The CREATE MODEL statement for K-means models

This document describes the CREATE MODEL statement for creating k-means models in BigQuery. K-means models support hyperparameter tuning.

For information about the supported SQL statements and functions for each model type, see End-to-end user journey for each model.

CREATE MODEL syntax

{CREATE MODEL | CREATE MODEL IF NOT EXISTS | CREATE OR REPLACE MODEL} model_name
OPTIONS(model_option_list)
AS query_statement

model_option_list:
MODEL_TYPE = { 'KMEANS' },
    [, NUM_CLUSTERS = { int64_value | HPARAM_RANGE(range) | HPARAM_CANDIDATES([candidates]) } ]
    [, KMEANS_INIT_METHOD = { 'RANDOM' | 'KMEANS++' | 'CUSTOM' } ]
    [, KMEANS_INIT_COL = string_value ]
    [, DISTANCE_TYPE = { 'EUCLIDEAN' | 'COSINE' } ]
    [, STANDARDIZE_FEATURES = { TRUE | FALSE } ]
    [, MAX_ITERATIONS = int64_value ]
    [, EARLY_STOP = { TRUE | FALSE } ]
    [, MIN_REL_PROGRESS = float64_value ]
    [, WARM_START = { TRUE | FALSE } ]
    [, NUM_TRIALS = int64_value ]
    [, MAX_PARALLEL_TRIALS = int64_value ]
    [, HPARAM_TUNING_ALGORITHM = { 'VIZIER_DEFAULT' | 'RANDOM_SEARCH' | 'GRID_SEARCH' } ]
    [, HPARAM_TUNING_OBJECTIVES = 'DAVIES_BOULDIN_INDEX' ]

CREATE MODEL

Creates and trains a new model in the specified dataset. If the model name exists, CREATE MODEL returns an error.

CREATE MODEL IF NOT EXISTS

Creates and trains a new model only if the model doesn't exist in the specified dataset.

CREATE OR REPLACE MODEL

Creates and trains a model and replaces an existing model with the same name in the specified dataset.

model_name

The name of the model you're creating or replacing. The model name must be unique in the dataset: no other model or table can have the same name. The model name must follow the same naming rules as a BigQuery table. A model name can:

  • Contain up to 1,024 characters
  • Contain letters (upper or lower case), numbers, and underscores

model_name is not case-sensitive.

If you don't have a default project configured, then you must prepend the project ID to the model name in the following format, including backticks:

`[PROJECT_ID].[DATASET].[MODEL]`

For example, `myproject.mydataset.mymodel`.

MODEL_TYPE

Syntax

MODEL_TYPE = { 'KMEANS' }

Description

Specify the model type. This option is required.

Arguments

Specify KMEANS to use k-means clustering for data segmentation; for example, identifying customer segments. K-means is an unsupervised learning technique, so model training does not require labels or split data for training or evaluation.

NUM_CLUSTERS

Syntax

NUM_CLUSTERS = { int64_value | HPARAM_RANGE(range) | HPARAM_CANDIDATES([candidates]) }

Description

The number of clusters to identify in the input data.

Arguments

If you aren't running hyperparameter tuning, then you can specify an INT64 value between 2 and 100. The default value is log10(n), where n is the number of training examples.

If you are running hyperparameter tuning, use one of the following options:

  • The HPARAM_RANGE keyword and two INT64 values that define the range of the hyperparameter. For example, NUM_CLUSTERS = HPARAM_RANGE(2, 25).
  • The HPARAM_CANDIDATES keyword and an array of INT64 values that provide discrete values to use for the hyperparameter. For example, NUM_CLUSTERS = HPARAM_CANDIDATES([5, 10, 50, 100]).

When running hyperparameter tuning, the valid range is [2, 100], the default range is [2, 10], and the scale type is LINEAR.

KMEANS_INIT_METHOD

Syntax

KMEANS_INIT_METHOD = { 'RANDOM' | 'KMEANS++' | 'CUSTOM' }

Description

The method of initializing the clusters.

To use the same centroids in repeated CREATE MODEL queries, specify the option 'CUSTOM'.

Arguments

This option accepts the following values:

  • RANDOM: Initializes the centroids by randomly selecting a number of data points equal to the NUM_CLUSTERS value from the input data. This is the default value.
  • KMEANS++: Initializes a number of centroids equal to the NUM_CLUSTERS value by using the k-means++ algorithm. Using this approach usually trains a better model than using random cluster initialization.
  • CUSTOM: Initializes the centroids using a provided column of type BOOL. BigQuery ML uses the rows with a value of TRUE as the initial centroids. You specify the column to use by using the KMEANS_INIT_COL option.

    When you use this option, if the values in the column identified by 'KMEANS_INIT_COL' remain constant, then repeated CREATE MODEL queries use the same centroids.

KMEANS_INIT_COL

Syntax

KMEANS_INIT_COL = string_value

Description

The name of the column to use to initialize the centroids. This column must have a type of BOOL. If this column contains a value of TRUE for a given row, then BigQuery ML uses that row as an initial centroid. The number of TRUE rows in this column must be equal to the value you have specified for the NUM_CLUSTERS option.

You can only use this option if you have specified CUSTOM for the KMEANS_INIT_METHOD option.

You can't use this column as a feature; BigQuery ML automatically excludes it.

Arguments

A STRING value.

DISTANCE_TYPE

Syntax

DISTANCE_TYPE = { 'EUCLIDEAN' | 'COSINE' }

Description

The type of metric to use to compute the distance between two points.

Arguments

This option accepts the following values:

  • EUCLIDEAN: Use the following equation to calculate the distance between points x and y:

    $$ \lVert x-y\rVert_{2} $$

    This is the default value.

  • COSINE: Use the following equation to calculate the distance between points x and y:

    $$ \sqrt{1-\frac{x \cdot y}{\lVert x\rVert_{2}\lVert y\rVert_{2}}} $$

    where \( \lVert x\rVert_{2} \) represents the L2 norm for x.

STANDARDIZE_FEATURES

Syntax

STANDARDIZE_FEATURES = { TRUE | FALSE }

Description

Determines whether to standardize numerical features.

Arguments

A BOOL value. The default value is TRUE.

MAX_ITERATIONS

Syntax

MAX_ITERATIONS = int64_value

Description

The maximum number of training iterations, where one iteration represents a single pass of the entire training data.

Arguments

An INT64 value. The default value is 20.

EARLY_STOP

Syntax

EARLY_STOP = { TRUE | FALSE }

Description

Determines whether training should stop after the first iteration in which the relative loss improvement is less than the value specified for MIN_REL_PROGRESS.

Arguments

A BOOL value. The default value is TRUE.

MIN_REL_PROGRESS

Syntax

MIN_REL_PROGRESS = float64_value

Description

The minimum relative loss improvement that is necessary to continue training when EARLY_STOP is set to TRUE. For example, a value of 0.01 specifies that each iteration must reduce the loss by 1% for training to continue.

Arguments

A FLOAT64 value. The default value is 0.01.

WARM_START

Syntax

WARM_START = { TRUE | FALSE }

Description

Determines whether to train a model with new training data, new model options, or both. Unless you explicitly override them, the initial options used to train the model are used for the warm start run.

In a warm start run, the iteration numbers are reset to start from zero. Use the training run or iteration information returned by the ML.TRAINING_INFO function to distinguish the warm start run from the original run.

The value of the MODEL_TYPE and the training data schema must remain constant in a warm start models retrain.

Arguments

A BOOL value. The default value is FALSE.

NUM_TRIALS

Syntax

NUM_TRIALS = int64_value

Description

The maximum number of submodels to train. The tuning stops when NUM_TRIALS submodels are trained, or when the hyperparameter search space is exhausted. You must specify this option in order to use hyperparameter tuning.

Arguments

An INT64 value between 1 and 100, inclusive.

MAX_PARALLEL_TRIALS

Syntax

MAX_PARALLEL_TRIALS = int64_value

Description

The maximum number of trials to run at the same time. If you specify a value for this option, you must also specify a value for NUM_TRIALS.

Arguments

An INT64 value between 1 and 5, inclusive. The default value is 1.

HPARAM_TUNING_ALGORITHM

Syntax

HPARAM_TUNING_ALGORITHM = { 'VIZIER_DEFAULT' | 'RANDOM_SEARCH' | 'GRID_SEARCH' }

Description

The algorithm used to tune the hyperparameters. If you specify a value for this option, you must also specify a value for NUM_TRIALS.

Arguments

Specify one of the following values:

  • VIZIER_DEFAULT: Use the default algorithm in Vertex AI Vizier to tune hyperparameters. This algorithm is the most powerful algorithm of those offered. It performs a mixture of advanced search algorithms, including Bayesian optimization with Gaussian processes. It also uses transfer learning to take advantage of previously tuned models. This is the default, and also the recommended approach.

  • RANDOM_SEARCH: Use random search to explore the search space.

  • GRID_SEARCH: Use grid search to explore the search space. You can only use this algorithm when every hyperparameter's search space is discrete.

HPARAM_TUNING_OBJECTIVES

Syntax

HPARAM_TUNING_OBJECTIVES = { 'DAVIES_BOULDIN_INDEX' }

Description

The hyperparameter tuning objective for the model. If you specify a value for this option, you must also specify a value for NUM_TRIALS.

Arguments

The possible objectives are a subset of the model evaluation metrics for the model type. If you aren't running hyperparameter tuning, or if you are and you don't specify an objective, the DAVIES_BOULDIN_INDEX objective is used.

query_statement

The AS query_statement clause specifies the GoogleSQL query used to generate the training data. See the GoogleSQL query syntax page for the supported SQL syntax of the query_statement clause.

CREATE MODEL examples

The following examples create models named mymodel in mydataset in your default project.

Train a k-means model

This example creates a k-means model with four clusters using the default distance_type value of euclidean_distance.

CREATE MODEL
  `mydataset.mymodel`
OPTIONS
  ( MODEL_TYPE='KMEANS',
    NUM_CLUSTERS=4 ) AS
SELECT
  *
FROM `mydataset.mytable`

Train a k-means model with random cluster initialization method.

This example creates a k-means model with three clusters using the random cluster initialization method.

CREATE MODEL
  `mydataset.mymodel`
OPTIONS
  ( MODEL_TYPE='KMEANS',
    NUM_CLUSTERS=3,
    KMEANS_INIT_METHOD='RANDOM') AS
SELECT
  *
FROM
  `mydataset.mytable`

Train a k-means model with custom cluster initialization method

This example creates a k-means model with three clusters using the custom cluster initialization method. init_col identifies the column of type BOOL that contains the values which specify whether a given row is an initial centroid. This column should only contain three rows with the value TRUE.

CREATE MODEL
  `mydataset.mymodel`
OPTIONS
  ( MODEL_TYPE='KMEANS',
    NUM_CLUSTERS=3,
    KMEANS_INIT_METHOD='CUSTOM',
    KMEANS_INIT_COL='init_col') AS
SELECT
  init_col,
  features
FROM