Service accounts

This page describes service accounts and how they can be used with Cloud Dataproc.

What are service accounts?

A service account is a special account that can be used by services and applications running on your Compute Engine instance to interact with other Google Cloud Platform APIs. Applications can use service account credentials to authorize themselves to a set of APIs and perform actions within the permissions granted to the service account and virtual machine instance.

When created, Compute Engine virtual machines can be configured to use a specific service account. If a service account is not specified, a default service account is used. For more information, review the Compute Engine service account documentation.

Service accounts in Cloud Dataproc

Cloud Dataproc clusters are built on top of Compute Engine virtual machines. Specifying a user-managed service account when creating a Cloud Dataproc cluster allows you to use that service account for Cloud Dataproc virtual machines in that cluster. If a service account is not specified, Cloud Dataproc virtual machines will use the default Google-managed Compute Engine service account.

Why specify a service account?

Service accounts have IAM roles granted to them. Specifying a user-managed service account when creating a Cloud Dataproc cluster allows you to create and utilize clusters with fine-grained access and control to Cloud resources. Using multiple user-managed service accounts with different Cloud Dataproc clusters allows for clusters with different access to Cloud resources.

Service account requirements and Limitations

  • Service accounts can only be set when a cluster is created.
  • You need to create a service account before creating the Cloud Dataproc cluster that will be associated with the service account.
  • Once set, the service account used for a cluster cannot be changed.
  • Make sure that service accounts have appropriate scopes and IAM roles for your needs.
  • Service accounts used with Cloud Dataproc must have Dataproc/Dataproc Worker role (or have all the permissions granted by Dataproc Worker role).
  • Compute Engine virtual machines used in Dataproc clusters still need specific access scopes. Access scopes are also limited to the service to which they apply. For example, if a Cloud Dataproc cluster been granted only the https://www.googleapis.com/auth/storage-full scope for Cloud Storage, then it can't use the same scope to make requests to BigQuery.

Using service accounts

You can specify a user-managed service account when you create a new Cloud Dataproc cluster via a Cloud Dataproc API clusters.create request or using the Cloud SDK gcloud command-line tool.

gcloud Command

Use the gcloud clusters create command to create a new cluster with a user-specified service account and access scopes.
gcloud dataproc clusters create cluster-name \
  --service-account=service-account-name@project-id.iam.gserviceaccount.com
  --scopes=scope[, ...]

REST API

You can set the serviceAccount and serviceAccountScopes in the GceClusterConfig object as part of the clusters.create API request.

Console

Cloud Dataproc support for setting user-managed service accounts in the GCP Console will be added in a future release.

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Cloud Dataproc Documentation