dedicated tokenization software.

Security Health Analytics

Use case:

  • MFA/2FA enforcement
  • API key protection
  • API key rotation enforcement
  • Compute image privacy
  • SSH key rule enforcement
  • Secure boot monitoring
  • API access security
  • SSL policy monitoring
  • Disabled logging
  • Public bucket ACL alerts

Prevent sensitive data exposure by monitoring for multi-factor authentication compliance and the health of your API keys. Get alerts for insecure configurations in container image storage, Cloud Storage, SSL policy, SSH key policy, logging, API access, and more.

VirusTotal

Use case:

  • Phishing prevention

VirusTotal lets you scan URLs for malicious content before presenting them to your users or employees, whether they're found in user input, emails, chat, logs, or other locations.

VPC Service Controls

Use case:

  • Firewall for managed services

Wrap critically managed services in a firewall in order to control who can call the service and who the service can respond to. Block unauthorized egress and data exfiltration with outbound perimeter rules on services such as Cloud Functions. Prevent requests from unauthorized users and locations to managed data stores and databases. Create secure perimeters around powerful or potentially costly APIs.

Web Application Scanner

Use case:

  • Web application security risk scanner
  • Source repository availability scanner

To prevent your web application from exposing sensitive data, ensure that passwords are not sent in clear text. Avoid leaking potentially devastating raw source code by checking for exposed git and Apache Subversion source code repositories. These scans are designed to cover specific OWASP top 10 controls.

A03: Injection

Injection flaws, such as SQL, NoSQL, OS, and LDAP injection, occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker's hostile data can trick the interpreter into running unintended commands or accessing data without proper authorization. We recommend that user data is sanitized or filtered by the application before it is sent to an interpreter.

The following sections discuss the Google Cloud products that can help mitigate this risk.

Apigee

Use case:

  • SQL injection blocking
  • NoSQL injection blocking
  • LDAP injection blocking
  • JavaScript injection blocking

Apigee provides several input validation policies to verify that the values provided by a client match your configured expectations before allowing the further processing of the policies or rules. Apigee, acting as a gateway for the incoming API requests, runs a limit check to ensure that the payload structure falls within an acceptable range. You can configure an API proxy so that the input validation routine transforms the input in order to remove risky character sequences, and then replace them with safe values.

There are several approaches to validating input with the Apigee platform:

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • SQL injection filtering
  • PHP injection filtering

Google Cloud Armor can block common injection attacks before they reach your application. For SQL injection (SQLi), Google Cloud Armor has a predefined rule set that is based on the OWASP Modsecurity core rule set. You can build security policies that block common SQLi attacks defined in the core rule set by using the evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('sqli-stable') rule either by itself or in conjunction with other custom rules. For example, you can limit SQLi blocking to specific applications by using a URL path filter.

For PHP injection, another preconfigured rule set exists. You can use the evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('php-stable') rule to block common PHP injection attacks.

Depending on your application, activating the preconfigured expressions might lead to some false positives because some of the rules in the rule set are quite sensitive. For more information, see troubleshooting false positives and how to tune the rule set to different sensitivity levels.

For injection attacks other than those targeting SQL or PHP, you can create custom rules to block requests when specific keywords or escape patterns in those protocols are used in the request path or query. Make sure that these patterns don't appear in valid requests. You can also limit these rules to only be used for specific endpoints or paths that might interpret data passed to them.

Additionally, some injection attacks can be mitigated by using the preconfigured rules for remote code execution and remote file injection.

A04: Insecure Design

Insecure design occurs when organizations do not implement the means to evaluate and address threats during the development lifecycle. Threat modeling, when done early in the design and refine phases, and continued throughout the development and testing phases, helps organizations analyze assumptions and failure flaws. A blameless culture of learning from mistakes is key to secure design.

Apigee

Use cases:

  • Input validation
  • Access controls
  • Fault handling
  • Content protection policies
  • Password management

Apigee allows you to validate incoming requests and responses to your application using the OASValidation policy. In addition, to protect access, you can configure single sign-on (SSO), role-based access control (RBAC), limit access to APIs (using Auth0 for example) and restrict which IP addresses have access to your environment. Using fault handling rules, you can customize how the API proxy reacts to errors.

To protect against unsafe passwords for Apigee global users, Apigee provides password expiration, lockout and reset functionality. In addition, you can enable two-factor authentication (2FA).

Cloud Data Loss Prevention API

Use case:

  • Identify and redact confidential data

Using Cloud Data Loss Prevention API, you can identify confidential data and tokenize it. DLP API can help you limit the exposure of confidential data, because after data has been tokenized and stored, you can set up access controls to restrict who can view the data. For more information, see Automating the classification of data uploaded to Cloud Storage and De-identification and re-identification of PII in large-scale datasets using Cloud DLP.

Secret Manager

Use case:

  • Protect storage of credentials

Secret Manager lets applications and pipelines access the values of named secrets based on permissions granted with IAM. It also provides programmatic access to secrets so automated processes can access secret values. When enabled, every interaction with Secret Manager provides an audit trail. Use these audit trails to assist with forensics and compliance needs.

Web Security Scanner

Use case:

  • Identify security vulnerabilities in your applications.

Web Security Scanner scans your web applications for vulnerabilities. It follows links and attempts to exercise as many user inputs and event handlers as possible.

A05: Security misconfiguration

Security misconfiguration refers to unpatched application flaws, open default accounts, and unprotected files and directories that can typically be prevented with application hardening. Security misconfiguration can happen in many ways, such as trusting default configurations, making partial configurations that might be insecure, letting error messages contain sensitive details, storing data in the cloud without proper security controls, or misconfiguring HTTP headers.

Apigee

Use case:

  • Manage security configurations
  • Monitor security configurations

A shared flow lets API developers combine policies and resources into a reusable group. By capturing reusable functionality in one place, a shared flow helps you ensure consistency, shorten development time, and more easily manage code. You can include a shared flow inside individual API proxies using a FlowCallout policy or you can place shared flows in flow hooks to automatically run shared flow logic for every API proxy deployed in the same environment.

Cloud Asset Inventory

Use case:

  • Real-time notification service

Real-time notifications can alert you to unexpected provisioning of resources that might be improperly secured or unauthorized.

Cloud Load Balancing

Use case:

  • Fine-grained SSL and TLS cipher control

Prevent the usage of known-vulnerable SSL or TLS ciphers by assigning a predefined group or custom list of ciphers usable by a load balancer.

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • Filter insecure endpoints
  • Filter local or remote file inclusion attacks
  • Filter protocol attacks

Because security misconfiguration can happen at the application level, the OWASP Foundation recommends hardening and patching your application directly and removing all unnecessary functionality.

Although a web application firewall (WAF), such as Google Cloud Armor, can't help you fix the underlying misconfiguration, you can block access to parts of the application either fully or for everyone except specific IP addresses or countries. Restricting access can reduce the risk of those misconfigurations being exploited.

For example, if your application exposes an administrative interface using a common URL such as /admin, you can restrict access to this interface even if it is authenticated. You can do this with a deny rule—for example:

request.path.contains("/admin") && !(inIpRange(origin.ip,
'1.2.3.4/32')

Replace 1.2.3.4/32 with the IP address range that should have access to the admin interface.

Some misconfigurations can be partially mitigated by using the predefined local file inclusion (LFI) or remote file inclusion (RFI) rulesets. For example, exploiting the Juice Shop cross-site imaging challenge doesn't succeed when the LFI ruleset is applied. Use the evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('lfi-stable') || evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('rfi-stable') rule to block requests using the LFI and RFI rule sets and tune the rules as necessary. You can verify that the challenge solution no longer succeeds.

Some HTTP attacks can also be mitigated using preconfigured rulesets:

  • To avoid HTTP verb tampering, use the method enforcement rule set (in preview). Use the evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('methodenforcement-stable') rule to disallow HTTP request methods other than the GET, HEAD, POST, and OPTIONS methods
  • To block common attacks against HTTP parsing and proxies, such as HTTP Request Smuggling, HTTP Response Splitting and HTTP Header Injection, use the protocol attack rule set by using the evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('protocolattack-stable') rule.

Security Command Center Security Health Analytics

Use case:

  • Security control monitoring and alerting

Monitor dozens of signals through a single interface to ensure your application is maintaining security best practices.

Web Security Scanner

Use case:

  • Web application scanner tailored for OWASP top 10
  • HTTP server configuration
  • Mixed HTTP/HTTPS content

Monitor for common security errors such as content-type mismatches, invalid security headers, and mixed content serving. These scans are designed to cover specific OWASP top 10 controls.

A06: Vulnerable and outdated components

Components with known vulnerabilities is a category for generic attack vectors, and such vulnerabilities are best mitigated by monitoring and quickly upgrading all of your application components.

Binary Authorization

Use case:

  • Restrict GKE clusters to trusted containers

Binary Authorization is a deploy-time security control that helps ensure that only trusted container images are deployed on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE). With Binary Authorization, you can require that images are signed by trusted authorities during the development process and then enforce signature validation when deploying. By enforcing validation, you can be assured that your build-and-release process uses only verified images.

Cloud Load Balancing

Use case:

  • Fine-grained SSL and TLS cipher control

Prevent the use of known-vulnerable SSL or TLS ciphers by assigning a predefined group or custom list of ciphers that Cloud Load Balancing can use.

Event Threat Detection

Use case:

  • Cryptomining detection
  • Malware detection
  • Data exfiltration
  • Outgoing DoS

Event Threat Detection monitors your Cloud Logging stream and applies detection logic and threat intelligence at a granular level. When Event Threat Detection detects a threat, it writes a finding to Security Command Center and to a Cloud Logging project. The following detection rules are useful for detecting the effects of using components with known vulnerabilities:

  • Cryptomining. Detect cryptomining based on DNS requests or connection to known mining addresses.
  • Malware. Detect malware-based DNS requests or connection to known bad addresses.
  • Exfiltration to external table. Detect resources that are saved outside the organization, including copy or transfer operations.
  • Outgoing DoS. Detect exploited vulnerabilities attempting denial of service attacks.

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • Block access to unused application endpoints
  • Block common attack vectors

A web application firewall (WAF) like Google Cloud Armor shouldn't be used as a single mitigation strategy to block attacks against this category, because attacks are often library specific and cannot be blocked by preconfigured rule sets or cannot be patched server side. Regularly monitoring and upgrading all components of your application is the only option to mitigate these kind of vulnerabilities.

However, Google Cloud Armor can help mitigate some common attacks against vulnerable applications through its preconfigured rules for remote code execution, local file inclusion, or remote file inclusion.

If you're aware of vulnerable components in your application but can't patch the application immediately, you can block access to these parts of your application to temporarily lower the risk of an exploit of these components. Build a custom rule that matches either the URL path or queries that access these vulnerable components and deny access. If you require access to these components from specific users or locations, you can still allow certain trusted source IP addresses to access these components. A rule using the URL path looks similar to the following:

`request.path.contains("/component") && !(inIpRange(origin.ip,
'1.2.3.4/32')

Replace the following:

  • /component: the path of the component with known vulnerabilities
  • 1.2.3.4/32: the IP address range that should keep access to the interface.

If there are parts of your application—for example, certain directories or file types that never need to be accessed by end users—you can also block or restrict access to these resources with a custom rule, proactively mitigating the risk if these components become vulnerable in the future.

Google Cloud Security Bulletins

Use case:

  • Security bulletin monitoring
  • CVEs for Google Cloud products

Google Cloud Security Bulletins are an authoritative source for security bulletins that impact Google Cloud. Posts include background information, CVE links, and recommendations for further action.

Web Security Scanner

Use case:

  • Outdated libraries
  • Vulnerabilities and findings dashboards

Monitor for outdated libraries included in your web application. Monitor these findings in the Security Command Center dashboard.

A07: Identification and authentication failures

Identification and authentication failures are common risks because application authentication and session management are often implemented incorrectly. Attackers can exploit implementation flaws, such as compromised passwords, keys, and session tokens, in order to temporarily or permanently assume other users' identities.

Access Transparency

Use case:

  • Service provider monitoring
  • Access justifications

Usually, if you wanted hands-on support from external vendors, you had to grant and share temporary credentials, which creates the potential for orphaned or leaked credentials. Access Approval is an integrated service that lets you approve or dismiss requests for access by Google employees working to support your account. Each access request includes an access justification so you can view the reason for each access, including references to support tickets.

Apigee

Use case:

  • Key validation
  • Token validation
  • OAuth policies

Apigee provides VerifyApiKey, OAuth, and JSON Web Token (JWT) policies, which help protect against this risk.

API key validation is the simplest form of app-based security that can be configured for an API. A client application presents an API key with its request. Apigee Edge, through a policy attached to an API proxy, checks to see that the API key is in an approved state for the resource that is being requested.

OAuth 2.0 authorization framework enables a third-party application to obtain limited access to an HTTP service, either on behalf of a resource owner by orchestrating an approval interaction between the resource owner and the HTTP service, or on its own behalf by allowing the third-party application to obtain access.

JSON Web Tokens or JWT, are commonly used to share claims or assertions between connected applications. Apigee provides JWT support using three policies.

Container Threat Detection

Use case:

  • Brute force detection

Detect and alert on reverse shell processes. With a reverse shell, an attacker can communicate from a compromised workload to an attacker-controlled machine. The attacker can then command and control the workload and perform unauthorized actions—for example, act as part of a botnet.

Event Threat Detection

Use case:

  • Brute force detection
  • IAM abuse detection

Event Threat Detection monitors your Cloud Logging stream and applies detection logic and proprietary threat intelligence at a granular level. When Event Threat Detection detects a threat, it writes a finding to Security Command Center and to Cloud Logging in the project of your choosing. The following event types are useful for identifying broken authentication:

  • Brute force SSH. Detect successful brute force of SSH on a host.
  • Anomalous grant. Detect privileges granted to Identity and Access Management (IAM) users outside of the Google Cloud organization.

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • Limit authentication endpoint access
  • Restrict unauthorized token use

Attacks against vulnerabilities that are classified under the broken authentication risk are best mitigated on the application level or by other controls. However, Google Cloud Armor can help limit the attack surface or block known-attack vectors.

For example, if your application has a limited user base and those users come from a known set of IP addresses or countries, you can create a security policy that limits access to your application to users from those IP address blocks or countries. This policy can help mitigate against automated scanning from endpoints outside of these areas.

If other security mechanisms detect that passwords, keys, or session tokens have been compromised, you can block access for requests that contain those parameters in a query string by using a custom rule. You can update rules that you previously defined by using the securityPolicy.patchRule method. You might be able to identify potential stolen tokens by using anomaly detection mechanisms over HTTP load balancing logs. You can also detect potential adversaries by scanning for common passwords in those logs.

You can block common session fixation attacks by using the preconfigured ModSecurity rule set for session fixation. You can use the rule set by adding the predefined evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('sessionfixation-stable') rule to your security policy.

If your application includes password changes in the query string, you can also block the use of common passwords by using a custom rule that matches the request.query attribute. However, such checks are much better implemented on the application side if possible.

Identity-Aware Proxy (IAP)

Use case:

  • Centralized access control
  • Works with cloud and on-premises
  • Protect HTTP and TCP connections
  • Context-Aware Access

IAP integrates with HTTP(S) load balancing so you can use identity and context to form a secure authentication and authorization wall around your application. Prevent broken authentication to your public-facing application by provisioning external users in Identity Platform (more information in the following section).

You can also prevent broken authentication to administrative interfaces by protecting them with Identity-Aware Proxy and authenticating users provisioned with Identity and Access Management or Cloud Identity. Any attempt to access the tool results in a logged authentication attempt followed by an authorization check to ensure the authenticated user is allowed to access the requested resource.

Identity Platform

Use case:

  • Authentication as a service
  • Multi-factor authentication
  • Enterprise SLA
  • Broad protocol support
  • Google account protection intelligence

Identity Platform is the identity and access management (CIAM) platform for Google Cloud customers. Identity Platform helps provide secure authentication as a service with multi-protocol support by using SDKs and APIs. It offers multi-factor authentication, integration with third-party authentication services, and auditable activity tracking.

reCAPTCHA Enterprise

Use case:

  • Automated login attempts
  • Content scraping
  • Credential stuffing
  • Fraudulent transactions
  • Account takeovers
  • Fake accounts
  • Money laundering

reCAPTCHA Enterprise provides highly effective filtering against bots and other forms of automation and bulk traffic by scoring the risk level of access attempts. You can tune your site-specific model with automated feedback. reCAPTCHA adapts future scores to fit your site.

Security Command Center Security Health Analytics

Use case:

  • MFA/2FA enforcement
  • API key protection
  • API key rotation enforcement

Security Command Center helps prevent broken authentication by monitoring for multi-factor authentication compliance and the health of your API keys. You can identify suspicious requests and block them or flag them for special handling.

Titan Security Keys

Use case:

  • Phishing-resistant 2FA
  • Mobile and PC authentication

Titan Security Keys use public key cryptography to verify a user's identity and the URL of the login page to help ensure that attackers can't access your account even if you are tricked into providing your username and password.

A08: Software and data integrity failures

Software and data integrity failures can happen when integrity checks do not occur during software updates, processing confidential data, or any process in the CI/CD pipeline.

Artifact Registry

Use case:

  • Centralize artifacts in a single, trusted location
  • Use version management, vulnerability scanning, approval workflows

Artifact Registry is a single place for your organization to manage container images and language packages (such as Maven and npm). It can integrate with your existing development tools and provides vulnerability scanning for your containers using Container Analysis.

Binary Authorization

Use case:

  • Ensure only trusted containers are deployed

Binary Authorization verifies the integrity of containers so that only trusted container images are deployed. You can create policies to allow or deny deployment based on the presence or absence of attestations. Binary Authorization applies policies at a cluster level, so you can configure different policies for different environments. This distinction allows for progressive attestation requirements as environments get closer to production.

Cloud Asset Inventory

Use case:

  • Search service

  • Access analyzer

One of the most common vectors for data exposure is orphaned or unauthorized IT infrastructure. You can identify servers that nobody is maintaining and buckets with over-broad sharing rules by analyzing the cloud asset time series data.

Set up real-time notifications to alert you to unexpected provisioning of resources which might be improperly secured or unauthorized.

Cloud Build

Use case:

  • Review code changes

  • Run tests

  • Standardize build deployments

Cloud Build lets you create a build config to provide instructions on your build deployment, including running static analysis, integration tests, and so on.

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • Block remote code execution

Because most attacks against software and data integrity are application specific, there are only a few ways to help mitigate these attacks—for example, using a web application firewall (WAF) like Google Cloud Armor. OWASP recommends that you don't accept serialized objects from untrusted sources. If possible, you can restrict endpoints accepting those objects to a set of trusted IP addresses with a deny rule similar to the following:

request.path.contains("/endpoint") && !(inIpRange(origin.ip,
'1.2.3.4/32')

Replace the following:

  • /endpoint: the path of the endpoint accepting serialized objects
  • 1.2.3.4/32: the IP address range that should keep access to the interface.

To mitigate typical attacks against software and data integrity that use remote code execution (RCE), use the predefined rule set against RCE attacks. You can use the evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('rce-stable') rule to block common RCE attacks against UNIX and Windows Shells.

The RCE attacks described in the Juice Shop challenges for insecure deserializations run functions and regular expressions in Node.js on the server. These kinds of attacks are not blocked by the predefined RCE rule set and the corresponding OWASP Modsecurity rule and have to be mitigated by using patches on the server side or custom rules.

VirusTotal

Use case:

  • Untrusted data scanning

The VirusTotal API lets you upload and scan files for malware. You can scan images, documents, binaries, and other untrusted data before it is processed to eliminate certain categories of malicious input.

A09: Security logging and monitoring failures

If you don't adequately log, monitor, or manage incidents in your systems, attackers can perform deeper and more prolonged attacks on data and software.

Access Transparency

Use case:

  • Service provider access monitoring and auditing
  • Access justifications
  • Resource and method identification

Inability to audit cloud provider access can be a barrier to migrate from on-premises to cloud. Access Transparency enables verification of cloud provider access, bringing your audit controls closer to on-premises conditions. You can record the reason for each access, including references to relevant support tickets. Resource and method identification names which resources are accessed and which methods were run by which administrator. Access Approval lets you approve or dismiss requests for access by Google employees who are working to support your service.

Apigee

Use case:

  • Export Apigee logs to SIEM
  • Use Apigee monitoring UI
  • Follow monitoring best practices

Apigee has several ways to perform logging, monitoring, error handling, and audit logging:

  • Logging
    • Log messages can be sent to Splunk or other syslog endpoints using the MessageLogging policy.
    • API analytics data can be pulled through the analytics API and imported or exported into other systems.
    • In Edge for Private Cloud, you can use the MessageLogging policy to write to local log files. Log files from each of the running components are available as well.
    • The JavaScript policy can be used to send log messages to a REST logging endpoint synchronously or asynchronously.
  • Monitoring
    • Use the API Monitoring UI or API to regularly monitor APIs and backends and trigger alerts.
    • Use health monitoring to regularly monitor target server backends.
    • Apigee provides recommendations for monitoring Edge for Private Cloud.
    • Apigee also provides best practices that your team can leverage for monitoring your API program.
  • Error handling
    • Apigee offers a powerful, versatile fault handling mechanism for API proxies. Similar to how a Java program would catch exceptions, API proxies can catch faults and determine how to return appropriate responses to clients.
    • Apigee's custom fault handling lets you add functionality such as message logging whenever an error occurs.
  • Audit logs
    • The Apigee platform keeps an audit log that tracks changes to API proxies, products, and organization history.
    • This log is available through the UI or through the Management API.

Chronicle

Use case:

  • Threat detection
  • Early warning

Security teams can send their security telemetry to Chronicle to let you apply powerful detection rules to a unified set of data.

Cloud Data Loss Prevention

Use case:

  • Automatic sensitive data masking

Identify compliance-sensitive information in your log streams and mask or transform it appropriately before archiving it in logs. For example, an error message or core dump might contain sensitive information such as credit card numbers or personally identifiable information that needs to be masked.

Cloud Key Management Service

Use case:

  • Cryptographic key request event logging
  • Access justifications

Key Access Justifications give you historical visibility into every request for an encryption key by logging the stated justification and a record of approval or denial of that request.

Cloud Logging

Use case:

  • Log aggregation
  • Log storage
  • Log search
  • Log analysis

Cloud Logging allows you to store, search, analyze, monitor, and alert on logging data and events from Google Cloud and Amazon Web Services. It includes access to the BindPlane service, which you can use to collect logging data from over 150 common application components, on-premises systems, and hybrid cloud systems.

Cloud Monitoring

Use case:

  • Log monitoring
  • Event alerting

Cloud Monitoring provides visibility into the performance, uptime, and overall health of cloud-powered applications. It provides a monitoring dashboard, event monitors, and alerting through multiple channels.

Cloud Source Repositories

Use case:

  • Code change attribution
  • Access audit logging

Get insights into what actions were performed on your repository, including where and when, with Cloud Audit Logs generated by Cloud Source Repositories.

Error Reporting

Use case:

  • Capture internal application errors in Cloud Logging
  • Collect crash reports outside of the crashed compute instance

Internal application errors can be an indicator of a security problem, broken functionality, or attempts to circumvent security. Error Reporting counts, analyzes, and aggregates the crashes in your running cloud services. A centralized error management interface displays the results with sorting and filtering capabilities. A dedicated view shows the error details—for example, time chart, occurrences, affected user count, first- and last-seen dates, and a cleaned exception stack trace. Opt-in to receive email and mobile alerts on new errors.

Event Threat Detection

Use case:

  • Brute force
  • Cryptomining
  • IAM abuse
  • Malware
  • Phishing

Event Threat Detection monitors your Cloud Logging stream and applies detection logic and proprietary threat intelligence at a granular level. Event Threat Detection identifies notable entries in your logs and elevates them for review. When Event Threat Detection detects a threat, it writes a finding to Security Command Center and to a Cloud Logging project.

Forseti Inventory

Use case:

  • Inventory change monitoring and alerting

Forseti Inventory saves an inventory snapshot of your Google Cloud resources to a database, so you have a historical record of your resources. With this information, you can understand all the resources you have in Google Cloud and take action to conserve resources, reduce cost, and minimize security exposure. Inventory can be configured to run as often as you want, and send email notifications when it updates your resource snapshot.

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • Security policy logging
  • Monitoring dashboards
  • Alerting on traffic anomalies

Google Cloud Armor request logs are part of Cloud Logging for HTTP(S) Load Balancing To have access to logging information—such as which security policy rule matched traffic—enable logging on all backend services that have attached security policies. Use rules in preview mode to test them and log results without enforcing the effects.

Google Cloud Armor also offers monitoring dashboards for security policies that let you get an overview of the amount of traffic that passed or was denied by any of your security policies. Google Cloud Armor publishes findings about traffic anomalies, such as spikes in allowed traffic or increased denied traffic, in Security Command Center.

Google Cloud Armor automatically writes Admin Activity audit logs, which record operations that modify the configuration or metadata of a resource. This service can also be configured to write Data Access audit logs which contain API calls that read the configuration or metadata of resources, as well as user-driven API calls that create, modify, or read user-provided resource data.

Identity Platform

Use case:

  • Admin activity audit logs
  • Data access audit logs
  • System event audit logs
  • Policy denied audit logs
  • Authentication activity logs

Identity Platform is Google Cloud's user-facing identity and access management platform that logs authentication activity by default.

Enable several powerful audit logs including admin activity, data access, system events, and denied authentication attempts.

Security Command Center

Use case:

  • Alert monitoring
  • Threat management
  • Vulnerability scan reporting
  • Compliance monitoring
  • Asset monitoring
  • Security scan findings

View the total number of findings in your organization by severity level in the overview panel. Use the threats dashboard to review potentially harmful events in your organization's Google Cloud resources. View Security Health Analytics findings and recommendations in the vulnerabilities tab.

With the compliance dashboard, you can continuously monitor compliance with controls from PCI-DSS, CIS Google Cloud Computing Foundations Benchmark, and more. The Assets view provides a detailed display of all Google Cloud resources, called assets, in your organization. The assets tab lets you view assets for your entire organization or you can filter assets within a specific project, by asset type, or by change type. Finally, the findings tab displays a detailed findings inventory for all your organization assets so you can view potential security risks.

A10: Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF)

An SSRF attack occurs when an attacker forces a vulnerable server to trigger unwanted malicious requests to third-party servers or internal resources. SSRF flaws can occur when a web application fetches a remote resource without validating the user-supplied URL.

Apigee

Use case:

  • Block SSRF attacks by using LFI or RFI

Apigee has built-in XML and JSON parsers that use XPath or JSONPath to extract data. It has an XMLThreatProtection policy to guard against malicious XML payloads and a JSONThreatProtection policy to help protect against malicious JSON payloads.

The Apigee ExtractVariables policy lets you extract the content from a request or response and assign that content to a variable. You can extract any part of the message, including headers, URI paths, JSON and XML payloads, form parameters, and query parameters. The policy works by applying a text pattern to the message content and when it finds a match, sets a variable with the specified message content.

Container Threat Detection

Use case:

  • Unauthorized binary and binary execution detection

If Container Threat Detection detects that a binary or library that was not part of the original container image was loaded or executed, it's a possible sign that an attacker has control of the workload. Any anomalies discovered are reported in Security Command Center.

Google Cloud Armor

Use case:

  • Filter SSRF attacks by using LFI or RFI

Because SSRF attacks can be complex and come in different forms, the mitigation possibilities by web application firewalls are limited. Attacks are better mitigated by patching XML or JSON parsers, disallowing external entities, and limiting XML or JSON data transfers on public web servers to a minimum. However, depending on the application and type of attack, Google Cloud Armor can still help defend against data exfiltration and other impacts.

Although no rules in the OWASP ModeSecurity Core Rule Set specifically defend against SSRF attacks, the local file inclusion (LFI) and remote file inclusion (RFI) rules can help against some of these attacks. To stop an attacker from retrieving local files on the server, you use the evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('lfi-stable') rule in a Google Cloud Armor Security policy.

The SSRF Juice Shop challenge uses the preconfigured remote file inclusion (RFI) or local file inclusion (LFI) rule sets to help mitigate some of these attacks because they block inclusion of URLs or path traversal. For example, the following rule enables both rule sets:

evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('lfi-stable') ||
evaluatePreconfiguredExpr('rfi-stable')

When such a rule is implemented, the solution for the SSRF challenge also stops working.

VPC Service Controls

Use case:

  • Network perimeters to segment servers

To reduce the impact of SSRF attacks, you can use VPC Service Controls to create perimeters that segment servers from other resources in your organization. These perimeters provide protection against data exfiltration. When run in enforced mode, API requests to restricted services do not cross the perimeter boundary unless the conditions of the necessary ingress and egress rules of the perimeter are satisfied.

Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) firewall

Use case:

  • Enforce “deny by default” firewall policies or network access control rules to block all but essential intranet traffic.

VPC firewalls apply to inbound and outbound traffic for your projects and VPC network. You can create firewall rules that block all traffic except the traffic that you want to allow. For more information, see the VPC firewall rules overview.

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