创建和验证数字签名

本主题介绍了如何基于非对称密钥创建和验证数字签名。

数字签名使用非对称密钥的私钥部分进行创建,并使用同一非对称密钥的公钥部分进行验证。

准备工作

  • 创建数字签名时,您必须使用具有密钥用途ASYMMETRIC_SIGN 的密钥。在创建密钥时,请使用 ASYMMETRIC_SIGN

  • 要验证签名,您需要知道创建密钥时使用的完整算法。对于使用 openssl 命令的以下命令行说明,您需要将此信息传递给这些命令。

  • 将非对称密钥的 cloudkms.cryptoKeyVersions.useToSign 权限授予将执行签名的用户或服务。您可以参阅权限和角色,了解 Cloud Key Management Service 中的权限。

  • 如果您要验证签名,请将非对称密钥的 cloudkms.cryptoKeyVersions.viewPublicKey 权限授予将下载公钥的使用者或服务以用于验证。

  • 如果您要使用命令行,请安装 OpenSSL(如果尚未安装)。如果您使用 Cloud Shell,则 OpenSSL 已安装。

创建签名

命令行

要在命令行上使用 Cloud KMS,请先安装或升级到最新版本的 Cloud SDK

gcloud kms asymmetric-sign \
    --version key-version \
    --key key \
    --keyring key-ring \
    --location location \
    --digest-algorithm digest-algorithm \
    --input-file input-file \
    --signature-file signature-file

key-version 替换为用于签名的密钥的版本。将 key 替换为密钥名称。将 key-ring 替换为密钥所在的密钥环的名称。将 location 替换为密钥环的 Cloud KMS 位置。将 digest-algorithm 替换为要使用的算法。将 input-filesignature-file 分别替换为要签名的文件和签名文件的本地路径。

如需了解所有标志和可能值,请使用 --help 标志运行命令。

C#

要运行此代码,请先设置 C# 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS C# SDK


using Google.Cloud.Kms.V1;
using Google.Protobuf;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Text;

public class SignAsymmetricSample
{
    public byte[] SignAsymmetric(
      string projectId = "my-project", string locationId = "us-east1", string keyRingId = "my-key-ring", string keyId = "my-key", string keyVersionId = "123",
      string message = "Sample message")
    {
        // Create the client.
        KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.Create();

        // Build the key version name.
        CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName = new CryptoKeyVersionName(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

        // Convert the message into bytes. Cryptographic plaintexts and
        // ciphertexts are always byte arrays.
        byte[] plaintext = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(message);

        // Calculate the digest.
        SHA256 sha256 = SHA256.Create();
        byte[] hash = sha256.ComputeHash(plaintext);

        // Build the digest.
        //
        // Note: Key algorithms will require a varying hash function. For
        // example, EC_SIGN_P384_SHA384 requires SHA-384.
        Digest digest = new Digest
        {
            Sha256 = ByteString.CopyFrom(hash),
        };

        // Call the API.
        AsymmetricSignResponse result = client.AsymmetricSign(keyVersionName, digest);

        // Get the signature.
        byte[] signature = result.Signature.ToByteArray();

        // Return the result.
        return signature;
    }
}

Go

要运行此代码,请先设置 Go 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Go SDK

import (
	"context"
	"crypto/sha256"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	kms "cloud.google.com/go/kms/apiv1"
	kmspb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/kms/v1"
)

// signAsymmetric will sign a plaintext message using a saved asymmetric private
// key stored in Cloud KMS.
func signAsymmetric(w io.Writer, name string, message string) error {
	// name := "projects/my-project/locations/us-east1/keyRings/my-key-ring/cryptoKeys/my-key/cryptoKeyVersions/123"
	// message := "my message"

	// Create the client.
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := kms.NewKeyManagementClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to create kms client: %v", err)
	}

	// Convert the message into bytes. Cryptographic plaintexts and
	// ciphertexts are always byte arrays.
	plaintext := []byte(message)

	// Calculate the digest of the message.
	digest := sha256.New()
	if _, err := digest.Write(plaintext); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to create digest: %v", err)
	}

	// Build the signing request.
	//
	// Note: Key algorithms will require a varying hash function. For example,
	// EC_SIGN_P384_SHA384 requires SHA-384.
	req := &kmspb.AsymmetricSignRequest{
		Name: name,
		Digest: &kmspb.Digest{
			Digest: &kmspb.Digest_Sha256{
				Sha256: digest.Sum(nil),
			},
		},
	}

	// Call the API.
	result, err := client.AsymmetricSign(ctx, req)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to sign digest: %v", err)
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Signed digest: %s", result.Signature)
	return nil
}

Java

要运行此代码,请先设置 Java 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Java SDK

import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.AsymmetricSignResponse;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.CryptoKeyVersionName;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.Digest;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.KeyManagementServiceClient;
import com.google.protobuf.ByteString;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.security.MessageDigest;

public class SignAsymmetric {

  public void signAsymmetric() throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String locationId = "us-east1";
    String keyRingId = "my-key-ring";
    String keyId = "my-key";
    String keyVersionId = "123";
    String message = "my message";
    signAsymmetric(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId, message);
  }

  // Get the public key associated with an asymmetric key.
  public void signAsymmetric(
      String projectId,
      String locationId,
      String keyRingId,
      String keyId,
      String keyVersionId,
      String message)
      throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only
    // needs to be created once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After
    // completing all of your requests, call the "close" method on the client to
    // safely clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.create()) {
      // Build the key version name from the project, location, key ring, key,
      // and key version.
      CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName =
          CryptoKeyVersionName.of(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

      // Convert the message into bytes. Cryptographic plaintexts and
      // ciphertexts are always byte arrays.
      byte[] plaintext = message.getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8);

      // Calculate the digest.
      MessageDigest sha256 = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA-256");
      byte[] hash = sha256.digest(plaintext);

      // Build the digest object.
      Digest digest = Digest.newBuilder().setSha256(ByteString.copyFrom(hash)).build();

      // Sign the digest.
      AsymmetricSignResponse result = client.asymmetricSign(keyVersionName, digest);

      // Get the signature.
      byte[] signature = result.getSignature().toByteArray();

      System.out.printf("Signature %s%n", signature);
    }
  }
}

Node.js

要运行此代码,请先设置 Node.js 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Node.js SDK

async function main(
  projectId = 'your-project-id',
  locationId = 'us-east1',
  keyRingId = 'my-key-ring',
  keyId = 'my-key',
  versionId = '123',
  message = Buffer.from('...')
) {
  //
  // TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
  //
  // const projectId = 'your-project-id';
  // const locationId = 'us-east1';
  // const keyRingId = 'my-key-ring';
  // const keyId = 'my-key';
  // const versionId = '123';
  // const message = Buffer.from('...');

  // Imports the Cloud KMS library
  const {KeyManagementServiceClient} = require('@google-cloud/kms');

  // Instantiates a client
  const client = new KeyManagementServiceClient();

  // Build the version name
  const versionName = client.cryptoKeyVersionPath(
    projectId,
    locationId,
    keyRingId,
    keyId,
    versionId
  );

  async function signAsymmetric() {
    // Create a digest of the message. The digest needs to match the digest
    // configured for the Cloud KMS key.
    const crypto = require('crypto');
    const digest = crypto.createHash('sha256');
    digest.update(message);

    // Sign the message with Cloud KMS
    const [signResponse] = await client.asymmetricSign({
      name: versionName,
      digest: {
        sha256: digest.digest(),
      },
    });

    // Example of how to display signature. Because the signature is in a binary
    // format, you need to encode the output before printing it to a console or
    // displaying it on a screen.
    const encoded = signResponse.signature.toString('base64');
    console.log(`Signature: ${encoded}`);

    return signResponse.signature;
  }

  return signAsymmetric();

PHP

要运行此代码,请先了解如何在 Google Cloud 上使用 PHP安装 Cloud KMS PHP SDK

use Google\Cloud\Kms\V1\KeyManagementServiceClient;
use Google\Cloud\Kms\V1\Digest;

function sign_asymmetric_sample(
    string $projectId = 'my-project',
    string $locationId = 'us-east1',
    string $keyRingId = 'my-key-ring',
    string $keyId = 'my-key',
    string $versionId = '123',
    string $message = '...'
) {
    // Create the Cloud KMS client.
    $client = new KeyManagementServiceClient();

    // Build the key version name.
    $keyVersionName = $client->cryptoKeyVersionName($projectId, $locationId, $keyRingId, $keyId, $versionId);

    // Calculate the hash.
    $hash = hash('sha256', $message, true);

    // Build the digest.
    //
    // Note: Key algorithms will require a varying hash function. For
    // example, EC_SIGN_P384_SHA384 requires SHA-384.
    $digest = (new Digest())
        ->setSha256($hash);

    // Call the API.
    $signResponse = $client->asymmetricSign($keyVersionName, $digest);
    printf('Signature: %s' . PHP_EOL, $signResponse->getSignature());
    return $signResponse;
}

Python

要运行此代码,请先设置 Python 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Python SDK

def sign_asymmetric(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id, message):
    """
    Sign a message using the public key part of an asymmetric key.

    Args:
        project_id (string): Google Cloud project ID (e.g. 'my-project').
        location_id (string): Cloud KMS location (e.g. 'us-east1').
        key_ring_id (string): ID of the Cloud KMS key ring (e.g. 'my-key-ring').
        key_id (string): ID of the key to use (e.g. 'my-key').
        version_id (string): Version to use (e.g. '1').
        message (string): Message to sign.

    Returns:
        AsymmetricSignResponse: Signature.

    """

    # Import the client library.
    from google.cloud import kms

    # Import base64 for printing the ciphertext.
    import base64

    # Import hashlib for calculating hashes.
    import hashlib

    # Create the client.
    client = kms.KeyManagementServiceClient()

    # Build the key version name.
    key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id)

    # Convert the message to bytes.
    message_bytes = message.encode('utf-8')

    # Calculate the hash.
    hash_ = hashlib.sha256(message_bytes).digest()

    # Build the digest.
    #
    # Note: Key algorithms will require a varying hash function. For
    # example, EC_SIGN_P384_SHA384 requires SHA-384.
    digest = {'sha256': hash_}

    # Call the API
    sign_response = client.asymmetric_sign(request={'name': key_version_name, 'digest': digest})
    print('Signature: {}'.format(base64.b64encode(sign_response.signature)))
    return sign_response

Ruby

要运行此代码,请先设置 Ruby 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Ruby SDK

# TODO(developer): uncomment these values before running the sample.
# project_id  = "my-project"
# location_id = "us-east1"
# key_ring_id = "my-key-ring"
# key_id      = "my-key"
# version_id  = "123"
# message     = "my message"

# Require the library.
require "google/cloud/kms"

# Require digest.
require "digest"

# Create the client.
client = Google::Cloud::Kms.key_management_service

# Build the key version name.
key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path project:            project_id,
                                                  location:           location_id,
                                                  key_ring:           key_ring_id,
                                                  crypto_key:         key_id,
                                                  crypto_key_version: version_id

# Calculate the hash.
#
# Note: Key algorithms will require a varying hash function. For
# example, EC_SIGN_P384_SHA384 requires SHA-384.
digest = { sha256: Digest::SHA256.digest(message) }

# Call the API.
sign_response = client.asymmetric_sign name: key_version_name, digest: digest
puts "Signature: #{Base64.strict_encode64 sign_response.signature}"

API

这些示例使用 curl 作为 HTTP 客户端来演示如何使用 API。如需详细了解访问权限控制,请参阅访问 Cloud KMS API

使用 CryptoKeys.asymmetricSign 方法执行签名。此方法返回的响应包含 base64 编码的签名。

验证椭圆曲线签名

命令行

要在命令行上使用 Cloud KMS,请先安装或升级到最新版本的 Cloud SDK

获取公钥

gcloud kms keys versions get-public-key key-version \
    --key key \
    --keyring key-ring \
    --location location \
    --output-file output-file

key-version 替换为密钥版本。将 key 替换为密钥的名称。将 key-ring 替换为密钥所在的密钥环的名称。将 location 替换为密钥环的 Cloud KMS 位置。将 output-file 替换为要在本地系统上保存公钥的文件路径。

如需了解所有标志和可能值,请使用 --help 标志运行命令。

验证签名

用于验证签名的 OpenSSL 命令取决于已创建的签名类型。例如,要使用 OpenSSL 验证 SHA-256 椭圆曲线签名,必须指定 -sha256。要验证 SHA-384 椭圆曲线签名,必须指定 -sha384

openssl dgst \
    -sha256 \
    -verify public-key-file \
    -signature signature-file \
    message-file

将变量替换为您自己的值:

  • public-key-file。包含公钥的文件的路径(例如 "./my-key.pub")。

  • signature-file。包含要验证的签名的文件的路径(例如 "./my-data.sig")。

  • message-file。包含消息的文件的路径(例如 "./my-data.txt")。

如果签名有效,该命令将输出字符串 Verified OK

如需了解所有标志和可能值,请使用 help 子命令运行命令。

C#

要运行此代码,请先设置 C# 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS C# SDK


public class VerifyAsymmetricSignatureEcSample
{
    // Cloud KMS returns signatures in a DER-encoded format. .NET requires
    // signatures to be in IEEE 1363 format, and converting between these formats
    // is a few hundred lines of code.
    //
    // https://github.com/dotnet/runtime/pull/1612 exposes these helpers, but will
    // not be available until .NET 5. Until then, you will need to use an external
    // library or package to validate signatures.
}

Go

要运行此代码,请先设置 Go 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Go SDK

import (
	"context"
	"crypto/ecdsa"
	"crypto/sha256"
	"crypto/x509"
	"encoding/asn1"
	"encoding/pem"
	"fmt"
	"io"
	"math/big"

	kms "cloud.google.com/go/kms/apiv1"
	kmspb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/kms/v1"
)

// verifyAsymmetricSignatureEC will verify that an 'EC_SIGN_P256_SHA256' signature is
// valid for a given message.
func verifyAsymmetricSignatureEC(w io.Writer, name string, message, signature []byte) error {
	// name := "projects/my-project/locations/us-east1/keyRings/my-key-ring/cryptoKeys/my-key/cryptoKeyVersions/123"
	// message := "my message"
	// signature := []byte("...")  // Response from a sign request

	// Create the client.
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := kms.NewKeyManagementClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to create kms client: %v", err)
	}

	// Retrieve the public key from KMS.
	response, err := client.GetPublicKey(ctx, &kmspb.GetPublicKeyRequest{Name: name})
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to get public key: %v", err)
	}

	// Parse the public key. Note, this example assumes the public key is in the
	// ECDSA format.
	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(response.Pem))
	publicKey, err := x509.ParsePKIXPublicKey(block.Bytes)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to parse public key: %v", err)
	}
	ecKey, ok := publicKey.(*ecdsa.PublicKey)
	if !ok {
		return fmt.Errorf("public key is not rsa")
	}

	// Verify Elliptic Curve signature.
	var parsedSig struct{ R, S *big.Int }
	if _, err = asn1.Unmarshal(signature, &parsedSig); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("asn1.Unmarshal: %v", err)
	}

	digest := sha256.Sum256(message)
	if !ecdsa.Verify(ecKey, digest[:], parsedSig.R, parsedSig.S) {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to verify signature")
	}
	fmt.Fprintf(w, "Verified signature!")
	return nil
}

Java

要运行此代码,请先设置 Java 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Java SDK

import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.CryptoKeyVersionName;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.KeyManagementServiceClient;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.PublicKey;
import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.StringReader;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.security.KeyFactory;
import java.security.Signature;
import java.security.spec.X509EncodedKeySpec;
import java.util.Base64;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

public class VerifyAsymmetricEc {

  public void verifyAsymmetricEc() throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String locationId = "us-east1";
    String keyRingId = "my-key-ring";
    String keyId = "my-key";
    String keyVersionId = "123";
    String message = "my message";
    byte[] signature = null;
    verifyAsymmetricEc(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId, message, signature);
  }

  // Verify the signature of a message signed with an RSA key.
  public void verifyAsymmetricEc(
      String projectId,
      String locationId,
      String keyRingId,
      String keyId,
      String keyVersionId,
      String message,
      byte[] signature)
      throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only
    // needs to be created once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After
    // completing all of your requests, call the "close" method on the client to
    // safely clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.create()) {
      // Build the name from the project, location, and key ring, key, and key version.
      CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName =
          CryptoKeyVersionName.of(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

      // Convert the message into bytes. Cryptographic plaintexts and
      // ciphertexts are always byte arrays.
      byte[] plaintext = message.getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8);

      // Get the public key.
      PublicKey publicKey = client.getPublicKey(keyVersionName);

      // Convert the public PEM key to a DER key (see helper below).
      byte[] derKey = convertPemToDer(publicKey.getPem());
      X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(derKey);
      java.security.PublicKey ecKey = KeyFactory.getInstance("EC").generatePublic(keySpec);

      // Verify the 'RSA_SIGN_PKCS1_2048_SHA256' signature.
      // For other key algorithms:
      // http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#Signature
      Signature ecVerify = Signature.getInstance("SHA256withECDSA");
      ecVerify.initVerify(ecKey);
      ecVerify.update(plaintext);

      // Verify the signature.
      boolean verified = ecVerify.verify(signature);
      System.out.printf("Signature verified: %s", verified);
    }
  }

  // Converts a base64-encoded PEM certificate like the one returned from Cloud
  // KMS into a DER formatted certificate for use with the Java APIs.
  private byte[] convertPemToDer(String pem) {
    BufferedReader bufferedReader = new BufferedReader(new StringReader(pem));
    String encoded =
        bufferedReader
            .lines()
            .filter(line -> !line.startsWith("-----BEGIN") && !line.startsWith("-----END"))
            .collect(Collectors.joining());
    return Base64.getDecoder().decode(encoded);
  }
}

Node.js

要运行此代码,请先设置 Node.js 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Node.js SDK

//
// TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
//
// const projectId = 'your-project-id';
// const locationId = 'us-east1';
// const keyRingId = 'my-key-ring';
// const keyId = 'my-key';
// const versionId = '1';
// const message = 'my message to verify';
// const signatureBuffer = Buffer.from('...');

// Imports the Cloud KMS library
const {KeyManagementServiceClient} = require('@google-cloud/kms');

// Instantiates a client
const client = new KeyManagementServiceClient();

// Build the key name
const versionName = client.cryptoKeyVersionPath(
  projectId,
  locationId,
  keyRingId,
  keyId,
  versionId
);

async function verifyAsymmetricSignatureEc() {
  // Get public key
  const [publicKey] = await client.getPublicKey({
    name: versionName,
  });

  // Create the verifier. The algorithm must match the algorithm of the key.
  const crypto = require('crypto');
  const verify = crypto.createVerify('sha256');
  verify.update(message);
  verify.end();

  // Build the key object
  const key = {
    key: publicKey.pem,
  };

  // Verify the signature using the public key
  const verified = verify.verify(key, signatureBuffer);
  return verified;
}

return verifyAsymmetricSignatureEc();

PHP

要运行此代码,请先了解如何在 Google Cloud 上使用 PHP安装 Cloud KMS PHP SDK

use Google\Cloud\Kms\V1\KeyManagementServiceClient;

function verify_asymmetric_ec_sample(
    string $projectId = 'my-project',
    string $locationId = 'us-east1',
    string $keyRingId = 'my-key-ring',
    string $keyId = 'my-key',
    string $versionId = '123',
    string $message = '...',
    string $signature = '...'
) {
    // Create the Cloud KMS client.
    $client = new KeyManagementServiceClient();

    // Build the key version name.
    $keyVersionName = $client->cryptoKeyVersionName($projectId, $locationId, $keyRingId, $keyId, $versionId);

    // Get the public key.
    $publicKey = $client->getPublicKey($keyVersionName);

    // Verify the signature. The hash algorithm must correspond to the key
    // algorithm. The openssl_verify command returns 1 on success, 0 on falure.
    $verified = openssl_verify($message, $signature, $publicKey->getPem(), OPENSSL_ALGO_SHA256) === 1;
    printf('Signature verified: %s', $verified);
    return $verified;
}

Python

要运行此代码,请先设置 Python 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Python SDK

def verify_asymmetric_ec(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id, message, signature):
    """
    Verify the signature of an message signed with an asymmetric EC key.

    Args:
        project_id (string): Google Cloud project ID (e.g. 'my-project').
        location_id (string): Cloud KMS location (e.g. 'us-east1').
        key_ring_id (string): ID of the Cloud KMS key ring (e.g. 'my-key-ring').
        key_id (string): ID of the key to use (e.g. 'my-key').
        version_id (string): ID of the version to use (e.g. '1').
        message (string): Original message (e.g. 'my message')
        signature (bytes): Signature from a sign request.

    Returns:
        bool: True if verified, False otherwise

    """

    # Import the client library.
    from google.cloud import kms

    # Import cryptographic helpers from the cryptography package.
    from cryptography.exceptions import InvalidSignature
    from cryptography.hazmat.backends import default_backend
    from cryptography.hazmat.primitives import hashes, serialization
    from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric import ec, utils

    # Import hashlib.
    import hashlib

    # Convert the message to bytes.
    message_bytes = message.encode('utf-8')

    # Create the client.
    client = kms.KeyManagementServiceClient()

    # Build the key version name.
    key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id)

    # Get the public key.
    public_key = client.get_public_key(request={'name': key_version_name})

    # Extract and parse the public key as a PEM-encoded RSA key.
    pem = public_key.pem.encode('utf-8')
    ec_key = serialization.load_pem_public_key(pem, default_backend())
    hash_ = hashlib.sha256(message_bytes).digest()

    # Attempt to verify.
    try:
        sha256 = hashes.SHA256()
        ec_key.verify(signature, hash_, ec.ECDSA(utils.Prehashed(sha256)))
        print('Signature verified')
        return True
    except InvalidSignature:
        print('Signature failed to verify')
        return False

Ruby

要运行此代码,请先设置 Ruby 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Ruby SDK

# TODO(developer): uncomment these values before running the sample.
# project_id  = "my-project"
# location_id = "us-east1"
# key_ring_id = "my-key-ring"
# key_id      = "my-key"
# version_id  = "123"
# message     = "my message"
# signature   = "..."

# Require the library.
require "google/cloud/kms"
require "openssl"

# Create the client.
client = Google::Cloud::Kms.key_management_service

# Build the key version name.
key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path project:            project_id,
                                                  location:           location_id,
                                                  key_ring:           key_ring_id,
                                                  crypto_key:         key_id,
                                                  crypto_key_version: version_id

# Get the public key.
public_key = client.get_public_key name: key_version_name

# Parse the public key.
ec_key = OpenSSL::PKey::EC.new public_key.pem

# Verify the signature.
verified = ec_key.verify "sha256", signature, message
puts "Verified: #{verified}"

API

这些示例使用 curl 作为 HTTP 客户端来演示如何使用 API。如需详细了解访问权限控制,请参阅访问 Cloud KMS API

使用 CryptoKeyVersions.getPublicKey 方法检索公钥,然后使用命令行示例中显示的命令验证签名。

验证 RSA 签名

命令行

要在命令行上使用 Cloud KMS,请先安装或升级到最新版本的 Cloud SDK

获取公钥

gcloud kms keys versions get-public-key key-version \
    --key key \
    --keyring key-ring \
    --location location \
    --output-file output-file

key-version 替换为密钥版本。将 key 替换为密钥的名称。将 key-ring 替换为密钥所在的密钥环的名称。将 location 替换为密钥环的 Cloud KMS 位置。将 output-file 替换为在本地系统上保存公钥的路径。

如需了解所有标志和可能值,请使用 --help 标志运行命令。

验证签名

用于验证签名的 OpenSSL 命令取决于已创建的签名类型。例如,要验证带 PSS 填充的 SHA-256 RSA 签名,您必须指定 -sha256-sigopt rsa_padding_mode:pss。要验证带 PSS 填充的 SHA-512 RSA 签名,您必须指定 -sha512-sigopt rsa_padding_mode:pss

openssl dgst \
    -sha256 \
    -sigopt rsa_padding_mode:pss \
    -sigopt rsa_pss_saltlen:-1 \
    -verify public-key-file \
    -signature signature-file \
    message-file

将变量替换为您自己的值:

  • public-key-file。包含公钥的文件的路径(例如 "./my-key.pub")。

  • signature-file。包含要验证的签名的文件的路径(例如 "./my-data.sig")。

  • message-file。包含消息的文件的路径(例如 "./my-data.txt")。

如果签名有效,该命令将输出字符串 Verified OK

如需了解所有标志和可能值,请使用 help 子命令运行命令。

C#

要运行此代码,请先设置 C# 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS C# SDK


using Google.Cloud.Kms.V1;
using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Text;

public class VerifyAsymmetricSignatureRsaSample
{
    public bool VerifyAsymmetricSignatureRsa(
      string projectId = "my-project", string locationId = "us-east1", string keyRingId = "my-key-ring", string keyId = "my-key", string keyVersionId = "123",
      string message = "my message",
      byte[] signature = null)
    {
        // Build the key version name.
        CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName = new CryptoKeyVersionName(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

        // Calculate the digest of the message.
        SHA256 sha256 = SHA256.Create();
        byte[] digest = sha256.ComputeHash(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(message));

        // Get the public key.
        KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.Create();
        PublicKey publicKey = client.GetPublicKey(keyVersionName);

        // Split the key into blocks and base64-decode the PEM parts.
        string[] blocks = publicKey.Pem.Split("-", StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries);
        byte[] pem = Convert.FromBase64String(blocks[1]);

        // Create a new RSA key.
        RSA rsa = RSA.Create();
        rsa.ImportSubjectPublicKeyInfo(pem, out _);

        // Verify the signature.
        bool verified = rsa.VerifyHash(digest, signature, HashAlgorithmName.SHA256, RSASignaturePadding.Pss);

        // Return the result.
        return verified;
    }
}

Go

要运行此代码,请先设置 Go 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Go SDK

import (
	"context"
	"crypto"
	"crypto/rsa"
	"crypto/sha256"
	"crypto/x509"
	"encoding/pem"
	"fmt"
	"io"

	kms "cloud.google.com/go/kms/apiv1"
	kmspb "google.golang.org/genproto/googleapis/cloud/kms/v1"
)

// verifyAsymmetricSignatureRSA will verify that an 'RSA_SIGN_PSS_2048_SHA256' signature
// is valid for a given message.
func verifyAsymmetricSignatureRSA(w io.Writer, name string, message, signature []byte) error {
	// name := "projects/my-project/locations/us-east1/keyRings/my-key-ring/cryptoKeys/my-key/cryptoKeyVersions/123"
	// message := "my message"
	// signature := []byte("...")  // Response from a sign request

	// Create the client.
	ctx := context.Background()
	client, err := kms.NewKeyManagementClient(ctx)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to create kms client: %v", err)
	}

	// Retrieve the public key from KMS.
	response, err := client.GetPublicKey(ctx, &kmspb.GetPublicKeyRequest{Name: name})
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to get public key: %v", err)
	}

	// Parse the public key. Note, this example assumes the public key is in the
	// RSA format.
	block, _ := pem.Decode([]byte(response.Pem))
	publicKey, err := x509.ParsePKIXPublicKey(block.Bytes)
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to parse public key: %v", err)
	}
	rsaKey, ok := publicKey.(*rsa.PublicKey)
	if !ok {
		return fmt.Errorf("public key is not rsa")
	}

	// Verify the RSA signature.
	digest := sha256.Sum256(message)
	if err := rsa.VerifyPSS(rsaKey, crypto.SHA256, digest[:], signature, &rsa.PSSOptions{
		SaltLength: len(digest),
		Hash:       crypto.SHA256,
	}); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("failed to verify signature: %v", err)
	}

	fmt.Fprint(w, "Verified signature!\n")
	return nil
}

Java

要运行此代码,请先设置 Java 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Java SDK

import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.CryptoKeyVersionName;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.KeyManagementServiceClient;
import com.google.cloud.kms.v1.PublicKey;
import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.StringReader;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.security.KeyFactory;
import java.security.Signature;
import java.security.spec.X509EncodedKeySpec;
import java.util.Base64;
import java.util.stream.Collectors;

public class VerifyAsymmetricRsa {

  public void verifyAsymmetricRsa() throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
    // TODO(developer): Replace these variables before running the sample.
    String projectId = "your-project-id";
    String locationId = "us-east1";
    String keyRingId = "my-key-ring";
    String keyId = "my-key";
    String keyVersionId = "123";
    String message = "my message";
    byte[] signature = null;
    verifyAsymmetricRsa(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId, message, signature);
  }

  // Verify the signature of a message signed with an RSA key.
  public void verifyAsymmetricRsa(
      String projectId,
      String locationId,
      String keyRingId,
      String keyId,
      String keyVersionId,
      String message,
      byte[] signature)
      throws IOException, GeneralSecurityException {
    // Initialize client that will be used to send requests. This client only
    // needs to be created once, and can be reused for multiple requests. After
    // completing all of your requests, call the "close" method on the client to
    // safely clean up any remaining background resources.
    try (KeyManagementServiceClient client = KeyManagementServiceClient.create()) {
      // Build the name from the project, location, and key ring, key, and key version.
      CryptoKeyVersionName keyVersionName =
          CryptoKeyVersionName.of(projectId, locationId, keyRingId, keyId, keyVersionId);

      // Convert the message into bytes. Cryptographic plaintexts and
      // ciphertexts are always byte arrays.
      byte[] plaintext = message.getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8);

      // Get the public key.
      PublicKey publicKey = client.getPublicKey(keyVersionName);

      // Convert the public PEM key to a DER key (see helper below).
      byte[] derKey = convertPemToDer(publicKey.getPem());
      X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(derKey);
      java.security.PublicKey rsaKey = KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA").generatePublic(keySpec);

      // Verify the 'RSA_SIGN_PKCS1_2048_SHA256' signature.
      // For other key algorithms:
      // http://docs.oracle.com/javase/7/docs/technotes/guides/security/StandardNames.html#Signature
      Signature rsaVerify = Signature.getInstance("SHA256withRSA");
      rsaVerify.initVerify(rsaKey);
      rsaVerify.update(plaintext);

      // Verify the signature.
      boolean verified = rsaVerify.verify(signature);
      System.out.printf("Signature verified: %s", verified);
    }
  }

  // Converts a base64-encoded PEM certificate like the one returned from Cloud
  // KMS into a DER formatted certificate for use with the Java APIs.
  private byte[] convertPemToDer(String pem) {
    BufferedReader bufferedReader = new BufferedReader(new StringReader(pem));
    String encoded =
        bufferedReader
            .lines()
            .filter(line -> !line.startsWith("-----BEGIN") && !line.startsWith("-----END"))
            .collect(Collectors.joining());
    return Base64.getDecoder().decode(encoded);
  }
}

Node.js

要运行此代码,请先设置 Node.js 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Node.js SDK

//
// TODO(developer): Uncomment these variables before running the sample.
//
// const projectId = 'your-project-id';
// const locationId = 'us-east1';
// const keyRingId = 'my-key-ring';
// const keyId = 'my-key';
// const versionId = '1';
// const message = 'my message to verify';
// const signatureBuffer = Buffer.from('...');

// Imports the Cloud KMS library
const {KeyManagementServiceClient} = require('@google-cloud/kms');

// Instantiates a client
const client = new KeyManagementServiceClient();

// Build the key name
const versionName = client.cryptoKeyVersionPath(
  projectId,
  locationId,
  keyRingId,
  keyId,
  versionId
);

async function verifyAsymmetricSignatureRsa() {
  // Get public key
  const [publicKey] = await client.getPublicKey({
    name: versionName,
  });

  // Create the verifier. The algorithm must match the algorithm of the key.
  const crypto = require('crypto');
  const verify = crypto.createVerify('sha256');
  verify.update(message);
  verify.end();

  // Build the key object
  const key = {
    key: publicKey.pem,
    padding: crypto.constants.RSA_PKCS1_PSS_PADDING,
  };

  // Verify the signature using the public key
  const verified = verify.verify(key, signatureBuffer);
  return verified;
}

return verifyAsymmetricSignatureRsa();

PHP

要运行此代码,请先了解如何在 Google Cloud 上使用 PHP安装 Cloud KMS PHP SDK

function verify_asymmetric_rsa_sample(
    string $projectId = 'my-project',
    string $locationId = 'us-east1',
    string $keyRingId = 'my-key-ring',
    string $keyId = 'my-key',
    string $versionId = '123',
    string $message = '...',
    string $signature = '...'
) {
    // PHP has limited support for asymmetric encryption operations.
    // Specifically, openssl_public_encrypt() does not allow customizing
    // algorithms or padding. Thus, it is not currently possible to use PHP
    // core for asymmetric operations on RSA keys.
    //
    // Third party libraries like phpseclib may provide the required
    // functionality. Google does not endorse this external library.
}

Python

要运行此代码,请先设置 Python 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Python SDK

def verify_asymmetric_rsa(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id, message, signature):
    """
    Verify the signature of an message signed with an asymmetric RSA key.

    Args:
        project_id (string): Google Cloud project ID (e.g. 'my-project').
        location_id (string): Cloud KMS location (e.g. 'us-east1').
        key_ring_id (string): ID of the Cloud KMS key ring (e.g. 'my-key-ring').
        key_id (string): ID of the key to use (e.g. 'my-key').
        version_id (string): ID of the version to use (e.g. '1').
        message (string): Original message (e.g. 'my message')
        signature (bytes): Signature from a sign request.

    Returns:
        bool: True if verified, False otherwise

    """

    # Import the client library.
    from google.cloud import kms

    # Import cryptographic helpers from the cryptography package.
    from cryptography.exceptions import InvalidSignature
    from cryptography.hazmat.backends import default_backend
    from cryptography.hazmat.primitives import hashes, serialization
    from cryptography.hazmat.primitives.asymmetric import padding, utils

    # Import hashlib.
    import hashlib

    # Convert the message to bytes.
    message_bytes = message.encode('utf-8')

    # Create the client.
    client = kms.KeyManagementServiceClient()

    # Build the key version name.
    key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path(project_id, location_id, key_ring_id, key_id, version_id)

    # Get the public key.
    public_key = client.get_public_key(request={'name': key_version_name})

    # Extract and parse the public key as a PEM-encoded RSA key.
    pem = public_key.pem.encode('utf-8')
    rsa_key = serialization.load_pem_public_key(pem, default_backend())
    hash_ = hashlib.sha256(message_bytes).digest()

    # Attempt to verify.
    try:
        sha256 = hashes.SHA256()
        pad = padding.PKCS1v15()
        rsa_key.verify(signature, hash_, pad, utils.Prehashed(sha256))
        print('Signature verified')
        return True
    except InvalidSignature:
        print('Signature failed to verify')
        return False

Ruby

要运行此代码,请先设置 Ruby 开发环境安装 Cloud KMS Ruby SDK

# TODO(developer): uncomment these values before running the sample.
# project_id  = "my-project"
# location_id = "us-east1"
# key_ring_id = "my-key-ring"
# key_id      = "my-key"
# version_id  = "123"
# message     = "my message"
# signature   = "..."

# Require the library.
require "google/cloud/kms"
require "openssl"

# Create the client.
client = Google::Cloud::Kms.key_management_service

# Build the key version name.
key_version_name = client.crypto_key_version_path project:            project_id,
                                                  location:           location_id,
                                                  key_ring:           key_ring_id,
                                                  crypto_key:         key_id,
                                                  crypto_key_version: version_id

# Get the public key.
public_key = client.get_public_key name: key_version_name

# Parse the public key.
rsa_key = OpenSSL::PKey::RSA.new public_key.pem

# Verify the signature.
#
# Note: The verify_pss() method only exists in Ruby 2.5+.
verified = rsa_key.verify_pss "sha256", signature, message, salt_length: :digest, mgf1_hash: "sha256"
puts "Verified: #{verified}"

API

这些示例使用 curl 作为 HTTP 客户端来演示如何使用 API。如需详细了解访问权限控制,请参阅访问 Cloud KMS API

使用 CryptoKeyVersions.getPublicKey 方法检索公钥,然后使用命令行示例中显示的命令验证签名。