Configuring Ingress for external load balancing

This page shows how to configure an external HTTP(S) load balancer by creating a Kubernetes Ingress object. An Ingress object must be associated with one or more Service objects, each of which is associated with a set of Pods.

A Service object has one or more servicePort structures. Each servicePort that is targeted by an Ingress is associated with a Google Cloud backend service resource.

Before you begin

Before you start, make sure you have performed the following tasks:

Set up default gcloud settings using one of the following methods:

  • Using gcloud init, if you want to be walked through setting defaults.
  • Using gcloud config, to individually set your project ID, zone, and region.

Using gcloud init

If you receive the error One of [--zone, --region] must be supplied: Please specify location, complete this section.

  1. Run gcloud init and follow the directions:

    gcloud init

    If you are using SSH on a remote server, use the --console-only flag to prevent the command from launching a browser:

    gcloud init --console-only
  2. Follow the instructions to authorize gcloud to use your Google Cloud account.
  3. Create a new configuration or select an existing one.
  4. Choose a Google Cloud project.
  5. Choose a default Compute Engine zone.

Using gcloud config

  • Set your default project ID:
    gcloud config set project project-id
  • If you are working with zonal clusters, set your default compute zone:
    gcloud config set compute/zone compute-zone
  • If you are working with regional clusters, set your default compute region:
    gcloud config set compute/region compute-region
  • Update gcloud to the latest version:
    gcloud components update

Multiple backend services

An external HTTP(S) load balancer provides one stable IP address that you can use to route requests to a variety of backend services.

In this exercise, you configure an external HTTP(S) load balancer to route requests to different backend services depending on the URL path. Requests that have the path / are routed to one backend service, and requests that have the path /kube are routed to a different backend service.

Here's the big picture of the steps in this exercise:

  1. Create a Deployment and expose it with a Service named hello-world.
  2. Create a second Deployment and expose it with a Service named hello-kubernetes.
  3. Create an Ingress that specifies rules for routing requests to one Service or the other, depending on the URL path in the request. When you create the Ingress, the GKE ingress controller creates and configures an external HTTP(S) load balancer.
  4. Test the external HTTP(S) load balancer.

Here's a manifest for the first Deployment:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: hello-world-deployment
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      greeting: hello
      department: world
  replicas: 3
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        greeting: hello
        department: world
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: hello
        image: "gcr.io/google-samples/hello-app:2.0"
        env:
        - name: "PORT"
          value: "50000"

Copy the manifest to a file named hello-world-deployment.yaml, and create the Deployment:

kubectl apply -f hello-world-deployment.yaml

Here's a manifest for a Service that exposes your first Deployment:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: hello-world
spec:
  type: NodePort
  selector:
    greeting: hello
    department: world
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 60000
    targetPort: 50000

For the purpose of this exercise, these are the important points to understand about the Service:

  • Any Pod that has both the greeting: hello label and the department: world label is a member of the Service.

  • When a request is sent to the Service on TCP port 60000, it is forwarded to one of the member Pods on TCP port 50000.

The only supported wildcard character for the path field of an Ingress is the * character. The * character must follow a forward slash (/) and must be the last character in the pattern. For example, /*, /foo/*, and /foo/bar/* are valid patterns, but *, /foo/bar*, and /foo/*/bar are not.

A more specific pattern takes precedence over a less specific pattern. If you have both /foo/* and /foo/bar/*, then /foo/bar/bat is taken to match /foo/bar/*.

For more information about path limitations and pattern matching, see the URL Maps documentation.

Copy the manifest to a file named hello-world-service.yaml, and create the Service:

kubectl apply -f hello-world-service.yaml

Here's a manifest for a second Deployment:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: hello-kubernetes-deployment
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      greeting: hello
      department: kubernetes
  replicas: 3
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        greeting: hello
        department: kubernetes
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: hello-again
        image: "gcr.io/google-samples/node-hello:1.0"
        env:
        - name: "PORT"
          value: "8080"

Copy the manifest to a file named hello-kubernetes-deployment.yaml, and create the Deployment:

kubectl apply -f hello-kubernetes-deployment.yaml

Here's a manifest for a Service that exposes your second Deployment:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: hello-kubernetes
spec:
  type: NodePort
  selector:
    greeting: hello
    department: kubernetes
  ports:
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 80
    targetPort: 8080

For the purpose of this exercise, these are the important points to understand about the Service:

  • Any Pod that has both the greeting: hello label and the department: kubernetes label is a member of the Service.

  • When a request is sent to the Service on TCP port 80, it is forwarded to one of the member Pods on TCP port 8080.

Copy the manifest to a file named hello-kubernetes-service.yaml, and create the Service:

kubectl apply -f hello-kubernetes-service.yaml

Here's a manifest for an Ingress:

apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Ingress
metadata:
  name: my-ingress
spec:
  rules:
  - http:
      paths:
      - path: /*
        backend:
          serviceName: hello-world
          servicePort: 60000
      - path: /kube
        backend:
          serviceName: hello-kubernetes
          servicePort: 80

Notice that the Ingress manifest has two (serviceName, servicePort) pairs. Each (serviceName, servicePort) is associated with a Google Cloud backend service.

Copy the manifest to a file named my-ingress.yaml, and create the Ingress:

kubectl apply -f my-ingress.yaml

When you create the Ingress, the GKE ingress controller creates an external HTTP(S) load balancer, and configures the load balancer as follows:

  • When a client sends a request to the load balancer with URL path /, the request is forwarded to the hello-world Service on port 60000.

  • When a client sends a request to the load balancer using URL path /kube, the request is forwarded to the hello-kubernetes Service on port 80.

Wait about five minutes for the load balancer to be configured.

View the Ingress:

kubectl get ingress my-ingress --output yaml

The output shows the IP address of the external HTTP(S) load balancer:

status:
  loadBalancer:
    ingress:
    - ip: 203.0.113.1

Test the / path:

curl load-balancer-ip/

where load-balancer-ip is the external IP address of your load balancer.

The output shows a Hello, world! message:

Hello, world!
Version: 2.0.0
Hostname: ...

Test the /kube path:

curl load-balancer-ip/kube

The output shows a Hello Kubernetes message:

Hello Kubernetes!

HTTPS between client and load balancer

An external HTTP(S) load balancer acts as a proxy between your clients and your application. If you want to accept HTTPS requests from your clients, the load balancer must have a certificate so it can prove its identity to your clients. The load balancer must also have a private key to complete the HTTPS handshake. For more information, see:

Disabling HTTP

If you want all traffic between the client and the load balancer to use HTTPS, you can disable HTTP. For more information, see Disabling HTTP.

HTTPS between load balancer and client

If your application, running in a GKE Pod, is capable of receiving HTTPS requests, you can configure the load balancer to use HTTPS when it forwards requests to your application. For more information, see HTTPS (TLS) between load balancer and your application.

HTTP/2 between client and load balancer

Clients can use HTTP/2 to send requests to the load balancer. No configuration is required.

HTTP/2 between load balancer and application

If your application, running in a GKE Pod, is capable of receiving HTTP/2 requests, you can configure the load balancer to use HTTP/2 when it forwards requests to your application. For more information, see HTTP/2 for load balancing with Ingress.

Network endpoint groups

If your cluster supports Container-native load balancing, you can configure the load balancer to use network endpoint groups (NEGs). For more information, see Using container-native load balancing.

Summary of external Ingress annotations

Ingress annotations

Annotation Description
kubernetes.io/ingress.allow-http Specifies whether to allow HTTP traffic between the client and the HTTP(S) load balancer. Possible values are "true" and "false". Default is "true". See Disabling HTTP.
ingress.gcp.kubernetes.io/pre-shared-cert You can upload certificates and keys to your Google Cloud project. Use this annotation to reference the certificates and keys. See Using multiple SSL certificates in HTTP(S) Load Balancing.
kubernetes.io/ingress.global-static-ip-name Use this annotation to specify that the load balancer should use a static external IP address that you previously created. See Static IP addresses for HTTP(S) load balancers.
Annotation Description
service.alpha.kubernetes.io/app-protocols Use this annotation to set the protocol for communication between the load balancer and the application. Possible protocols are HTTP, HTTPS, and HTTP/2. See HTTPS between load balancer and your application and HTTP/2 for load balancing with Ingress.
beta.cloud.google.com/backend-config Use this annotation to configure the backend service associated with a servicePort. For more information, see Ingress features.
cloud.google.com/neg Use this annotation to specify that the load balancer should use network endpoint groups. See Using Container-native Load Balancing.

What's next