Como trabalhar com objetos STRUCT

O Cloud Spanner permite criar objetos STRUCT partir de dados, bem como usar objetos STRUCT como parâmetros associados ao executar uma consulta SQL com uma das bibliotecas de cliente do Cloud Spanner.

Para mais informações sobre o tipo STRUCT no Cloud Spanner, consulte Tipos de dados.

Como declarar um tipo de objeto STRUCT definido pelo usuário

É possível declarar um objeto STRUCT em consultas usando a sintaxe descrita em Como declarar um tipo STRUCT.

É possível definir um tipo de objeto STRUCT como uma sequência de nomes de campo e os respectivos tipos de dados. Em seguida, é possível fornecer este tipo junto à consultas contendo ligações de parâmetro do tipo STRUCT. O Cloud Spanner vai usá-lo para verificar se os valores dos parâmetros STRUCT na consulta são válidos.

C++

// Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types are represented by std::tuple<...>. The
// following represents a STRUCT<> with two unnamed STRING fields.
using NameType = std::tuple<std::string, std::string>;

C#

var nameType = new SpannerStruct {
    { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, null},
    { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, null}
};

Go


type nameType struct {
	FirstName string
	LastName  string
}

Java

Type nameType =
    Type.struct(
        Arrays.asList(
            StructField.of("FirstName", Type.string()),
            StructField.of("LastName", Type.string())));

Node.js

const nameType = {
  type: 'struct',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'FirstName',
      type: 'string',
    },
    {
      name: 'LastName',
      type: 'string',
    },
  ],
};

PHP

$nameType = new ArrayType(
    (new StructType)
        ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
        ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
);

Python

name_type = param_types.Struct(
    [
        param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
        param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
    ]
)

Ruby

name_type = client.fields FirstName: :STRING, LastName: :STRING

Como criar objetos STRUCT

O exemplo a seguir mostra como criar objetos STRUCT usando as bibliotecas do cliente do Cloud Spanner.

C++

// Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types are represented by std::tuple<...>. The
// following represents a STRUCT<> with two unnamed STRING fields.
using NameType = std::tuple<std::string, std::string>;
auto singer_info = NameType{"Elena", "Campbell"};

C#

var nameStruct = new SpannerStruct
{
    { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" },
    { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" },
};

Go


type name struct {
	FirstName string
	LastName  string
}
var singerInfo = name{"Elena", "Campbell"}

Java

Struct name =
    Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Elena").set("LastName").to("Campbell").build();

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

const nameStruct = Spanner.struct({
  FirstName: 'Elena',
  LastName: 'Campbell',
});

PHP

$nameValue = (new StructValue)
    ->add('FirstName', 'Elena')
    ->add('LastName', 'Campbell');
$nameType = (new StructType)
    ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
    ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING);

Python

record_type = param_types.Struct(
    [
        param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
        param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
    ]
)
record_value = ("Elena", "Campbell")

Ruby

name_struct = { FirstName: "Elena", LastName: "Campbell" }

Você também pode usar as bibliotecas de cliente para criar uma matriz de objetos STRUCT, conforme o exemplo a seguir:

C++

// Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types with named fields are represented by
// std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, T>...>, create an alias to make it easier
// to follow this code.
using SingerName = std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                              std::pair<std::string, std::string>>;
auto make_name = [](std::string first_name, std::string last_name) {
  return std::make_tuple(std::make_pair("FirstName", std::move(first_name)),
                         std::make_pair("LastName", std::move(last_name)));
};
std::vector<SingerName> singer_info{
    make_name("Elena", "Campbell"),
    make_name("Gabriel", "Wright"),
    make_name("Benjamin", "Martinez"),
};

C#

var bandMembers = new List<SpannerStruct>
{
    new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" },
        { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" } },
    new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Gabriel" },
        { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Wright" } },
    new SpannerStruct { { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Benjamin" },
        { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Martinez" } },
};

Go


var bandMembers = []nameType{
	{"Elena", "Campbell"},
	{"Gabriel", "Wright"},
	{"Benjamin", "Martinez"},
}

Java

List<Struct> bandMembers = new ArrayList<>();
bandMembers.add(
    Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Elena").set("LastName").to("Campbell").build());
bandMembers.add(
    Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Gabriel").set("LastName").to("Wright").build());
bandMembers.add(
    Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Benjamin").set("LastName").to("Martinez").build());

Node.js

const bandMembersType = {
  type: 'array',
  child: nameType,
};

const bandMembers = [
  Spanner.struct({
    FirstName: 'Elena',
    LastName: 'Campbell',
  }),
  Spanner.struct({
    FirstName: 'Gabriel',
    LastName: 'Wright',
  }),
  Spanner.struct({
    FirstName: 'Benjamin',
    LastName: 'Martinez',
  }),
];

PHP

$bandMembers = [
    (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Elena')
        ->add('LastName', 'Campbell'),
    (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Gabriel')
        ->add('LastName', 'Wright'),
    (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Benjamin')
        ->add('LastName', 'Martinez')
];

Python

band_members = [
    ("Elena", "Campbell"),
    ("Gabriel", "Wright"),
    ("Benjamin", "Martinez"),
]

Ruby

band_members = [name_type.struct(["Elena", "Campbell"]),
                name_type.struct(["Gabriel", "Wright"]),
                name_type.struct(["Benjamin", "Martinez"])]

Como retornar objetos STRUCT nos resultados da consulta SQL

Uma consulta SQL do Cloud Spanner pode retornar uma matriz de objetos STRUCT como uma coluna para determinadas consultas. Para mais informações, consulte Como usar STRUCTS com SELECT.

Como usar objetos STRUCT como parâmetros associados em consultas SQL

É possível usar objetos STRUCT como parâmetros associados em uma consulta SQL. Para mais informações sobre parâmetros, consulte Parâmetros de consulta.

Como consultar dados com um objeto STRUCT

O exemplo a seguir mostra como associar valores em um objeto STRUCT a parâmetros em uma instrução de consulta SQL, executar a consulta e gerar os resultados.

C++

void QueryDataWithStruct(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  // Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types are represented by std::tuple<...>. The
  // following represents a STRUCT<> with two unnamed STRING fields.
  using NameType = std::tuple<std::string, std::string>;
  auto singer_info = NameType{"Elena", "Campbell"};
  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE (FirstName, LastName) = @name",
      {{"name", spanner::Value(singer_info)}}));

  for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<std::tuple<std::int64_t>>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::runtime_error(row.status().message());
    std::cout << "SingerId: " << std::get<0>(*row) << "\n";
  }
  std::cout << "Query completed for [spanner_query_data_with_struct]\n";
}

C#

string connectionString =
$"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/"
+ $"{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";
using (var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
{
    using (var cmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
        "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers "
        + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
        + "(FirstName, LastName) = @name"))
    {
        cmd.Parameters.Add("name", nameStruct.GetSpannerDbType(), nameStruct);
        using (var reader = await cmd.ExecuteReaderAsync())
        {
            while (await reader.ReadAsync())
            {
                Console.WriteLine(
                    reader.GetFieldValue<string>("SingerId"));
            }
        }
    }
}

Go


stmt := spanner.Statement{
	SQL: `SELECT SingerId FROM SINGERS
			WHERE (FirstName, LastName) = @singerinfo`,
	Params: map[string]interface{}{"singerinfo": singerInfo},
}
iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
defer iter.Stop()
for {
	row, err := iter.Next()
	if err == iterator.Done {
		return nil
	}
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	var singerID int64
	if err := row.Columns(&singerID); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d\n", singerID)
}

Java

Statement s =
    Statement.newBuilder(
            "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers "
                + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                + "= @name")
        .bind("name")
        .to(name)
        .build();
try (ResultSet resultSet = dbClient.singleUse().executeQuery(s)) {
  while (resultSet.next()) {
    System.out.printf("%d\n", resultSet.getLong("SingerId"));
  }
}

Node.js

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const query = {
  sql:
    'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE ' +
    'STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name',
  params: {
    name: nameStruct,
  },
};

// Queries rows from the Singers table
try {
  const [rows] = await database.run(query);

  rows.forEach(row => {
    const json = row.toJSON();
    console.log(`SingerId: ${json.SingerId}`);
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

$results = $database->execute(
    'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers ' .
    'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>' .
    '(FirstName, LastName) = @name',
    [
        'parameters' => [
            'name' => $nameValue
        ],
        'types' => [
            'name' => $nameType
        ]
    ]
);
foreach ($results as $row) {
    printf('SingerId: %s' . PHP_EOL,
        $row['SingerId']);
}

Python

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)

database = instance.database(database_id)

with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
    results = snapshot.execute_sql(
        "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE " "(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
        params={"name": record_value},
        param_types={"name": record_type},
    )

for row in results:
    print(u"SingerId: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
client.execute(
  "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE " +
  "(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
  params: { name: name_struct }
).rows.each do |row|
  puts row[:SingerId].to_s
end

Como consultar dados com uma matriz de objetos STRUCT

O exemplo a seguir mostra como executar uma consulta que usa uma matriz de objetos STRUCT. Use o operador UNNEST para nivelar uma matriz de objetos STRUCT em linhas:

C++

void QueryDataWithArrayOfStruct(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  // Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> types with named fields are represented by
  // std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, T>...>, create an alias to make it easier
  // to follow this code.
  using SingerName = std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                                std::pair<std::string, std::string>>;
  auto make_name = [](std::string first_name, std::string last_name) {
    return std::make_tuple(std::make_pair("FirstName", std::move(first_name)),
                           std::make_pair("LastName", std::move(last_name)));
  };
  std::vector<SingerName> singer_info{
      make_name("Elena", "Campbell"),
      make_name("Gabriel", "Wright"),
      make_name("Benjamin", "Martinez"),
  };

  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers"
      " WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName)"
      "    IN UNNEST(@names)",
      {{"names", spanner::Value(singer_info)}}));

  for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<std::tuple<std::int64_t>>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::runtime_error(row.status().message());
    std::cout << "SingerId: " << std::get<0>(*row) << "\n";
  }
  std::cout << "Query completed for"
            << " [spanner_query_data_with_array_of_struct]\n";
}

C#

string connectionString =
$"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/"
+ $"{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";
using (var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
{
    using (var cmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
        "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers "
        + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
        + "(FirstName, LastName) IN UNNEST(@names)"))
    {
        cmd.Parameters.Add("names",
            SpannerDbType.ArrayOf(nameType.GetSpannerDbType()),
                bandMembers);
        using (var reader = await cmd.ExecuteReaderAsync())
        {
            while (await reader.ReadAsync())
            {
                Console.WriteLine(
                    reader.GetFieldValue<string>("SingerId"));
            }
        }
    }
}

Go


stmt := spanner.Statement{
	SQL: `SELECT SingerId FROM SINGERS
		WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName)
		IN UNNEST(@names)`,
	Params: map[string]interface{}{"names": bandMembers},
}
iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
defer iter.Stop()
for {
	row, err := iter.Next()
	if err == iterator.Done {
		return nil
	}
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	var singerID int64
	if err := row.Columns(&singerID); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d\n", singerID)
}

Java

Statement s =
    Statement.newBuilder(
            "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE "
                + "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                + "IN UNNEST(@names) "
                + "ORDER BY SingerId DESC")
        .bind("names")
        .toStructArray(nameType, bandMembers)
        .build();
try (ResultSet resultSet = dbClient.singleUse().executeQuery(s)) {
  while (resultSet.next()) {
    System.out.printf("%d\n", resultSet.getLong("SingerId"));
  }
}

Node.js

const query = {
  sql:
    'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers ' +
    'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) ' +
    'IN UNNEST(@names) ' +
    'ORDER BY SingerId',
  params: {
    names: bandMembers,
  },
  types: {
    names: bandMembersType,
  },
};

// Queries rows from the Singers table
try {
  const [rows] = await database.run(query);

  rows.forEach(row => {
    const json = row.toJSON();
    console.log(`SingerId: ${json.SingerId}`);
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

$results = $database->execute(
    'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers ' .
    'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) ' .
    'IN UNNEST(@names)',
    [
        'parameters' => [
            'names' => $bandMembers
        ],
        'types' => [
            'names' => $nameType
        ]
    ]
);
foreach ($results as $row) {
    printf('SingerId: %s' . PHP_EOL,
        $row['SingerId']);
}

Python

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
    results = snapshot.execute_sql(
        "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE "
        "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
        "(FirstName, LastName) IN UNNEST(@names)",
        params={"names": band_members},
        param_types={"names": param_types.Array(name_type)},
    )

for row in results:
    print(u"SingerId: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

client.execute(
  "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE " +
  "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) IN UNNEST(@names)",
  params: { names: band_members }
).rows.each do |row|
  puts row[:SingerId].to_s
end

Como modificar dados com DML

O exemplo de código a seguir usa um STRUCT com parâmetros associados e linguagem de manipulação de dados (DML, na sigla em inglês) para atualizar um único valor em linhas que correspondem à condição da cláusula WHERE. Para linhas em que FirstName é Timothy e LastName é Campbell, o LastName é atualizado para Grant.

C++

void DmlStructs(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;
  std::int64_t rows_modified = 0;
  auto commit_result =
      client.Commit([&client, &rows_modified](spanner::Transaction const& txn)
                        -> google::cloud::StatusOr<spanner::Mutations> {
        auto singer_info = std::make_tuple("Marc", "Richards");
        auto sql = spanner::SqlStatement(
            "UPDATE Singers SET FirstName = 'Keith' WHERE "
            "STRUCT<FirstName String, LastName String>(FirstName, LastName) "
            "= @name",
            {{"name", spanner::Value(std::move(singer_info))}});
        auto dml_result = client.ExecuteDml(txn, std::move(sql));
        if (!dml_result) return dml_result.status();
        rows_modified = dml_result->RowsModified();
        return spanner::Mutations{};
      });
  if (!commit_result) {
    throw std::runtime_error(commit_result.status().message());
  }
  std::cout << rows_modified
            << " update was successful [spanner_dml_structs]\n";
}

C#

public static async Task UpdateUsingDmlWithStructCoreAsync(
    string projectId,
    string instanceId,
    string databaseId)
{
    var nameStruct = new SpannerStruct
    {
        { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Timothy" },
        { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" },
    };
    string connectionString =
        $"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/{instanceId}"
        + $"/databases/{databaseId}";

    // Create connection to Cloud Spanner.
    using (var connection =
        new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
    {
        await connection.OpenAsync();

        SpannerCommand cmd = connection.CreateDmlCommand(
            "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
           + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
           + "(FirstName, LastName) = @name");
        cmd.Parameters.Add("name", nameStruct.GetSpannerDbType(), nameStruct);
        int rowCount = await cmd.ExecuteNonQueryAsync();
        Console.WriteLine($"{rowCount} row(s) updated...");
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
)

func updateUsingDMLStruct(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	_, err = client.ReadWriteTransaction(ctx, func(ctx context.Context, txn *spanner.ReadWriteTransaction) error {
		type name struct {
			FirstName string
			LastName  string
		}
		var singerInfo = name{"Timothy", "Campbell"}

		stmt := spanner.Statement{
			SQL: `Update Singers Set LastName = 'Grant'
				WHERE STRUCT<FirstName String, LastName String>(Firstname, LastName) = @name`,
			Params: map[string]interface{}{"name": singerInfo},
		}
		rowCount, err := txn.Update(ctx, stmt)
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d record(s) inserted.\n", rowCount)
		return nil
	})
	return err
}

Java

static void updateUsingDmlWithStruct(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  Struct name =
      Struct.newBuilder().set("FirstName").to("Timothy").set("LastName").to("Campbell").build();
  Statement s =
      Statement.newBuilder(
              "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
                  + "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                  + "= @name")
          .bind("name")
          .to(name)
          .build();
  dbClient
      .readWriteTransaction()
      .run(transaction -> {
        long rowCount = transaction.executeUpdate(s);
        System.out.printf("%d record updated.\n", rowCount);
        return null;
      });
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

const nameStruct = Spanner.struct({
  FirstName: 'Timothy',
  LastName: 'Campbell',
});

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

database.runTransaction(async (err, transaction) => {
  if (err) {
    console.error(err);
    return;
  }
  try {
    const [rowCount] = await transaction.runUpdate({
      sql: `UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant'
      WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name`,
      params: {
        name: nameStruct,
      },
    });

    console.log(`Successfully updated ${rowCount} record.`);
    await transaction.commit();
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('ERROR:', err);
  } finally {
    // Close the database when finished.
    database.close();
  }
});

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Transaction;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructType;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructValue;

/**
 * Update data with a DML statement using Structs.
 *
 * The database and table must already exist and can be created using
 * `create_database`.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * insert_data($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function update_data_with_dml_structs($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $database->runTransaction(function (Transaction $t) use ($spanner) {
        $nameValue = (new StructValue)
            ->add('FirstName', 'Timothy')
            ->add('LastName', 'Campbell');
        $nameType = (new StructType)
            ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
            ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING);

        $rowCount = $t->executeUpdate(
            "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
             . "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
             . "= @name",
            [
                'parameters' => [
                    'name' => $nameValue
                ],
                'types' => [
                    'name' => $nameType
                ]
            ]);
        $t->commit();
        printf('Updated %d row(s).' . PHP_EOL, $rowCount);
    });
}

Python

# instance_id = "your-spanner-instance"
# database_id = "your-spanner-db-id"

spanner_client = spanner.Client()
instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
database = instance.database(database_id)

record_type = param_types.Struct(
    [
        param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
        param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
    ]
)
record_value = ("Timothy", "Campbell")

def write_with_struct(transaction):
    row_ct = transaction.execute_update(
        "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant' "
        "WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
        "(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
        params={"name": record_value},
        param_types={"name": record_type},
    )
    print("{} record(s) updated.".format(row_ct))

database.run_in_transaction(write_with_struct)

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id
row_count = 0
name_struct = { FirstName: "Timothy", LastName: "Campbell" }

client.transaction do |transaction|
  row_count = transaction.execute_update(
    "UPDATE Singers SET LastName = 'Grant'
     WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) = @name",
    params: { name: name_struct }
  )
end

puts "#{row_count} record updated."

Como acessar valores de campo STRUCT

Você pode acessar campos dentro de um objeto STRUCT pelo nome.

C++

void FieldAccessOnStructParameters(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;

  // Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> with named fields is represented as
  // tuple<pair<string, T>...>. Create a type alias for this example:
  using SingerName = std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                                std::pair<std::string, std::string>>;
  SingerName name({"FirstName", "Elena"}, {"LastName", "Campbell"});

  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName",
      {{"name", spanner::Value(name)}}));

  for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<std::tuple<std::int64_t>>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::runtime_error(row.status().message());
    std::cout << "SingerId: " << std::get<0>(*row) << "\n";
  }
  std::cout << "Query completed for"
            << " [spanner_field_access_on_struct_parameters]\n";
}

C#

string connectionString =
$"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/"
+ $"{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";
var structParam = new SpannerStruct
{
    { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" },
    { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" },
};
using (var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
{
    using (var cmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
        "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName"))
    {
        cmd.Parameters.Add("name", structParam.GetSpannerDbType(), structParam);
        using (var reader = await cmd.ExecuteReaderAsync())
        {
            while (await reader.ReadAsync())
            {
                Console.WriteLine(
                    reader.GetFieldValue<string>("SingerId"));
            }
        }
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func queryWithStructField(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	type structParam struct {
		FirstName string
		LastName  string
	}
	var singerInfo = structParam{"Elena", "Campbell"}
	stmt := spanner.Statement{
		SQL: `SELECT SingerId FROM SINGERS
			WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName`,
		Params: map[string]interface{}{"name": singerInfo},
	}
	iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
	defer iter.Stop()
	for {
		row, err := iter.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			return nil
		}
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		var singerID int64
		if err := row.Columns(&singerID); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d\n", singerID)
	}
}

Java

static void queryStructField(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  Statement s =
      Statement.newBuilder("SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName")
          .bind("name")
          .to(
              Struct.newBuilder()
                  .set("FirstName")
                  .to("Elena")
                  .set("LastName")
                  .to("Campbell")
                  .build())
          .build();
  try (ResultSet resultSet = dbClient.singleUse().executeQuery(s)) {
    while (resultSet.next()) {
      System.out.printf("%d\n", resultSet.getLong("SingerId"));
    }
  }
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const nameStruct = Spanner.struct({
  FirstName: 'Elena',
  LastName: 'Campbell',
});
const query = {
  sql: 'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName',
  params: {
    name: nameStruct,
  },
};

// Queries rows from the Singers table
try {
  const [rows] = await database.run(query);

  rows.forEach(row => {
    const json = row.toJSON();
    console.log(`SingerId: ${json.SingerId}`);
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructType;

/**
 * Queries sample data from the database using a struct field value.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * query_data_with_struct_field($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function query_data_with_struct_field($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $nameType = (new StructType)
        ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
        ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING);
    $results = $database->execute(
        'SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName',
        [
            'parameters' => [
                'name' => [
                    'FirstName' => 'Elena',
                    'LastName' => 'Campbell'
                ]
            ],
            'types' => [
                'name' => $nameType
            ]
        ]
    );
    foreach ($results as $row) {
        printf('SingerId: %s' . PHP_EOL,
            $row['SingerId']);
    }
}

Python

def query_struct_field(instance_id, database_id):
    """Query a table using field access on a STRUCT parameter. """
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    name_type = param_types.Struct(
        [
            param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
            param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
        ]
    )

    with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
        results = snapshot.execute_sql(
            "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers " "WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName",
            params={"name": ("Elena", "Campbell")},
            param_types={"name": name_type},
        )

    for row in results:
        print(u"SingerId: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

name_struct = { FirstName: "Elena", LastName: "Campbell" }
client.execute(
  "SELECT SingerId FROM Singers WHERE FirstName = @name.FirstName",
  params: { name: name_struct }
).rows.each do |row|
  puts row[:SingerId].to_s
end

É possível até mesmo ter campos dos tipos STRUCT ou ARRAY<STRUCT> dentro de valores STRUCT e acessá-los da mesma forma:

C++

void FieldAccessOnNestedStruct(google::cloud::spanner::Client client) {
  namespace spanner = ::google::cloud::spanner;

  // Cloud Spanner STRUCT<> with named fields is represented as
  // tuple<pair<string, T>...>. Create a type alias for this example:
  using SingerFullName = std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                                    std::pair<std::string, std::string>>;
  auto make_name = [](std::string fname, std::string lname) {
    return SingerFullName({"FirstName", std::move(fname)},
                          {"LastName", std::move(lname)});
  };
  using SongInfo =
      std::tuple<std::pair<std::string, std::string>,
                 std::pair<std::string, std::vector<SingerFullName>>>;
  auto songinfo = SongInfo(
      {"SongName", "Imagination"},
      {"ArtistNames",
       {make_name("Elena", "Campbell"), make_name("Hannah", "Harris")}});

  auto rows = client.ExecuteQuery(spanner::SqlStatement(
      "SELECT SingerId, @songinfo.SongName FROM Singers"
      " WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName)"
      "    IN UNNEST(@songinfo.ArtistNames)",
      {{"songinfo", spanner::Value(songinfo)}}));

  using RowType = std::tuple<std::int64_t, std::string>;
  for (auto const& row : spanner::StreamOf<RowType>(rows)) {
    if (!row) throw std::runtime_error(row.status().message());
    std::cout << "SingerId: " << std::get<0>(*row)
              << " SongName: " << std::get<1>(*row) << "\n";
  }
  std::cout << "Query completed for [spanner_field_access_on_nested_struct]\n";
}

C#

string connectionString =
$"Data Source=projects/{projectId}/instances/"
+ $"{instanceId}/databases/{databaseId}";
SpannerStruct name1 = new SpannerStruct
{
    { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Elena" },
    { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Campbell" }
};
SpannerStruct name2 = new SpannerStruct
{
    { "FirstName", SpannerDbType.String, "Hannah" },
    { "LastName", SpannerDbType.String, "Harris" }
};
SpannerStruct songInfo = new SpannerStruct
{
    { "song_name", SpannerDbType.String, "Imagination" },
    { "artistNames", SpannerDbType.ArrayOf(name1.GetSpannerDbType()), new[] { name1, name2 } }
};

using (var connection = new SpannerConnection(connectionString))
{
    using (var cmd = connection.CreateSelectCommand(
        "SELECT SingerId, @song_info.song_name "
        + "FROM Singers WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
        + "IN UNNEST(@song_info.artistNames)"))
    {
        cmd.Parameters.Add("song_info",
            songInfo.GetSpannerDbType(),
                songInfo);
        using (var reader = await cmd.ExecuteReaderAsync())
        {
            while (await reader.ReadAsync())
            {
                Console.WriteLine(
                    reader.GetFieldValue<string>("SingerId"));
                Console.WriteLine(
                    reader.GetFieldValue<string>(1));
            }
        }
    }
}

Go


import (
	"context"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	"cloud.google.com/go/spanner"
	"google.golang.org/api/iterator"
)

func queryWithNestedStructField(w io.Writer, db string) error {
	ctx := context.Background()

	client, err := spanner.NewClient(ctx, db)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	defer client.Close()

	type nameType struct {
		FirstName string
		LastName  string
	}
	type songInfoStruct struct {
		SongName    string
		ArtistNames []nameType
	}
	var songInfo = songInfoStruct{
		SongName: "Imagination",
		ArtistNames: []nameType{
			{FirstName: "Elena", LastName: "Campbell"},
			{FirstName: "Hannah", LastName: "Harris"},
		},
	}
	stmt := spanner.Statement{
		SQL: `SELECT SingerId, @songinfo.SongName FROM Singers
			WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName)
			IN UNNEST(@songinfo.ArtistNames)`,
		Params: map[string]interface{}{"songinfo": songInfo},
	}
	iter := client.Single().Query(ctx, stmt)
	defer iter.Stop()
	for {
		row, err := iter.Next()
		if err == iterator.Done {
			return nil
		}
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		var singerID int64
		var songName string
		if err := row.Columns(&singerID, &songName); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		fmt.Fprintf(w, "%d %s\n", singerID, songName)
	}
}

Java

static void queryNestedStructField(DatabaseClient dbClient) {
  Type nameType =
      Type.struct(
          Arrays.asList(
              StructField.of("FirstName", Type.string()),
              StructField.of("LastName", Type.string())));

  Struct songInfo =
      Struct.newBuilder()
          .set("song_name")
          .to("Imagination")
          .set("artistNames")
          .toStructArray(
              nameType,
              Arrays.asList(
                  Struct.newBuilder()
                      .set("FirstName")
                      .to("Elena")
                      .set("LastName")
                      .to("Campbell")
                      .build(),
                  Struct.newBuilder()
                      .set("FirstName")
                      .to("Hannah")
                      .set("LastName")
                      .to("Harris")
                      .build()))
          .build();
  Statement s =
      Statement.newBuilder(
              "SELECT SingerId, @song_info.song_name "
                  + "FROM Singers WHERE "
                  + "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) "
                  + "IN UNNEST(@song_info.artistNames)")
          .bind("song_info")
          .to(songInfo)
          .build();
  try (ResultSet resultSet = dbClient.singleUse().executeQuery(s)) {
    while (resultSet.next()) {
      System.out.printf("%d %s\n", resultSet.getLong("SingerId"), resultSet.getString(1));
    }
  }
}

Node.js

// Imports the Google Cloud client library
const {Spanner} = require('@google-cloud/spanner');

/**
 * TODO(developer): Uncomment the following lines before running the sample.
 */
// const projectId = 'my-project-id';
// const instanceId = 'my-instance';
// const databaseId = 'my-database';

// Creates a client
const spanner = new Spanner({
  projectId: projectId,
});

// Gets a reference to a Cloud Spanner instance and database
const instance = spanner.instance(instanceId);
const database = instance.database(databaseId);

const nameType = {
  type: 'struct',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'FirstName',
      type: 'string',
    },
    {
      name: 'LastName',
      type: 'string',
    },
  ],
};

// Creates Song info STRUCT with a nested ArtistNames array
const songInfoType = {
  type: 'struct',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'SongName',
      type: 'string',
    },
    {
      name: 'ArtistNames',
      type: 'array',
      child: nameType,
    },
  ],
};

const songInfoStruct = Spanner.struct({
  SongName: 'Imagination',
  ArtistNames: [
    Spanner.struct({FirstName: 'Elena', LastName: 'Campbell'}),
    Spanner.struct({FirstName: 'Hannah', LastName: 'Harris'}),
  ],
});

const query = {
  sql:
    'SELECT SingerId, @songInfo.SongName FROM Singers ' +
    'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) ' +
    'IN UNNEST(@songInfo.ArtistNames)',
  params: {
    songInfo: songInfoStruct,
  },
  types: {
    songInfo: songInfoType,
  },
};

// Queries rows from the Singers table
try {
  const [rows] = await database.run(query);

  rows.forEach(row => {
    const json = row.toJSON();
    console.log(`SingerId: ${json.SingerId}, SongName: ${json.SongName}`);
  });
} catch (err) {
  console.error('ERROR:', err);
} finally {
  // Close the database when finished.
  database.close();
}

PHP

use Google\Cloud\Spanner\SpannerClient;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\Database;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructType;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\StructValue;
use Google\Cloud\Spanner\ArrayType;

/**
 * Queries sample data from the database using a nested struct field value.
 * Example:
 * ```
 * query_data_with_nested_struct_field($instanceId, $databaseId);
 * ```
 *
 * @param string $instanceId The Spanner instance ID.
 * @param string $databaseId The Spanner database ID.
 */
function query_data_with_nested_struct_field($instanceId, $databaseId)
{
    $spanner = new SpannerClient();
    $instance = $spanner->instance($instanceId);
    $database = $instance->database($databaseId);

    $nameType = new ArrayType(
       (new StructType)
            ->add('FirstName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
            ->add('LastName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
    );
    $songInfoType = (new StructType)
        ->add('SongName', Database::TYPE_STRING)
        ->add('ArtistNames', $nameType);
    $nameStructValue1 = (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Elena')
        ->add('LastName', 'Campbell');
    $nameStructValue2 = (new StructValue)
        ->add('FirstName', 'Hannah')
        ->add('LastName', 'Harris');
    $songInfoValues = (new StructValue)
        ->add('SongName', 'Imagination')
        ->add('ArtistNames', [$nameStructValue1, $nameStructValue2]);
    $results = $database->execute(
        'SELECT SingerId, @song_info.SongName FROM Singers ' .
        'WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) ' .
        'IN UNNEST(@song_info.ArtistNames)',
        [
            'parameters' => [
                'song_info' => $songInfoValues
            ],
            'types' => [
                'song_info' => $songInfoType
            ]
        ]
    );
    foreach ($results as $row) {
        printf('SingerId: %s SongName: %s' . PHP_EOL,
            $row['SingerId'], $row['SongName']);
    }
}

Python

def query_nested_struct_field(instance_id, database_id):
    """Query a table using nested field access on a STRUCT parameter. """
    spanner_client = spanner.Client()
    instance = spanner_client.instance(instance_id)
    database = instance.database(database_id)

    song_info_type = param_types.Struct(
        [
            param_types.StructField("SongName", param_types.STRING),
            param_types.StructField(
                "ArtistNames",
                param_types.Array(
                    param_types.Struct(
                        [
                            param_types.StructField("FirstName", param_types.STRING),
                            param_types.StructField("LastName", param_types.STRING),
                        ]
                    )
                ),
            ),
        ]
    )

    song_info = ("Imagination", [("Elena", "Campbell"), ("Hannah", "Harris")])

    with database.snapshot() as snapshot:
        results = snapshot.execute_sql(
            "SELECT SingerId, @song_info.SongName "
            "FROM Singers WHERE "
            "STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>"
            "(FirstName, LastName) "
            "IN UNNEST(@song_info.ArtistNames)",
            params={"song_info": song_info},
            param_types={"song_info": song_info_type},
        )

    for row in results:
        print(u"SingerId: {} SongName: {}".format(*row))

Ruby

# project_id  = "Your Google Cloud project ID"
# instance_id = "Your Spanner instance ID"
# database_id = "Your Spanner database ID"

require "google/cloud/spanner"

spanner = Google::Cloud::Spanner.new project: project_id
client  = spanner.client instance_id, database_id

name_type = client.fields FirstName: :STRING, LastName: :STRING

song_info_struct = {
  SongName:    "Imagination",
  ArtistNames: [name_type.struct(["Elena", "Campbell"]), name_type.struct(["Hannah", "Harris"])]
}

client.execute(
  "SELECT SingerId, @song_info.SongName " \
  "FROM Singers WHERE STRUCT<FirstName STRING, LastName STRING>(FirstName, LastName) " \
  "IN UNNEST(@song_info.ArtistNames)",
  params: { song_info: song_info_struct }
).rows.each do |row|
  puts (row[:SingerId]).to_s, (row[:SongName]).to_s
end