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Access Google APIs using Private Service Connect with consumer HTTP(S) service controls

Private Service Connect lets you connect to services outside of your Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) network using internal IP addresses that you define.

You can create a Private Service Connect endpoint with consumer HTTP(S) service controls using an internal HTTP(S) load balancer, which lets you maintain consistent policies across multiple service producers.

See Using Private Service Connect to access Google APIs with consumer HTTP(S) service controls for more information.

An internal HTTP(S) load balancer used for Private Service Connect can be reached from Shared VPC networks and from connected networks.

Roles

The Compute Load Balancer Admin role (roles/compute.loadBalancerAdmin) contains the permission required to perform the tasks described in this guide.

Supported services

See the list of supported regional service endpoints.

Before you begin

  • Enable the Compute Engine API in your project.

  • If you want to register the load balancing forwarding rule with Service Directory, enable the Service Directory API in your project. To configure service directory, you must create the forwarding rule using the Google Cloud CLI or the API.

  • Create a proxy-only subnet if you don't already have one. There must be a single proxy-only subnet in the VPC network and region where you intend to create the internal HTTP(S) load balancer. This subnet is used by all internal HTTP(S) load balancers within that network and region.

  • If you don't already have them, create a private key and a certificate for your domain. See step 1 of using self-managed SSL certificates. You need a private key and certificate to create the target HTTPS proxy when you configure the load balancer.

Create a network endpoint group

For each service that you want to make available using the load balancer, create a Private Service Connect network endpoint group (NEG).

Console

  1. Go to the Network endpoint groups page in the Google Cloud console.
    Go to Network endpoint groups
  2. Click Create network endpoint group.
  3. Enter a Name for the network endpoint group.
  4. For the Network endpoint group type, select Network endpoint group (Private Service Connect).
  5. Select the Region for the network endpoint group.
  6. Select the Target service for the network endpoint group.
  7. Click Create.

gcloud

gcloud compute network-endpoint-groups create NEG_NAME \
  --network-endpoint-type=private-service-connect \
  --psc-target-service=TARGET_SERVICE \
  --region=REGION

Replace the following:

  • NEG_NAME: a name for the network endpoint group.

  • TARGET_SERVICE: the target service that you want to connect to. See the list of supported regional service endpoints.

  • REGION: the region to create the network endpoint group in. The region must be the same region as the service you want to connect to.

Configure the load balancer

All load balancer components must be created in the same region as the Private Service Connect network endpoint group.

Console

Select a load balancer type

  1. Go to the Load balancing page in the Google Cloud console.
    Go to Load balancing
  2. Under HTTP(S) Load Balancing, click Start configuration.
  3. Select Only between my VMs. This setting means that the load balancer is internal.
  4. Click Continue.

Basic configuration

  1. Enter a Name for the load balancer.
  2. Select a Region for the load balancer.
  3. Select a Network for the load balancer.

    The network must contain a proxy-only subnet in the region that you are creating the NEG and load balancer in. If you don't have one, you can click Reserve subnet to create one.

  4. Keep the window open to continue.

Backend configuration

The Private Service Connect network endpoint group is a type of load balancer backend. You create a backend service for each backend you want to configure.

  1. Click Backend configuration.
  2. For each Private Service Connect network endpoint group that you want to configure, create a backend service.

    1. From the Create or select backend services menu, select Create a backend service.
    2. Enter a Name for the backend service.
    3. Set the Backend type to Private Service Connect network endpoint group.
    4. Select HTTPS for the protocol.

      The Named port setting is not used for this load balancer configuration. Keep the default named port setting.

    5. In the Backends section, click the New backend menu, and select the Private Service Connect network endpoint group.

      If you need to create a new Private Service Connect network endpoint group, click Create Private Service Connect network endpoint group.

Routing rules

If you are configuring only one backend service for the load balancer, the default routing rule is sufficient, and you can skip to Frontend configuration.

  1. If you have more than one backend service, click Routing rules.
  2. Select Simple host and path rule.
  3. For each backend, do the following:
    1. Add host and path rule.
    2. For Host, enter the hostname that will be used to send requests to this service—for example, cloudkms.example.com.
    3. For Paths, enter the path—for example, /*.
    4. For Backends, select the backend service.

Frontend configuration

  1. Click Frontend configuration.
  2. Click Add frontend IP and port.
  3. Enter a Name for the load balancer.
  4. In the Protocol field, select HTTPS (includes HTTP/2).
  5. Select a Subnetwork for the load balancer.
  6. Ensure that the Port is set to 443, to allow HTTPS traffic.
  7. For IP address, select an IP address from the menu.

    If you want to reserve a new IP address, click Create IP address.

  8. Click the Certificate drop-down list.

    1. If you already have a self-managed SSL certificate resource that you want to use, select it from the menu.
    2. Otherwise, select Create a new certificate.
    3. Enter a Name for the certificate resource.
    4. In the appropriate fields, upload your PEM-formatted files:
      • Certificate
      • Private key
    5. Click Create.
  9. Click Done.

Review and finalize

  1. Click Review and finalize to review the configuration.
  2. Click Create.

gcloud

  1. For each network endpoint group that you have created, create a backend service.

    gcloud compute backend-services create BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME \
     --load-balancing-scheme=INTERNAL_MANAGED \
     --protocol=HTTPS \
     --region=REGION
    

    Replace the following:

    • BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME: the name of the backend service.
    • REGION: the region to create the backend service in.
  2. For each backend service that you have created, add the corresponding NEG to the backend service.

    gcloud compute backend-services add-backend BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME \
     --network-endpoint-group=NEG_NAME \
     --region=REGION
    

    Replace the following:

    • BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME: the name of the backend service.
    • NEG_NAME: the name of the network endpoint group.
    • REGION: the region for the backend.
  3. Create a URL map for the load balancer.

    A URL map must reference a default backend service. If you're configuring your load balancer with one backend service, set that backend service as the default. If you're configuring your load balancer to use multiple backend services, referenced by host rules and path matchers that you create in the next step, pick one of the backend services to be the URL map default.

    gcloud compute url-maps create URL_MAP_NAME \
     --default-service=DEFAULT_BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME \
     --region=REGION
    

    Replace the following:

    • URL_MAP_NAME: a name for the URL map.

    • DEFAULT_BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME: the name of the load balancer's default. The default is used when no host rule matches the requested hostname.

    • REGION: the region to create the URL map in.

  4. Add additional backend services to the URL map.

    If your URL map needs to reference two or more backend services, complete the following steps. If your URL map only references one backend service, skip this step.

    1. For each backend service, add a path matcher. You must create one path matcher for each backend service.
    gcloud compute url-maps add-path-matcher URL_MAP_NAME \
     --path-matcher-name=PATH_MATCHER \
     --default-service=BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME \
     --region=REGION
    

    Replace the following:

    • URL_MAP_NAME: the name of the URL map.
    • PATH_MATCHER: a name for the path matcher.
    • BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME: the name of the backend service.
    • REGION: the region of the URL map.
    1. For each hostname, add a host rule.

      Each host rule can reference only one path matcher, but two or more host rules can reference the same path matcher.

      gcloud compute url-maps add-host-rule URL_MAP_NAME \
      --hosts=HOST \
      --path-matcher-name=PATH_MATCHER \
      --region=REGION
      

      Replace the following:

      • URL_MAP_NAME: the name of the URL map.
      • HOST: the hostname to send requests to for this service. For example, cloudkms.example.com.
      • PATH_MATCHER: the name of the path matcher.
      • REGION: the region of the URL map.
  5. Create the target HTTPS proxy.

    Create a regional SSL certificate resource using the gcloud compute ssl-certificates create command. Google-managed certificates aren't supported with internal HTTP(S) load balancers.

    gcloud compute ssl-certificates create CERTIFICATE \
     --certificate=LB_CERT \
     --private-key=LB_PRIVATE_KEY \
     --region=REGION
    

    Replace the following:

    • CERTIFICATE: a name for the certificate.

    • LB_CERT: the path to the PEM-formatted certificate file for your self-managed certificate.

    • LB_PRIVATE_KEY: the path to the PEM-formatted private key file for your self-managed certificate.

    • REGION: the region for the certificate.

    Use the regional SSL certificate resource to create a target HTTPS proxy with the gcloud compute target-https-proxies create command.

    gcloud compute target-https-proxies create PROXY_NAME \
       --url-map=URL_MAP_NAME \
       --region=REGION \
       --ssl-certificates=CERTIFICATE
    

    Replace the following:

    • PROXY_NAME: a name for the target HTTPS proxy.
    • URL_MAP_NAME: the name of the URL map.
    • REGION: the region for the certificate resource.
    • CERTIFICATE: the name of the certificate resource.
  6. Reserve a regional internal IPv4 address for the forwarding rule.

    gcloud compute addresses create ADDRESS_NAME \
     --ip-version=IPV4 \
     --region=REGION \
     --subnet=SUBNETWORK
    

    Replace the following:

    • ADDRESS_NAME: a name for the IP address resource.
    • REGION: the region to create the IP address in.
    • SUBNET: the subnet to create the IP address in.

    Run this command to view the reserved IP address. After you've created the load balancer, you can use the IP address to verify the configuration.

    gcloud compute addresses describe ADDRESS_NAME \
     --format="get(address)" --region=REGION
    
  7. Create the forwarding rule.

    Create the forwarding rule using the gcloud compute forwarding-rules create command.

    gcloud compute forwarding-rules create FWD_RULE \
     --load-balancing-scheme=INTERNAL_MANAGED \
     --network=NETWORK \
     --address=ADDRESS_NAME \
     --ports=443 \
     --region=REGION \
     --target-https-proxy=PROXY_NAME \
     --target-https-proxy-region=PROXY_REGION \
     [--service-directory-registration=SD_SERVICE_NAME]
    

    Replace the following:

    • FWD_RULE: a name for the forwarding rule.

    • NETWORK: the network to create the forwarding rule in.

    • ADDRESS_NAME: the reserved IP address.

    • REGION: the region for the forwarding rule.

    • PROXY_NAME: the name of the target HTTPS proxy.

    • PROXY_REGION: the region of the target HTTPS proxy.

    • SD_SERVICE_NAME: the URI of the Service Directory service that you want to register the load balancer with, in this format: projects/PROJECT/locations/REGION/namespaces/NAMESPACE_NAME/services/SERVICE_NAME. Specifying --service-directory-registration is optional.

Configure DNS records

Configure DNS records for each host that you added to the URL map, pointing to the IP address of the forwarding rule.

For example, say you have configured Private Service Connect with HTTP(S) consumer service controls with the following configurations:

  • A Private Service Connect NEG that uses target service asia-east1-cloudkms.googleapis.com.

  • An internal HTTP(S) load balancer that uses that Private Service Connect NEG as a backend.

  • A URL map that defines a host rule for cloudkms.example.com.

For this configuration to work correctly, you create a DNS record that points cloudkms.example.com to the IP address of the forwarding rule.

Any requests sent to cloudkms.example.com are sent to the load balancer, which forwards the request to asia-east1-cloudkms.googleapis.com.

If you're using Cloud DNS to manage DNS, see adding a DNS record.

Verifying the configuration

  1. Create the VM instance.

    gcloud compute instances create VM_NAME \
       --network=NETWORK \
       --image-project=debian-cloud --image-family=debian-9 \
       --zone=ZONE
    

    Replace the following:

    • VM_NAME: a name for the virtual machine.

    • NETWORK: the network for the VM.

    • ZONE: the zone for the VM.

  2. Connect to the VM.

    gcloud compute ssh VM_NAME --zone=ZONE
    
  3. Use curl to verify the configuration. This command sets the Host header and bypasses DNS resolution by specifying a user-defined IP address. You can omit the port if you are using the default port for the protocol, for example using port 443 for HTTPS.

    If needed, you can skip certificate validation using the -k flag. You might need to skip validation if you used a self-signed certificate to configure the target HTTPS proxy, or if the VM does not have the certificate of the certificate authority that signed your certificate.

    curl [-k] -s 'https://HOST:443/RESOURCE_URI' \
       -H 'Host: HOST' \
       --connect-to HOST:443:FWD_RULE_IP_ADDRESS:443
    

    Replace the following:

    • HOST: the hostname that is configured in the URL map.

    • RESOURCE_URI: the rest of the URI of the resource that you want to use for verification. For example, if the load balancer is forwarding requests to a Cloud Key Management Service regional endpoint, you could use v1/projects/<var>PROJECT_ID</var>/locations.

    • FWD_RULE_IP_ADDRESS: the IP address assigned to the reserved IP address resource, ADDRESS_NAME, used in the forwarding rule configuration.

Access the endpoint from on-premises hosts

If your on-premises network is connected to a VPC network, you can connect to the internal HTTP(S) load balancer which provides Private Service Connect using consumer HTTP(S) service controls.

  • Your on-premises network must be connected to the VPC network containing your internal HTTP(S) load balancer using Cloud VPN tunnels or VLAN attachments in the same region as the internal HTTP(S) load balancer.

  • The on-premises network must have appropriate routes to your internal HTTP(S) load balancer. Ensure that each Cloud Router managing the BGP session for the Cloud VPN tunnel or VLAN attachment has been configured to advertise the primary IP address range of the subnet used by your internal HTTP(S) load balancer forwarding rule. Cloud Routers advertise subnet routes by default.

  • You must configure on-premises systems so that the hostnames in the URL map of your internal HTTP(S) load balancer resolve to the internal HTTP(S) load balancer forwarding rule IP address. You can create the DNS records in on-premises name servers or you can use Cloud DNS.

    If you've created the DNS records using Cloud DNS managed private zones, complete the following steps:

    • Create an inbound server policy in the VPC network to which your on-premises network connects.

    • Identify the inbound forwarder entry points, in the regions where your Cloud VPN tunnels and VLAN attachments are located, in the VPC network to which your on-premises network connects.

    • Configure on-premises DNS name servers to forward DNS requests for the hostnames in the URL map to a Cloud DNS inbound forwarder entry point.

Figure 1. By configuring Private Service Connect, Cloud Router, and on-premises hosts, you can connect to Google APIs and services using regional service endpoints.