Time Functions in Standard SQL

BigQuery supports the following TIME functions.

CURRENT_TIME

CURRENT_TIME()

Description

Returns the current time as a TIME object.

Return Data Type

TIME

Example

SELECT CURRENT_TIME() as now;

+----------------------------+
| now                        |
+----------------------------+
| 15:31:38.776361            |
+----------------------------+

TIME

1. TIME(hour, minute, second)
2. TIME(timestamp, [timezone])
3. TIME(datetime)

Description

  1. Constructs a TIME object using INT64 values representing the hour, minute, and second.
  2. Constructs a TIME object using a TIMESTAMP object. It supports an optional parameter to specify a timezone. If no timezone is specified, the default timezone, UTC, is used.
  3. Constructs a TIME object using a DATETIME object.

Return Data Type

TIME

Example

SELECT
  TIME(15, 30, 00) as time_hms,
  TIME(TIMESTAMP "2008-12-25 15:30:00+08", "America/Los_Angeles") as time_tstz;
+----------+-----------+
| time_hms | time_tstz |
+----------+-----------+
| 15:30:00 | 23:30:00  |
+----------+-----------+
SELECT
  TIME(DATETIME "2008-12-25 15:30:00.000000") AS time_dt;
+----------+
| time_dt  |
+----------+
| 15:30:00 |
+----------+

TIME_ADD

TIME_ADD(time_expression, INTERVAL INT64_expr part)

Description

Adds INT64_expr units of part to the TIME object.

TIME_ADD supports the following values for part:

  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR

This function automatically adjusts when values fall outside of the 00:00:00 to 24:00:00 boundary. For example, if you add an hour to 23:30:00, the returned value is 00:30:00.

Return Data Types

TIME

Example

SELECT
  TIME "15:30:00" as original_time,
  TIME_ADD(TIME "15:30:00", INTERVAL 10 MINUTE) as later;

+-----------------------------+------------------------+
| original_time               | later                  |
+-----------------------------+------------------------+
| 15:30:00                    | 15:40:00               |
+-----------------------------+------------------------+

TIME_SUB

TIME_SUB(time_expression, INTERVAL INT_expr part)

Description

Subtracts INT64_expr units of part from the TIME object.

TIME_SUB supports the following values for part:

  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR

This function automatically adjusts when values fall outside of the 00:00:00 to 24:00:00 boundary. For example, if you subtract an hour from 00:30:00, the returned value is 23:30:00.

Return Data Type

TIME

Example

SELECT
  TIME "15:30:00" as original_date,
  TIME_SUB(TIME "15:30:00", INTERVAL 10 MINUTE) as earlier;

+-----------------------------+------------------------+
| original_date                | earlier                |
+-----------------------------+------------------------+
| 15:30:00                    | 15:20:00               |
+-----------------------------+------------------------+

TIME_DIFF

TIME_DIFF(time_expression, time_expression, part)

Description

Returns the number of whole specified part intervals between two TIME objects. Throws an error if the computation overflows the result type, such as if the difference in microseconds between the two time objects would overflow an INT64 value.

TIME_DIFF supports the following values for part:

  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR

Return Data Type

INT64

Example

SELECT
  TIME "15:30:00" as first_time,
  TIME "14:35:00" as second_time,
  TIME_DIFF(TIME "15:30:00", TIME "14:35:00", MINUTE) as difference;

+----------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+
| first_time                 | second_time            | difference             |
+----------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+
| 15:30:00                   | 14:35:00               | 55                     |
+----------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+

TIME_TRUNC

TIME_TRUNC(time_expression, part)

Description

Truncates a TIME object to the granularity of part.

TIME_TRUNC supports the following values for part:

  • MICROSECOND
  • MILLISECOND
  • SECOND
  • MINUTE
  • HOUR

Return Data Type

TIME

Example

SELECT
  TIME "15:30:00" as original,
  TIME_TRUNC(TIME "15:30:00", HOUR) as truncated;

+----------------------------+------------------------+
| original                   | truncated              |
+----------------------------+------------------------+
| 15:30:00                   | 15:00:00               |
+----------------------------+------------------------+

FORMAT_TIME

FORMAT_TIME(format_string, time_object)

Description Formats a TIME object according to the specified format_string. See Supported Format Elements For TIME for a list of format elements that this function supports.

Return Data Type

STRING

Example

SELECT FORMAT_TIME("%R", TIME "15:30:00") as formatted_time;

+----------------+
| formatted_time |
+----------------+
| 15:30          |
+----------------+

PARSE_TIME

PARSE_TIME(format_string, string)

Description

Uses a format_string and a string to return a TIME object. See Supported Format Elements For TIME for a list of format elements that this function supports.

When using PARSE_TIME, keep the following in mind:

  • Unspecified fields. Any unspecified field is initialized from 00:00:00.0. For instance, if seconds is unspecified then it defaults to 00, and so on.
  • Whitespace. One or more consecutive white spaces in the format string matches zero or more consecutive white spaces in the TIME string. In addition, leading and trailing white spaces in the TIME string are always allowed—even if they are not in the format string.
  • Format precedence. When two (or more) format elements have overlapping information, the last one generally overrides any earlier ones.

Return Data Type

TIME

Example

SELECT PARSE_TIME("%H", "15") as parsed_time;

+-------------+
| parsed_time |
+-------------+
| 15:00:00    |
+-------------+

Supported format elements for TIME

Unless otherwise noted, TIME functions that use format strings support the following elements:

Format element Description
%H The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (00-23).
%I The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (01-12).
%j The day of the year as a decimal number (001-366).
%k The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number (0-23); single digits are preceded by a space.
%l The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number (1-12); single digits are preceded by a space.
%M The minute as a decimal number (00-59).
%n A newline character.
%P Either am or pm.
%p Either AM or PM.
%R The time in the format %H:%M.
%r The 12-hour clock time using AM/PM notation.
%S The second as a decimal number (00-60).
%T The time in the format %H:%M:%S.
%t A tab character.
%X The time representation in HH:MM:SS format.
%% A single % character.
%E#S Seconds with # digits of fractional precision.
%E*S Seconds with full fractional precision (a literal '*').
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