节点导出器

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本文档介绍如何配置 Google Kubernetes Engine 部署,以便使用 Google Cloud Managed Service for Prometheus 从节点导出器收集指标。本页面介绍如何完成以下任务:

  • 设置节点导出器以报告指标。
  • 为 Managed Service for Prometheus 配置 PodMonitoring 资源以收集导出的指标。
  • 在 Cloud Monitoring 中访问信息中心以查看指标。
  • 配置提醒规则以监控指标。

只有在您将代管式收集功能与 Managed Service for Prometheus 搭配使用时,这些说明才适用。如果您使用的是自行部署的收集功能,请参阅节点导出器的源代码库以了解安装信息。

前提条件

要使用 Managed Service for Prometheus 和代管式收集功能从节点导出器收集指标,您的部署必须满足以下要求:

  • 您的集群必须运行 Google Kubernetes Engine 1.21.4-gke.300 或更高版本。
  • 您必须运行 Managed Service for Prometheus,并启用代管式收集功能。如需了解详情,请参阅代管式收集功能使用入门

  • 如需使用 Cloud Monitoring 中提供的信息中心进行集成,您必须使用 node_exporter 1.3.1 版或更高版本。

    如需详细了解可用的信息中心,请参阅安装信息中心

安装节点导出器

您可以使用以下配置来安装节点导出器:

# Copyright 2022 Google LLC
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
  namespace: gmp-public
  name: node-exporter
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: node-exporter
    app.kubernetes.io/version: 1.3.1
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app.kubernetes.io/name: node-exporter
  updateStrategy:
    type: RollingUpdate
    rollingUpdate:
      maxUnavailable: 10%
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app.kubernetes.io/name: node-exporter
        app.kubernetes.io/version: 1.3.1
    spec:
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: kubernetes.io/arch
                operator: In
                values:
                - arm64
                - amd64
              - key: kubernetes.io/os
                operator: In
                values:
                - linux
      containers:
      - name: node-exporter
        image: quay.io/prometheus/node-exporter:v1.3.1
        args:
        - --web.listen-address=:8080
        - --path.sysfs=/host/sys
        - --path.rootfs=/host/root
        - --no-collector.wifi
        - --no-collector.hwmon
        - --collector.filesystem.ignored-mount-points=^/(dev|proc|sys|var/lib/docker/.+|var/lib/kubelet/pods/.+)($|/)
        - --collector.netclass.ignored-devices=^(veth.*)$
        - --collector.netdev.device-exclude=^(veth.*)$
        ports:
        - name: metrics
          containerPort: 8080
        resources:
          limits:
            memory: 180Mi
          requests:
            cpu: 102m
            memory: 180Mi
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /host/sys
          mountPropagation: HostToContainer
          name: sys
          readOnly: true
        - mountPath: /host/root
          mountPropagation: HostToContainer
          name: root
          readOnly: true
      hostNetwork: true
      hostPID: true
      securityContext:
        runAsNonRoot: true
        runAsUser: 65534
      volumes:
      - hostPath:
          path: /sys
        name: sys
      - hostPath:
          path: /
        name: root
---
apiVersion: monitoring.googleapis.com/v1
kind: PodMonitoring
metadata:
  namespace: gmp-public
  name: node-exporter
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: node-exporter
    app.kubernetes.io/part-of: google-cloud-managed-prometheus
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app.kubernetes.io/name: node-exporter
  endpoints:
  - port: metrics
    interval: 30s

如需从本地文件应用配置更改,请运行以下命令:

kubectl apply -f FILE_NAME

您还可以使用 Terraform 管理您的配置。

定义规则和提醒

您可以使用以下 Rules 配置来定义指标提醒:

# Copyright 2022 Google LLC
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

apiVersion: monitoring.googleapis.com/v1
kind: Rules
metadata:
  namespace: gmp-public
  name: node-exporter-rules
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/component: rules
    app.kubernetes.io/name: node-exporter-rules
    app.kubernetes.io/part-of: google-cloud-managed-prometheus
spec:
  groups:
  - name: node-exporter
    interval: 30s
    rules:
    - alert: NodeFilesystemSpaceFillingUp
      annotations:
        description: Filesystem on {{ $labels.device }} at {{ $labels.instance }}
          has only {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}% available space left and is filling
          up.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefilesystemspacefillingup
        summary: Filesystem is predicted to run out of space within the next 24 hours.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filesystem_avail_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} / node_filesystem_size_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} * 100 < 15
        and
          predict_linear(node_filesystem_avail_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""}[6h], 24 * 60 * 60) < 0
        and
          node_filesystem_readonly{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} == 0
        )
      for: 1h
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeFilesystemSpaceFillingUp
      annotations:
        description: Filesystem on {{ $labels.device }} at {{ $labels.instance }}
          has only {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}% available space left and is filling
          up fast.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefilesystemspacefillingup
        summary: Filesystem is predicted to run out of space within the next 4 hours.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filesystem_avail_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} / node_filesystem_size_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} * 100 < 10
        and
          predict_linear(node_filesystem_avail_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""}[6h], 4*60*60) < 0
        and
          node_filesystem_readonly{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} == 0
        )
      for: 1h
      labels:
        severity: critical
    - alert: NodeFilesystemAlmostOutOfSpace
      annotations:
        description: Filesystem on {{ $labels.device }} at {{ $labels.instance }}
          has only {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}% available space left.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefilesystemalmostoutofspace
        summary: Filesystem has less than 5% space left.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filesystem_avail_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} / node_filesystem_size_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} * 100 < 5
        and
          node_filesystem_readonly{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} == 0
        )
      for: 30m
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeFilesystemAlmostOutOfSpace
      annotations:
        description: Filesystem on {{ $labels.device }} at {{ $labels.instance }}
          has only {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}% available space left.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefilesystemalmostoutofspace
        summary: Filesystem has less than 3% space left.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filesystem_avail_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} / node_filesystem_size_bytes{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} * 100 < 3
        and
          node_filesystem_readonly{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} == 0
        )
      for: 30m
      labels:
        severity: critical
    - alert: NodeFilesystemFilesFillingUp
      annotations:
        description: Filesystem on {{ $labels.device }} at {{ $labels.instance }}
          has only {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}% available inodes left and is filling
          up.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefilesystemfilesfillingup
        summary: Filesystem is predicted to run out of inodes within the next 24 hours.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filesystem_files_free{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} / node_filesystem_files{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} * 100 < 40
        and
          predict_linear(node_filesystem_files_free{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""}[6h], 24*60*60) < 0
        and
          node_filesystem_readonly{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} == 0
        )
      for: 1h
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeFilesystemFilesFillingUp
      annotations:
        description: Filesystem on {{ $labels.device }} at {{ $labels.instance }}
          has only {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}% available inodes left and is filling
          up fast.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefilesystemfilesfillingup
        summary: Filesystem is predicted to run out of inodes within the next 4 hours.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filesystem_files_free{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} / node_filesystem_files{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} * 100 < 20
        and
          predict_linear(node_filesystem_files_free{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""}[6h], 4*60*60) < 0
        and
          node_filesystem_readonly{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} == 0
        )
      for: 1h
      labels:
        severity: critical
    - alert: NodeFilesystemAlmostOutOfFiles
      annotations:
        description: Filesystem on {{ $labels.device }} at {{ $labels.instance }}
          has only {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}% available inodes left.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefilesystemalmostoutoffiles
        summary: Filesystem has less than 5% inodes left.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filesystem_files_free{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} / node_filesystem_files{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} * 100 < 5
        and
          node_filesystem_readonly{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} == 0
        )
      for: 1h
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeFilesystemAlmostOutOfFiles
      annotations:
        description: Filesystem on {{ $labels.device }} at {{ $labels.instance }}
          has only {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}% available inodes left.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefilesystemalmostoutoffiles
        summary: Filesystem has less than 3% inodes left.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filesystem_files_free{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} / node_filesystem_files{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} * 100 < 3
        and
          node_filesystem_readonly{job="node-exporter",fstype!=""} == 0
        )
      for: 1h
      labels:
        severity: critical
    - alert: NodeNetworkReceiveErrs
      annotations:
        description: '{{ $labels.instance }} interface {{ $labels.device }} has encountered
          {{ printf "%.0f" $value }} receive errors in the last two minutes.'
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodenetworkreceiveerrs
        summary: Network interface is reporting many receive errors.
      expr: |
        rate(node_network_receive_errs_total[2m]) / rate(node_network_receive_packets_total[2m]) > 0.01
      for: 1h
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeNetworkTransmitErrs
      annotations:
        description: '{{ $labels.instance }} interface {{ $labels.device }} has encountered
          {{ printf "%.0f" $value }} transmit errors in the last two minutes.'
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodenetworktransmiterrs
        summary: Network interface is reporting many transmit errors.
      expr: |
        rate(node_network_transmit_errs_total[2m]) / rate(node_network_transmit_packets_total[2m]) > 0.01
      for: 1h
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeHighNumberConntrackEntriesUsed
      annotations:
        description: '{{ $value | humanizePercentage }} of conntrack entries are used.'
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodehighnumberconntrackentriesused
        summary: Number of conntrack are getting close to the limit.
      expr: |
        (node_nf_conntrack_entries / node_nf_conntrack_entries_limit) > 0.75
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeTextFileCollectorScrapeError
      annotations:
        description: Node Exporter text file collector failed to scrape.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodetextfilecollectorscrapeerror
        summary: Node Exporter text file collector failed to scrape.
      expr: |
        node_textfile_scrape_error{job="node-exporter"} == 1
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeClockSkewDetected
      annotations:
        description: Clock on {{ $labels.instance }} is out of sync by more than 300s.
          Ensure NTP is configured correctly on this host.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodeclockskewdetected
        summary: Clock skew detected.
      expr: |
        (
          node_timex_offset_seconds{job="node-exporter"} > 0.05
        and
          deriv(node_timex_offset_seconds{job="node-exporter"}[5m]) >= 0
        )
        or
        (
          node_timex_offset_seconds{job="node-exporter"} < -0.05
        and
          deriv(node_timex_offset_seconds{job="node-exporter"}[5m]) <= 0
        )
      for: 10m
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeClockNotSynchronising
      annotations:
        description: Clock on {{ $labels.instance }} is not synchronising. Ensure
          NTP is configured on this host.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodeclocknotsynchronising
        summary: Clock not synchronising.
      expr: |
        min_over_time(node_timex_sync_status{job="node-exporter"}[5m]) == 0
        and
        node_timex_maxerror_seconds{job="node-exporter"} >= 16
      for: 10m
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeRAIDDegraded
      annotations:
        description: RAID array '{{ $labels.device }}' on {{ $labels.instance }} is
          in degraded state due to one or more disks failures. Number of spare drives
          is insufficient to fix issue automatically.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/noderaiddegraded
        summary: RAID Array is degraded
      expr: |
        node_md_disks_required{job="node-exporter",device=~"(/dev/)?(mmcblk.p.+|nvme.+|rbd.+|sd.+|vd.+|xvd.+|dm-.+|dasd.+)"} - ignoring (state) (node_md_disks{state="active",job="node-exporter",device=~"(/dev/)?(mmcblk.p.+|nvme.+|rbd.+|sd.+|vd.+|xvd.+|dm-.+|dasd.+)"}) > 0
      for: 15m
      labels:
        severity: critical
    - alert: NodeRAIDDiskFailure
      annotations:
        description: At least one device in RAID array on {{ $labels.instance }} failed.
          Array '{{ $labels.device }}' needs attention and possibly a disk swap.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/noderaiddiskfailure
        summary: Failed device in RAID array
      expr: |
        node_md_disks{state="failed",job="node-exporter",device=~"(/dev/)?(mmcblk.p.+|nvme.+|rbd.+|sd.+|vd.+|xvd.+|dm-.+|dasd.+)"} > 0
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeFileDescriptorLimit
      annotations:
        description: File descriptors limit at {{ $labels.instance }} is currently
          at {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}%.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefiledescriptorlimit
        summary: Kernel is predicted to exhaust file descriptors limit soon.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filefd_allocated{job="node-exporter"} * 100 / node_filefd_maximum{job="node-exporter"} > 70
        )
      for: 15m
      labels:
        severity: warning
    - alert: NodeFileDescriptorLimit
      annotations:
        description: File descriptors limit at {{ $labels.instance }} is currently
          at {{ printf "%.2f" $value }}%.
        runbook_url: https://runbooks.prometheus-operator.dev/runbooks/node/nodefiledescriptorlimit
        summary: Kernel is predicted to exhaust file descriptors limit soon.
      expr: |
        (
          node_filefd_allocated{job="node-exporter"} * 100 / node_filefd_maximum{job="node-exporter"} > 90
        )
      for: 15m
      labels:
        severity: critical
  - name: node-exporter.rules
    interval: 30s
    rules:
    - expr: |
        count without (cpu, mode) (
          node_cpu_seconds_total{job="node-exporter",mode="idle"}
        )
      record: instance:node_num_cpu:sum
    - expr: |
        1 - avg without (cpu) (
          sum without (mode) (rate(node_cpu_seconds_total{job="node-exporter", mode=~"idle|iowait|steal"}[5m]))
        )
      record: instance:node_cpu_utilisation:rate5m
    - expr: |
        (
          node_load1{job="node-exporter"}
        /
          instance:node_num_cpu:sum{job="node-exporter"}
        )
      record: instance:node_load1_per_cpu:ratio
    - expr: |
        1 - (
          (
            node_memory_MemAvailable_bytes{job="node-exporter"}
            or
            (
              node_memory_Buffers_bytes{job="node-exporter"}
              +
              node_memory_Cached_bytes{job="node-exporter"}
              +
              node_memory_MemFree_bytes{job="node-exporter"}
              +
              node_memory_Slab_bytes{job="node-exporter"}
            )
          )
        /
          node_memory_MemTotal_bytes{job="node-exporter"}
        )
      record: instance:node_memory_utilisation:ratio
    - expr: |
        rate(node_vmstat_pgmajfault{job="node-exporter"}[5m])
      record: instance:node_vmstat_pgmajfault:rate5m
    - expr: |
        rate(node_disk_io_time_seconds_total{job="node-exporter", device=~"(/dev/)?(mmcblk.p.+|nvme.+|rbd.+|sd.+|vd.+|xvd.+|dm-.+|dasd.+)"}[5m])
      record: instance_device:node_disk_io_time_seconds:rate5m
    - expr: |
        rate(node_disk_io_time_weighted_seconds_total{job="node-exporter", device=~"(/dev/)?(mmcblk.p.+|nvme.+|rbd.+|sd.+|vd.+|xvd.+|dm-.+|dasd.+)"}[5m])
      record: instance_device:node_disk_io_time_weighted_seconds:rate5m
    - expr: |
        sum without (device) (
          rate(node_network_receive_bytes_total{job="node-exporter", device!="lo"}[5m])
        )
      record: instance:node_network_receive_bytes_excluding_lo:rate5m
    - expr: |
        sum without (device) (
          rate(node_network_transmit_bytes_total{job="node-exporter", device!="lo"}[5m])
        )
      record: instance:node_network_transmit_bytes_excluding_lo:rate5m
    - expr: |
        sum without (device) (
          rate(node_network_receive_drop_total{job="node-exporter", device!="lo"}[5m])
        )
      record: instance:node_network_receive_drop_excluding_lo:rate5m
    - expr: |
        sum without (device) (
          rate(node_network_transmit_drop_total{job="node-exporter", device!="lo"}[5m])
        )
      record: instance:node_network_transmit_drop_excluding_lo:rate5m

如需从本地文件应用配置更改,请运行以下命令:

kubectl apply -f FILE_NAME

您还可以使用 Terraform 管理您的配置。

如需详细了解如何将规则应用于您的集群,请参阅代管式规则评估和提醒

Rules 配置改编自贡献给 kube-prometheus 代码库的规则和提醒。

验证配置

您可以使用 Metrics Explorer 来验证是否正确配置了导出器。Cloud Monitoring 可能需要一两分钟时间来注入您的指标。

要验证指标是否已注入,请执行以下操作:

  1. 在 Google Cloud 控制台中,选择 Monitoring 或点击以下按钮:
    转到 Monitoring
  2. 在导航窗格中,选择 Metrics Explorer
  3. 选择 PromQL 标签页,然后运行以下查询:
    up{job="node-exporter", cluster="CLUSTER_NAME", namespace="gmp-public"}
    

安装信息中心

Cloud Monitoring 提供了一个用于集成的信息中心示例库。示例库包含“Prometheus”信息中心,您可以安装该信息中心以查看 Google Cloud 控制台中的数据。

请注意,Kubernetes 集群 Prometheus 概览Kubernetes Pod Prometheus 概览信息中心还要求安装 Kube 状态指标

如需从示例库安装信息中心,请执行以下操作:

  1. 在 Google Cloud 控制台中,选择 Monitoring 或点击以下按钮:
    转到 Monitoring
  2. 在导航窗格中,选择  信息中心
  3. 选择示例库标签页。
  4. 选择其他类别。
  5. (可选)如需在不安装信息中心的情况下查看静态预览,请点击预览
  6. 选择要安装的信息中心,然后点击  导入

如需详细了解如何安装信息中心,请参阅安装示例信息中心

问题排查

如需了解如何排查指标注入问题,请参阅排查注入端问题中的从导出器收集的问题