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Interpreting Anthos Service Mesh logs

The following sections explain how to check the status of your mesh and review the various logs that contain helpful details to assist your troubleshooting.

Interpret control plane metrics

When installing Anthos Service Mesh using the asm-gcp profile, Istiod exports metrics to Google Cloud's operations suite for monitoring, by default. Istiod prefixes these metrics with istio.io/control and give insights into the control plane state, such as number of proxies connected to each control plane instance, configuration events, pushes and validations.

Observe or troubleshoot the control plane, using the following steps.

  1. Load a sample dashboard:

    git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/monitoring-dashboard-samples && cd monitoring-dashboard-samples && git checkout asm
  2. Install the Anthos Service Mesh dashboard:

    gcloud monitoring dashboards create --config-from-file=dashboards/servicemesh/anthos-service-mesh-control-plane-monitoring.json
  3. Look for for a dashboard named Istio Control Plane Dashboard in the list. For more information, see Viewing the installed dashboard.

    If you are not using the asm-gcp profile, you can still enable control plane metrics by adding the environment variables to the Istiod deployment:

    - name: ENABLE_STACKDRIVER_MONITORING
    value: "true"

    In addition, you can add this environment variable using the installation option, components.pilot.k8s.env.

For the full list of metrics available, see Exported metrics.

Diagnose configuration delays

The following steps explain how to use the pilot_proxy_convergence_time metric to diagnose a delay between a configuration change and all proxies converging.

  1. Run a shell command in a pod:

    kubectl exec -it $(kubectl get pod -l app=pilot -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}' -n istio-system) -n istio-system -c istio-proxy -- curl -s
  2. Access localhost:15014 and grep for convergence in metrics:

    curl http://localhost:15014/metrics | grep convergence

Interpret Google Cloud's operations suite access logs

The following information explains how to use the Google Cloud's operations suite access logs to troubleshoot connection problems.

Anthos Service Mesh exports data into Google Cloud's operations suite access logs that can help you debug the following types of problems:

  • Traffic flow and failures
  • End-to-end request routing

Google Cloud's operations suite access/traffic logs are enabled by default in the asm-gcp profile across the entire mesh. However, if they are not already enabled, you can use the following command:

istioctl install --set profile=PROFILE_NAME --set revision==ASM_VERSION \
    --set values.telemetry.v2.stackdriver.enabled=true \
    --set values.telemetry.v2.stackdriver.logging=true

There are two types of access logs:

  • Server access logs give a server-side view of requests. They are located under server-accesslog-stackdriver, attached to the k8s_container monitored resource. Use the following URL syntax to display server-side access logs:

    https://console.cloud.google.com/logs/viewer?advancedFilter=logName="projects/PROJECT_ID/logs/server-accesslog-stackdriver"&project=PROJECT_ID
  • Client access logs give a client-side view of requests. They are located under client-accesslog-stackdriver, attached to the k8s_pod monitored resource. Use the following URL syntax to display client-side access logs:

    https://console.cloud.google.com/logs/viewer?advancedFilter=logName="projects/PROJECT_ID/logs/client-accesslog-stackdriver"&project=PROJECT_ID
    .

Only client error logs are enabled by default to reduce logging costs, however you can enable all client logs (success and errors) using the following command:

istioctl install --set profile=PROFILE_NAME --set revision==ASM_VERSION 
--set values.telemetry.v2.stackdriver.enabled=true
--set values.telemetry.v2.stackdriver.outboundAccessLogging=FULL

Access logs contain the following information:

  • HTTP request properties, such as ID, URL, size, latency, and common headers.
  • Source and destination workload information, such as name, namespace, identity, and common labels.
  • Source and destination canonical service and revision information.
  • If tracing is enabled, the logs contain trace information, such as sampling, trace ID, and span ID.

The information displayed in the Google Cloud's operations suite access logs originates from Envoy access logs, when you enable them in the Istio configuration. They contain the following headers:

  • route_name
  • upstream_cluster
  • X-Envoy-Original-Path
  • X-Envoy-Original-Host

This is an example log entry:

{
  "insertId": "1j84zg8g68vb62z",
  "httpRequest": {
    "requestMethod": "GET",
    "requestUrl": "http://35.235.89.201:80/productpage",
    "requestSize": "795",
    "status": 200,
    "responseSize": "7005",
    "remoteIp": "10.168.0.26:0",
    "serverIp": "10.36.3.153:9080",
    "latency": "0.229384205s",
    "protocol": "http"
  },
  "resource": {
    "type": "k8s_container",
    "labels": {
      "cluster_name": "istio-e2e22",
      "namespace_name": "istio-bookinfo-1-68819",
      "container_name": "productpage",
      "project_id": "***",
      "location": "us-west2-a",
      "pod_name": "productpage-v1-64794f5db4-8xbtf"
    }
  },
  "timestamp": "2020-08-13T21:37:42.963881Z",
  "severity": "INFO",
  "labels": {
    "protocol": "http",
    "upstream_host": "127.0.0.1:9080",
    "source_canonical_service": "istio-ingressgateway",
    "source_namespace": "istio-system",
    "x-envoy-original-path": "",
    "source_canonical_revision": "latest",
    "connection_id": "32",
    "upstream_cluster": "inbound|9080|http|productpage.istio-bookinfo-1-68819.svc.cluster.local",
    "requested_server_name": "outbound_.9080_._.productpage.istio-bookinfo-1-68819.svc.cluster.local",
    "destination_version": "v1",
    "destination_workload": "productpage-v1",
    "source_workload": "istio-ingressgateway",
    "destination_canonical_revision": "v1",
    "mesh_uid": "cluster.local",
    "source_principal": "spiffe://cluster.local/ns/istio-system/sa/istio-ingressgateway-service-account",
    "x-envoy-original-dst-host": "",
    "service_authentication_policy": "MUTUAL_TLS",
    "destination_principal": "spiffe://cluster.local/ns/istio-bookinfo-1-68819/sa/bookinfo-productpage",
    "response_flag": "-",
    "log_sampled": "false",
    "destination_service_host": "productpage.istio-bookinfo-1-68819.svc.cluster.local",
    "destination_name": "productpage-v1-64794f5db4-8xbtf",
    "destination_canonical_service": "productpage",
    "destination_namespace": "istio-bookinfo-1-68819",
    "source_name": "istio-ingressgateway-6845f6d664-lnfvp",
    "source_app": "istio-ingressgateway",
    "destination_app": "productpage",
    "request_id": "39013650-4e62-9be2-9d25-78682dd27ea4",
    "route_name": "default"
  },
  "logName": "projects/***/logs/server-accesslog-stackdriver",
  "trace": "projects/***t/traces/466d77d15753cb4d7749ba5413b5f70f",
  "receiveTimestamp": "2020-08-13T21:37:48.758673203Z",
  "spanId": "633831cb1fda4fd5",
  "traceSampled": true
}

You can use this log in various ways:

  • Integrate with Cloud Trace, which is an optional feature in Anthos Service Mesh.
  • Export traffic logs to BigQuery, where you can run queries like selecting all requests take more than 5 seconds.
  • Create log-based metrics.
  • Troubleshoot 404 and 503 errors

Troubleshoot 404 and 503 errors

The following example explains how to use this log to troubleshoot when a request fails with a 404 or 503 response code.

  1. In the client access log, search for an entry like the following:

    httpRequest: {
    requestMethod: "GET"
    requestUrl: "://IP_ADDRESS/src/Util/PHP/eval-stdin.php"
    requestSize: "2088"
    status: 404
    responseSize: "75"
    remoteIp: "10.168.0.26:34165"
    serverIp: "10.36.3.149:8080"
    latency: "0.000371440s"
    protocol: "http"
    }
  2. Navigate to the labels in the access log entry. Find the response_flag field that looks like the following:

    response_flag: "NR"

    The NR value is an acronym for NoRoute, which means no route was found for the destination or there was no matching filter chain for a downstream connection. Similarly, you can use the response_flag label to troubleshoot 503 errors also.

  3. If you see 503 errors in both the client and server access logs, check that the port names set for each service match the name of the protocol in use between them. For example, if a golang binary client connects to a golang server using HTTP, but the port is named http2, the protocol will not auto-negotiate correctly.

For more information, see response flags.

Interpret Envoy logs

The following steps explain how to use the Envoy proxy access logs to show traffic between both ends of a connection for troubleshooting purposes.

Envoy access logs are useful for diagnosing issues like:

  • Traffic flow and failures
  • End-to-end request routing

Access logs are not enabled by default in Anthos Service Mesh and can only be enabled globally across the entire mesh.

You can troubleshoot connection/request failures by generating activity in your application that triggers an HTTP request, then inspecting the associated request in the source or destination logs.

If you trigger a request appears and it appears in the source proxy logs, it indicates that iptables traffic redirection is working correctly and the Envoy proxy is handling traffic. If you see errors in the logs, generate an Envoy configuration dump and check the envoy cluster configuration to ensure it is correct. If you see the request but the log has no errors, check the destination proxy logs instead.

If the request appears in the destination proxy logs, it indicates that the mesh itself is working correctly. If you see an error instead, run an Envoy configuration dump and verify the correct values for the traffic port set in the listener configuration.

If the problem persists after performing the previous steps, Envoy might be unable to auto-negotiate the protocol between the sidecar and its application pod. Ensure that the Kubernetes service port name, for example http-80, matches the protocol that the application uses.

Use Log Viewer to query logs

You can use the Logs Viewer interface to query specific access logs. For example, to query all requests that have MULTUAL_TLS enabled and use protocol grpc, append following to the server access logs query:

labels.protocol="grpc" labels.service_authentication_policy="MULTUAL_TLS"

Set an access log policy

You can set a proxy logging policy that determines what type of information you collect. This is useful to control the scope of your logs to troubleshoot problems. For example, logging automatically captures errors, but you can set logWindowDuration to also capture successful events for a specific time duration or set the window duration to zero to log all accesses. The policy is set at the mesh or cluster level.

To enable an access log policy, use the following command:

istioctl install --set profile=PROFILE_NAME \
    --set values.telemetry.v2.stackdriver.enabled=true \
    --set values.telemetry.v2.stackdriver.logging=true \
    --set values.telemetry.accessLogPolicy.enabled=true

For more information about the access log configuration options, such as logWindowDuration, see AccessLogPolicy Config.

View service or workload-specific information

If you have an issue with a specific service or workload rather than a mesh-wide problem, inspect the individual Envoy proxies and gather relevant information from them. To gather information about a particular workload and its proxies, you can use pilot-agent:

kubectl exec POD_NAME -c istio-proxy -- pilot-agent request GET SCOPE

In the example, SCOPE is one of the following:

  • certs - Certificates within the Envoy instance
  • clusters - Clusters with Envoy configured
  • config_dump - Dumps the Envoy configuration
  • listeners - Listeners with Envoy configured
  • logging - View and change logging settings
  • stats - Envoy statistics
  • stats/prometheus - Envoy statistics as Prometheus records

View proxy socket states

You can directly examine the state of Envoy proxy sockets by using the following process.

  1. Display a list of established sockets, including sockets in the TIME_WAIT state, which can negatively affect scalability if their count is high:

    kubectl exec POD_NAME -c istio-proxy -- ss -anopim
  2. Display a summary of socket statistics:

    kubectl exec POD_NAME -c istio-proxy -- ss -s

For more information, see An Introduction to the ss Command.

istio-proxy and istio-init logs

In addition, retrieve the istio-proxy logs and review its contents for any errors that might suggest the cause of the problem:

kubectl logs POD_NAME -c istio-proxy

You can do the same for the init container:

kubectl logs POD_NAME -c istio-init