Net Functions in Standard SQL

NET.IP_FROM_STRING

NET.IP_FROM_STRING(addr_str)

Description

Converts an IPv4 or IPv6 address from text (STRING) format to binary (BYTES) format in network byte order.

This function supports the following formats for addr_str:

  • IPv4: Dotted-quad format. For example, 10.1.2.3.
  • IPv6: Colon-separated format. For example, 1234:5678:90ab:cdef:1234:5678:90ab:cdef. For more examples, see the IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture.

This function does not support CIDR notation, such as 10.1.2.3/32.

If this function receives a NULL input, it returns NULL. If the input is considered invalid, an OUT_OF_RANGE error occurs.

Return Data Type

BYTES

Example

SELECT
  addr_str, FORMAT("%T", NET.IP_FROM_STRING(addr_str)) AS ip_from_string
FROM UNNEST([
  '48.49.50.51',
  '::1',
  '3031:3233:3435:3637:3839:4041:4243:4445',
  '::ffff:192.0.2.128'
]) AS addr_str;
addr_str ip_from_string
48.49.50.51 b"0123"
::1 b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01"
3031:3233:3435:3637:3839:4041:4243:4445 b"0123456789@ABCDE"
::ffff:192.0.2.128 b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xff\xff\xc0\x00\x02\x80"

NET.SAFE_IP_FROM_STRING

NET.SAFE_IP_FROM_STRING(addr_str)

Description

Similar to NET.IP_FROM_STRING, but returns NULL instead of throwing an error if the input is invalid.

Return Data Type

BYTES

Example

SELECT
  addr_str,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.SAFE_IP_FROM_STRING(addr_str)) AS safe_ip_from_string
FROM UNNEST([
  '48.49.50.51',
  '::1',
  '3031:3233:3435:3637:3839:4041:4243:4445',
  '::ffff:192.0.2.128',
  '48.49.50.51/32',
  '48.49.50',
  '::wxyz'
]) AS addr_str;
addr_str safe_ip_from_string
48.49.50.51 b"0123"
::1 b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01"
3031:3233:3435:3637:3839:4041:4243:4445 b"0123456789@ABCDE"
::ffff:192.0.2.128 b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xff\xff\xc0\x00\x02\x80"
48.49.50.51/32 NULL
48.49.50 NULL
::wxyz NULL

NET.IP_TO_STRING

NET.IP_TO_STRING(addr_bin)

Description Converts an IPv4 or IPv6 address from binary (BYTES) format in network byte order to text (STRING) format.

If the input is 4 bytes, this function returns an IPv4 address as a STRING. If the input is 16 bytes, it returns an IPv6 address as a STRING.

If this function receives a NULL input, it returns NULL. If the input has a length different from 4 or 16, an OUT_OF_RANGE error occurs.

Return Data Type

STRING

Example

SELECT FORMAT("%T", x) AS addr_bin, NET.IP_TO_STRING(x) AS ip_to_string
FROM UNNEST([
  b"0123",
  b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01",
  b"0123456789@ABCDE",
  b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xff\xff\xc0\x00\x02\x80"
]) AS x;
addr_bin ip_to_string
b"0123" 48.49.50.51
b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01" ::1
b"0123456789@ABCDE" 3031:3233:3435:3637:3839:4041:4243:4445
b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xff\xff\xc0\x00\x02\x80" ::ffff:192.0.2.128

NET.IP_NET_MASK

NET.IP_NET_MASK(num_output_bytes, prefix_length)

Description

Returns a network mask: a byte sequence with length equal to num_output_bytes, where the first prefix_length bits are set to 1 and the other bits are set to 0. num_output_bytes and prefix_length are INT64. This function throws an error if num_output_bytes is not 4 (for IPv4) or 16 (for IPv6). It also throws an error if prefix_length is negative or greater than 8 * num_output_bytes.

Return Data Type

BYTES

Example

SELECT x, y, FORMAT("%T", NET.IP_NET_MASK(x, y)) AS ip_net_mask
FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT(4 as x, 0 as y),
  (4, 20),
  (4, 32),
  (16, 0),
  (16, 1),
  (16, 128)
]);
x y ip_net_mask
4 0 b"\x00\x00\x00\x00"
4 20 b"\xff\xff\xf0\x00"
4 32 b"\xff\xff\xff\xff"
16 0 b"\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
16 1 b"\x80\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"
16 128 b"\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff\xff"

NET.IP_TRUNC

NET.IP_TRUNC(addr_bin, prefix_length)

Description Takes addr_bin, an IPv4 or IPv6 address in binary (BYTES) format in network byte order, and returns a subnet address in the same format. The result has the same length as addr_bin, where the first prefix_length bits are equal to those in addr_bin and the remaining bits are 0.

This function throws an error if LENGTH(addr_bin) is not 4 or 16, or if prefix_len is negative or greater than LENGTH(addr_bin) * 8.

Return Data Type

BYTES

Example

SELECT
  FORMAT("%T", x) as addr_bin, prefix_length,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.IP_TRUNC(x, prefix_length)) AS ip_trunc
FROM UNNEST([
  STRUCT(b"\xAA\xBB\xCC\xDD" as x, 0 as prefix_length),
  (b"\xAA\xBB\xCC\xDD", 11), (b"\xAA\xBB\xCC\xDD", 12),
  (b"\xAA\xBB\xCC\xDD", 24), (b"\xAA\xBB\xCC\xDD", 32),
  (b'0123456789@ABCDE', 80)
]);
addr_bin prefix_length ip_trunc
b"\xaa\xbb\xcc\xdd" 0 b"\x00\x00\x00\x00"
b"\xaa\xbb\xcc\xdd" 11 b"\xaa\xa0\x00\x00"
b"\xaa\xbb\xcc\xdd" 12 b"\xaa\xb0\x00\x00"
b"\xaa\xbb\xcc\xdd" 24 b"\xaa\xbb\xcc\x00"
b"\xaa\xbb\xcc\xdd" 32 b"\xaa\xbb\xcc\xdd"
b"0123456789@ABCDE" 80 b"0123456789\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00"

NET.IPV4_FROM_INT64

NET.IPV4_FROM_INT64(integer_value)

Description

Converts an IPv4 address from integer format to binary (BYTES) format in network byte order. In the integer input, the least significant bit of the IP address is stored in the least significant bit of the integer, regardless of host or client architecture. For example, 1 means 0.0.0.1, and 0x1FF means 0.0.1.255.

This function checks that either all the most significant 32 bits are 0, or all the most significant 33 bits are 1 (sign-extended from a 32 bit integer). In other words, the input should be in the range [-0x80000000, 0xFFFFFFFF]; otherwise, this function throws an error.

This function does not support IPv6.

Return Data Type

BYTES

Example

SELECT x, x_hex, FORMAT("%T", NET.IPV4_FROM_INT64(x)) AS ipv4_from_int64
FROM (
  SELECT CAST(x_hex AS INT64) x, x_hex
  FROM UNNEST(["0x0", "0xABCDEF", "0xFFFFFFFF", "-0x1", "-0x2"]) AS x_hex
);
x x_hex ipv4_from_int64
0 0x0 b"\x00\x00\x00\x00"
11259375 0xABCDEF b"\x00\xab\xcd\xef"
4294967295 0xFFFFFFFF b"\xff\xff\xff\xff"
-1 -0x1 b"\xff\xff\xff\xff"
-2 -0x2 b"\xff\xff\xff\xfe"

NET.IPV4_TO_INT64

NET.IPV4_TO_INT64(addr_bin)

Description

Converts an IPv4 address from binary (BYTES) format in network byte order to integer format. In the integer output, the least significant bit of the IP address is stored in the least significant bit of the integer, regardless of host or client architecture. For example, 1 means 0.0.0.1, and 0x1FF means 0.0.1.255. The output is in the range [0, 0xFFFFFFFF].

If the input length is not 4, this function throws an error.

This function does not support IPv6.

Return Data Type

INT64

Example

SELECT
  FORMAT("%T", x) AS addr_bin,
  FORMAT("0x%X", NET.IPV4_TO_INT64(x)) AS ipv4_to_int64
FROM
UNNEST([b"\x00\x00\x00\x00", b"\x00\xab\xcd\xef", b"\xff\xff\xff\xff"]) AS x;
addr_bin ipv4_to_int64
b"\x00\x00\x00\x00" 0x0
b"\x00\xab\xcd\xef" 0xABCDEF
b"\xff\xff\xff\xff" 0xFFFFFFFF

NET.HOST

NET.HOST(url)

Description

Takes a URL as a STRING and returns the host as a STRING. For best results, URL values should comply with the format as defined by RFC 3986. If the URL value does not comply with RFC 3986 formatting, this function makes a best effort to parse the input and return a relevant result. If the function cannot parse the input, it returns NULL.

Note: The function does not perform any normalization.

Return Data Type

STRING

Example

SELECT
  FORMAT("%T", input) AS input,
  description,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.HOST(input)) AS host,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.PUBLIC_SUFFIX(input)) AS suffix,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.REG_DOMAIN(input)) AS domain
FROM (
  SELECT "" AS input, "invalid input" AS description
  UNION ALL SELECT "http://abc.xyz", "standard URL"
  UNION ALL SELECT "//user:password@a.b:80/path?query",
                   "standard URL with relative scheme, port, path and query, but no public suffix"
  UNION ALL SELECT "https://[::1]:80", "standard URL with IPv6 host"
  UNION ALL SELECT "http://例子.卷筒纸.中国", "standard URL with internationalized domain name"
  UNION ALL SELECT "    www.Google.Co.UK    ",
                   "non-standard URL with spaces, upper case letters, and without scheme"
  UNION ALL SELECT "mailto:?to=&subject=&body=", "URI rather than URL--unsupported"
);
input description host suffix domain
"" invalid input NULL NULL NULL
"http://abc.xyz" standard URL "abc.xyz" "xyz" "abc.xyz"
"//user:password@a.b:80/path?query" standard URL with relative scheme, port, path and query, but no public suffix "a.b" NULL NULL
"https://[::1]:80" standard URL with IPv6 host "[::1]" NULL NULL
"http://例子.卷筒纸.中国" standard URL with internationalized domain name "例子.卷筒纸.中国" "中国" "卷筒纸.中国"
"    www.Google.Co.UK    " non-standard URL with spaces, upper case letters, and without scheme "www.Google.Co.UK" "Co.UK" "Google.Co.UK"
"mailto:?to=&subject=&body=" URI rather than URL--unsupported "mailto" NULL NULL

NET.PUBLIC_SUFFIX

NET.PUBLIC_SUFFIX(url)

Description

Takes a URL as a STRING and returns the public suffix (such as com, org, or net) as a STRING. A public suffix is an ICANN domain registered at publicsuffix.org. For best results, URL values should comply with the format as defined by RFC 3986. If the URL value does not comply with RFC 3986 formatting, this function makes a best effort to parse the input and return a relevant result.

This function returns NULL if any of the following is true:

  • It cannot parse the host from the input;
  • The parsed host contains adjacent dots in the middle (not leading or trailing);
  • The parsed host does not contain any public suffix.

Before looking up the public suffix, this function temporarily normalizes the host by converting upper case English letters to lower case and encoding all non-ASCII characters with Punycode. The function then returns the public suffix as part of the original host instead of the normalized host.

Note: The function does not perform Unicode normalization.

Note: The public suffix data at publicsuffix.org also contains private domains. This function ignores the private domains.

Note: The public suffix data may change over time. Consequently, input that produces a NULL result now may produce a non-NULL value in the future.

Return Data Type

STRING

Example

SELECT
  FORMAT("%T", input) AS input,
  description,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.HOST(input)) AS host,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.PUBLIC_SUFFIX(input)) AS suffix,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.REG_DOMAIN(input)) AS domain
FROM (
  SELECT "" AS input, "invalid input" AS description
  UNION ALL SELECT "http://abc.xyz", "standard URL"
  UNION ALL SELECT "//user:password@a.b:80/path?query",
                   "standard URL with relative scheme, port, path and query, but no public suffix"
  UNION ALL SELECT "https://[::1]:80", "standard URL with IPv6 host"
  UNION ALL SELECT "http://例子.卷筒纸.中国", "standard URL with internationalized domain name"
  UNION ALL SELECT "    www.Google.Co.UK    ",
                   "non-standard URL with spaces, upper case letters, and without scheme"
  UNION ALL SELECT "mailto:?to=&subject=&body=", "URI rather than URL--unsupported"
);
input description host suffix domain
"" invalid input NULL NULL NULL
"http://abc.xyz" standard URL "abc.xyz" "xyz" "abc.xyz"
"//user:password@a.b:80/path?query" standard URL with relative scheme, port, path and query, but no public suffix "a.b" NULL NULL
"https://[::1]:80" standard URL with IPv6 host "[::1]" NULL NULL
"http://例子.卷筒纸.中国" standard URL with internationalized domain name "例子.卷筒纸.中国" "中国" "卷筒纸.中国"
"    www.Google.Co.UK    " non-standard URL with spaces, upper case letters, and without scheme "www.Google.Co.UK" "Co.UK" "Google.Co.UK"
"mailto:?to=&subject=&body=" URI rather than URL--unsupported "mailto" NULL NULL

NET.REG_DOMAIN

NET.REG_DOMAIN(url)

Description

Takes a URL as a STRING and returns the registered or registerable domain (the public suffix plus one preceding label), as a STRING. For best results, URL values should comply with the format as defined by RFC 3986. If the URL value does not comply with RFC 3986 formatting, this function makes a best effort to parse the input and return a relevant result.

This function returns NULL if any of the following is true:

  • It cannot parse the host from the input;
  • The parsed host contains adjacent dots in the middle (not leading or trailing);
  • The parsed host does not contain any public suffix;
  • The parsed host contains only a public suffix without any preceding label.

Before looking up the public suffix, this function temporarily normalizes the host by converting upper case English letters to lowercase and encoding all non-ASCII characters with Punycode. The function then returns the registered or registerable domain as part of the original host instead of the normalized host.

Note: The function does not perform Unicode normalization.

Note: The public suffix data at publicsuffix.org also contains private domains. This function does not treat a private domain as a public suffix. For example, if "us.com" is a private domain in the public suffix data, NET.REG_DOMAIN("foo.us.com") returns "us.com" (the public suffix "com" plus the preceding label "us") rather than "foo.us.com" (the private domain "us.com" plus the preceding label "foo").

Note: The public suffix data may change over time. Consequently, input that produces a NULL result now may produce a non-NULL value in the future.

Return Data Type

STRING

Example

SELECT
  FORMAT("%T", input) AS input,
  description,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.HOST(input)) AS host,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.PUBLIC_SUFFIX(input)) AS suffix,
  FORMAT("%T", NET.REG_DOMAIN(input)) AS domain
FROM (
  SELECT "" AS input, "invalid input" AS description
  UNION ALL SELECT "http://abc.xyz", "standard URL"
  UNION ALL SELECT "//user:password@a.b:80/path?query",
                   "standard URL with relative scheme, port, path and query, but no public suffix"
  UNION ALL SELECT "https://[::1]:80", "standard URL with IPv6 host"
  UNION ALL SELECT "http://例子.卷筒纸.中国", "standard URL with internationalized domain name"
  UNION ALL SELECT "    www.Google.Co.UK    ",
                   "non-standard URL with spaces, upper case letters, and without scheme"
  UNION ALL SELECT "mailto:?to=&subject=&body=", "URI rather than URL--unsupported"
);
input description host suffix domain
"" invalid input NULL NULL NULL
"http://abc.xyz" standard URL "abc.xyz" "xyz" "abc.xyz"
"//user:password@a.b:80/path?query" standard URL with relative scheme, port, path and query, but no public suffix "a.b" NULL NULL
"https://[::1]:80" standard URL with IPv6 host "[::1]" NULL NULL
"http://例子.卷筒纸.中国" standard URL with internationalized domain name "例子.卷筒纸.中国" "中国" "卷筒纸.中国"
"    www.Google.Co.UK    " non-standard URL with spaces, upper case letters, and without scheme "www.Google.Co.UK" "Co.UK" "Google.Co.UK"
"mailto:?to=&subject=&body=" URI rather than URL--unsupported "mailto" NULL NULL
Was this page helpful? Let us know how we did:

Send feedback about...