Writing a MapReduce Job with the BigQuery Connector

GsonBigQueryInputFormat class

GsonBigQueryInputFormat provides Hadoop with the appropriate BigQuery objects accessible in a JsonObject format via the following primary operations:

  • Using a user-specified query to select the appropriate BigQuery objects
  • Splitting the results of the query evenly among the Hadoop nodes
  • Parsing the splits into java objects to pass to the mapper. The Hadoop Mapper class receives a JsonObject representation of each selected BigQuery object.

This class provides access to BigQuery records through an extension of the Hadoop InputFormat class. To use this class correctly, a few lines must be added to the main Hadoop job. In particular, several parameters must be set in the Hadoop configuration and the InputFormat class must be set to GsonBigQueryInputFormat. Below is an example of the parameters to set and the lines of code needed to correctly use GsonBigQueryInputFormat.

Input Parameters

QualifiedInputTableId
The BigQuery table to read from, in the form: optional-projectId:datasetId.tableId
Example: publicdata:samples.shakespeare
projectId
The BigQuery projectId under which all of the input operations occur.
Example: my-first-cloud-project
// Set the job-level projectId.
conf.set(BigQueryConfiguration.PROJECT_ID_KEY, projectId);

// Configure input parameters.
BigQueryConfiguration.configureBigQueryInput(conf, inputQualifiedTableId);

// Set InputFormat.
job.setInputFormatClass(GsonBigQueryInputFormat.class);

In the above code, job refers to the org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Job that represents the Hadoop job to run. conf refers to the org.apache.hadoop.Configuration of the Hadoop job.

Mapper

The GsonBigQueryInputFormat class reads from BigQuery. It passes the BigQuery objects one at a time as input to the Hadoop Mapper function. The inputs take the form of a LongWritable and a JsonObject. The LongWritable tracks the record number. The JsonObject contains the Json-formatted BigQuery record. The Mapper accepts the LongWritable and JsonObject pair as input. Here is a snippet from the Mapper for a sample WordCount job.

  // private static final LongWritable ONE = new LongWritable(1);
  // The configuration key used to specify the BigQuery field name
  // ("column name").
  public static final String WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_KEY =
      "mapred.bq.samples.wordcount.word.key";

  // Default value for the configuration entry specified by
  // WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_KEY. Examples: 'word' in
  // publicdata:samples.shakespeare or 'repository_name'
  // in publicdata:samples.github_timeline.
  public static final String WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_VALUE_DEFAULT = "word";

  /**
   * The mapper function for WordCount.
   */
  public static class Map
      extends Mapper <LongWritable, JsonObject, Text, LongWritable> {
    private static final LongWritable ONE = new LongWritable(1);
    private Text word = new Text();
    private String wordKey;

    @Override
    public void setup(Context context)
        throws IOException, InterruptedException {
      // Find the runtime-configured key for the field name we're looking for
      // in the map task.
      Configuration conf = context.getConfiguration();
      wordKey = context.getConfiguration().get(WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_KEY,
          WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_VALUE_DEFAULT);
    }

    @Override
    public void map(LongWritable key, JsonObject value, Context context)
        throws IOException, InterruptedException {
      JsonElement countElement = value.get(wordKey);
      if (countElement != null) {
        String wordInRecord = countElement.getAsString();
        word.set(wordInRecord);
        // Write out the key, value pair (write out a value of 1, which will be
        // added to the total count for this word in the Reducer).
        context.write(word, ONE);
      }
    }
  }

IndirectBigQueryOutputFormat class

IndirectBigQueryOutputFormat provides Hadoop with the ability to write JsonObject values directly into a BigQuery table. This class provides access to BigQuery records through an extension of the Hadoop OutputFormat class. To use it correctly, several parameters must be set in the Hadoop configuration, and the OutputFormat class must be set to IndirectBigQueryOutputFormat. Below is an example of the parameters to set and the lines of code needed to correctly use IndirectBigQueryOutputFormat.

Output Parameters

projectId
The BigQuery projectId under which all of the output operations occur.
Example: "my-first-cloud-project"
QualifiedOutputTableId
The BigQuery dataset to write the final job results to, in the form optional-projectId:datasetId.tableId. The datasetId should already be present in your project. outputDatasetId_hadoop_temporary dataset will be created in BigQuery for temporary results. Make sure this does not conflict with an existing dataset.
Examples:
test_output_dataset.wordcount_output
my-first-cloud-project:test_output_dataset.wordcount_output
outputTableFieldSchema
A schema that defines the schema for the output BigQuery table
GcsOutputPath
The output path to store temporary Cloud Storage data (gs://bucket/dir/)
// Define the schema we will be using for the output BigQuery table.
    List outputTableFieldSchema = new ArrayList();
    outputTableFieldSchema.add(new TableFieldSchema().setName("Word").setType("STRING"));
    outputTableFieldSchema.add(new TableFieldSchema().setName("Count").setType("INTEGER"));
    TableSchema outputSchema = new TableSchema().setFields(outputTableFieldSchema);

    // Create the job and get its configuration.
    Job job = new Job(parser.getConfiguration(), "wordcount");
    Configuration conf = job.getConfiguration();

    // Set the job-level projectId.
    conf.set(BigQueryConfiguration.PROJECT_ID_KEY, projectId);

    // Configure input and output.
    BigQueryConfiguration.configureBigQueryInput(conf, inputQualifiedTableId);
    BigQueryOutputConfiguration.configure(
        conf,
        outputQualifiedTableId,
        outputSchema,
        outputGcsPath,
        BigQueryFileFormat.NEWLINE_DELIMITED_JSON,
        TextOutputFormat.class);

Reducer

The IndirectBigQueryOutputFormat class writes to BigQuery. It takes a key and a JsonObject value as input and writes only the JsonObject value to BigQuery (the key is ignored). The JsonObject should contain a Json-formatted BigQuery record. The Reducer should output a key of any type (NullWritable is used in our sample WordCount job) and JsonObject value pair. The Reducer for the sample WordCount job is shown below.

  /**
   * Reducer function for WordCount.
   */
  public static class Reduce
      extends Reducer<Text, LongWritable, Text, JsonObject, NullWritable> {

    @Override
    public void reduce(Text key, Iterable<LongWritable> values, Context context)
        throws IOException, InterruptedException {
      // Add up the values to get a total number of occurrences of our word.
      long count = 0;
      for (LongWritable val : values) {
        count = count + val.get();
      }

      JsonObject jsonObject = new JsonObject();
      jsonObject.addProperty("Word", key.toString());
      jsonObject.addProperty("Count", count);
      // Key does not matter.
      context.write(jsonObject, NullWritable.get());
    }
  }

Clean up

After the job completes, clean up Cloud Storage export paths.

job.waitForCompletion(true);
GsonBigQueryInputFormat.cleanupJob(job.getConfiguration(), job.getJobID());

You can view word counts in the BigQuery output table at https://bigquery.cloud.google.com

Complete Code for a sample WordCount job

The code below is an example of a simple WordCount job that aggregates word counts from objects in BigQuery.

package com.google.cloud.hadoop.io.bigquery.samples;

import com.google.api.services.bigquery.model.TableFieldSchema;
import com.google.api.services.bigquery.model.TableSchema;
import com.google.cloud.hadoop.io.bigquery.BigQueryConfiguration;
import com.google.cloud.hadoop.io.bigquery.BigQueryFileFormat;
import com.google.cloud.hadoop.io.bigquery.GsonBigQueryInputFormat;
import com.google.cloud.hadoop.io.bigquery.output.BigQueryOutputConfiguration;
import com.google.cloud.hadoop.io.bigquery.output.IndirectBigQueryOutputFormat;
import com.google.gson.JsonElement;
import com.google.gson.JsonObject;

import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.LongWritable;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.NullWritable;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Job;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Mapper;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Reducer;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.output.TextOutputFormat;
import org.apache.hadoop.util.GenericOptionsParser;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

/**
 * Sample program to run the Hadoop Wordcount example over tables in BigQuery.
 */
public class WordCount {

 // The configuration key used to specify the BigQuery field name
  // ("column name").
  public static final String WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_KEY =
      "mapred.bq.samples.wordcount.word.key";

  // Default value for the configuration entry specified by
  // WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_KEY. Examples: 'word' in
  // publicdata:samples.shakespeare or 'repository_name'
  // in publicdata:samples.github_timeline.
  public static final String WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_VALUE_DEFAULT = "word";

  // Guava might not be available, so define a null / empty helper:
  private static boolean isStringNullOrEmpty(String toTest) {
    return toTest == null || "".equals(toTest);
  }

  /**
   * The mapper function for WordCount. For input, it consumes a LongWritable
   * and JsonObject as the key and value. These correspond to a row identifier
   * and Json representation of the row's values/columns.
   * For output, it produces Text and a LongWritable as the key and value.
   * These correspond to the word and a count for the number of times it has
   * occurred.
   */

  public static class Map
      extends Mapper  {
    private static final LongWritable ONE = new LongWritable(1);
    private Text word = new Text();
    private String wordKey;

    @Override
    public void setup(Context context)
        throws IOException, InterruptedException {
      // Find the runtime-configured key for the field name we're looking for in
      // the map task.
      Configuration conf = context.getConfiguration();
      wordKey = conf.get(WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_KEY, WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_VALUE_DEFAULT);
    }

    @Override
    public void map(LongWritable key, JsonObject value, Context context)
        throws IOException, InterruptedException {
      JsonElement countElement = value.get(wordKey);
      if (countElement != null) {
        String wordInRecord = countElement.getAsString();
        word.set(wordInRecord);
        // Write out the key, value pair (write out a value of 1, which will be
        // added to the total count for this word in the Reducer).
        context.write(word, ONE);
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Reducer function for WordCount. For input, it consumes the Text and
   * LongWritable that the mapper produced. For output, it produces a JsonObject
   * and NullWritable. The JsonObject represents the data that will be
   * loaded into BigQuery.
   */
  public static class Reduce
      extends Reducer {

    @Override
    public void reduce(Text key, Iterable values, Context context)
        throws IOException, InterruptedException {
      // Add up the values to get a total number of occurrences of our word.
      long count = 0;
      for (LongWritable val : values) {
        count = count + val.get();
      }

      JsonObject jsonObject = new JsonObject();
      jsonObject.addProperty("Word", key.toString());
      jsonObject.addProperty("Count", count);
      // Key does not matter.
      context.write(jsonObject, NullWritable.get());
    }
  }

  /**
   * Configures and runs the main Hadoop job. Takes a String[] of 5 parameters:
   * [ProjectId] [QualifiedInputTableId] [InputTableFieldName]
   * [QualifiedOutputTableId] [GcsOutputPath]
   *
   * ProjectId - Project under which to issue the BigQuery
   * operations. Also serves as the default project for table IDs that don't
   * specify a project for the table.
   *
   * QualifiedInputTableId - Input table ID of the form 
   * (Optional ProjectId):[DatasetId].[TableId]
   *
   * InputTableFieldName - Name of the field to count in the
   * input table, e.g., 'word' in publicdata:samples.shakespeare or
   * 'repository_name' in publicdata:samples.github_timeline.
   *
   * QualifiedOutputTableId - Input table ID of the form
   * (Optional ProjectId):[DatasetId].[TableId]
   *
   * GcsOutputPath - The output path to store temporary
   * Google Cloud Storage data, e.g., gs://bucket/dir/
   *
   * @param args a String[] containing ProjectId, QualifiedInputTableId,
   *     InputTableFieldName, QualifiedOutputTableId, and GcsOutputPath.
   * @throws IOException on IO Error.
   * @throws InterruptedException on Interrupt.
   * @throws ClassNotFoundException if not all classes are present.
   */
  public static void main(String[] args)
      throws IOException, InterruptedException, ClassNotFoundException {

    // GenericOptionsParser is a utility to parse command line arguments
    // generic to the Hadoop framework. This example doesn't cover the specifics,
    // but recognizes several standard command line arguments, enabling
    // applications to easily specify a NameNode, a ResourceManager, additional
    // configuration resources, etc.
    GenericOptionsParser parser = new GenericOptionsParser(args);
    args = parser.getRemainingArgs();

    // Make sure we have the right parameters.
    if (args.length != 5) {
      System.out.println(
          "Usage: hadoop jar bigquery_wordcount.jar [ProjectId] [QualifiedInputTableId] "
              + "[InputTableFieldName] [QualifiedOutputTableId] [GcsOutputPath]\n"
              + "    ProjectId - Project under which to issue the BigQuery operations. Also serves "
              + "as the default project for table IDs that don't explicitly specify a project for "
              + "the table.\n"
              + "    QualifiedInputTableId - Input table ID of the form "
              + "(Optional ProjectId):[DatasetId].[TableId]\n"
              + "    InputTableFieldName - Name of the field to count in the input table, e.g., "
              + "'word' in publicdata:samples.shakespeare or 'repository_name' in "
              + "publicdata:samples.github_timeline.\n"
              + "    QualifiedOutputTableId - Input table ID of the form "
              + "(Optional ProjectId):[DatasetId].[TableId]\n"
              + "    GcsOutputPath - The output path to store temporary Cloud Storage data, e.g., "
              + "gs://bucket/dir/");
      System.exit(1);
    }

    // Get the individual parameters from the command line.
    String projectId = args[0];
    String inputQualifiedTableId = args[1];
    String inputTableFieldId = args[2];
    String outputQualifiedTableId = args[3];
    String outputGcsPath = args[4];

   // Define the schema we will be using for the output BigQuery table.
    List outputTableFieldSchema = new ArrayList();
    outputTableFieldSchema.add(new TableFieldSchema().setName("Word").setType("STRING"));
    outputTableFieldSchema.add(new TableFieldSchema().setName("Count").setType("INTEGER"));
    TableSchema outputSchema = new TableSchema().setFields(outputTableFieldSchema);

    // Create the job and get its configuration.
    Job job = new Job(parser.getConfiguration(), "wordcount");
    Configuration conf = job.getConfiguration();

    // Set the job-level projectId.
    conf.set(BigQueryConfiguration.PROJECT_ID_KEY, projectId);

    // Configure input and output.
    BigQueryConfiguration.configureBigQueryInput(conf, inputQualifiedTableId);
    BigQueryOutputConfiguration.configure(
        conf,
        outputQualifiedTableId,
        outputSchema,
        outputGcsPath,
        BigQueryFileFormat.NEWLINE_DELIMITED_JSON,
        TextOutputFormat.class);

    conf.set(WORDCOUNT_WORD_FIELDNAME_KEY, inputTableFieldId);

    // This helps Hadoop identify the Jar which contains the mapper and reducer
    // by specifying a class in that Jar. This is required if the jar is being
    // passed on the command line to Hadoop.
    job.setJarByClass(WordCount.class);

    // Tell the job what data the mapper will output.
    job.setOutputKeyClass(Text.class);
    job.setOutputValueClass(LongWritable.class);
    job.setMapperClass(Map.class);
    job.setReducerClass(Reduce.class);
    job.setInputFormatClass(GsonBigQueryInputFormat.class);

    // Instead of using BigQueryOutputFormat, we use the newer
    // IndirectBigQueryOutputFormat, which works by first buffering all the data
    // into a Cloud Storage temporary table, and then on commitJob, copies all data from
    // Cloud Storage into BigQuery in one operation. Its use is recommended for large jobs
    // since it only requires one BigQuery "load" job per Hadoop/Spark job, as
    // compared to BigQueryOutputFormat, which performs one BigQuery job for each
    // Hadoop/Spark task.
    job.setOutputFormatClass(IndirectBigQueryOutputFormat.class);

    job.waitForCompletion(true);

    // After the job completes, clean up the Google Cloud Storage export paths.
    GsonBigQueryInputFormat.cleanupJob(job.getConfiguration(), job.getJobID());

    // You can view word counts in the BigQuery output table at
    // https://bigquery.cloud.google.com.
  }
}

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