About accessing Google APIs through endpoints

This document provides an overview of Private Service Connect endpoints that are used to access Google APIs.

By default, if you have an application that uses a Google service, such as Cloud Storage, your application connects to the default DNS name for that service, such as storage.googleapis.com. The default DNS names for Google services resolve to publicly routable IP addresses. However, traffic sent from Google Cloud resources to those IP addresses remains within Google's network.

With Private Service Connect, you can create private endpoints using global internal IP addresses within your VPC network. You can assign DNS names to these internal IP addresses with meaningful names like storage-vialink1.p.googleapis.com and bigtable-adsteam.p.googleapis.com. These names and IP addresses are internal to your VPC network and any on-premises networks that are connected to it using Cloud VPN tunnels or VLAN attachments. You can control which traffic goes to which endpoint, and can demonstrate that traffic stays within Google Cloud.

This option gives you access to all Google APIs and services that are included in the API bundles.

Figure 1. Private Service Connect lets you send traffic to Google APIs by using an endpoint that is private to your VPC network (click to enlarge).

Features and compatibility

This table summarizes the features that are supported by endpoints that are used to access Google APIs.

Configuration Details
Consumer configuration (endpoint)
Global reachability Uses an internal global IP address
Interconnect traffic
Cloud VPN traffic
Automatic DNS configuration
IP stack IPv4
Producer
Supported services Supported global Google APIs

On-premises access

Private Service Connect endpoints that you use to access Google APIs can be accessed from supported connected on-premises hosts. For more information, see Access the endpoint from on-premises hosts.

Private Service Connect and Service Directory

Endpoints are registered with Service Directory. Service Directory is a platform to store, manage, and publish services. When you create an endpoint to access Google APIs and services, you select a Service Directory region and a Service Directory namespace.

Service Directory region

Service Directory is a regional service; the region you select defines where the Service Directory control plane resides. There is no functional difference between regions, but you might have a preference for administrative reasons.

When you create the first endpoint for Google APIs in a VPC network, the region that you select is used as the default region for all subsequent endpoints created in that network. If a region is not already set for a network, and you don't specify a region, the region is set to us-central1. All endpoints in a network must use the same Service Directory region.

Service Directory namespace

When you create the first endpoint for Google APIs in a VPC network, the namespace that you select is used as the default namespace for all subsequent endpoints created in that network. If the namespace is not already set for a network, and you don't specify a namespace, a system-generated namespace is used. All endpoints in a network must use the same Service Directory namespace. The namespace that you choose must be used only for endpoints that are used to access Google APIs. You can use the same namespace for endpoints in multiple networks.

When you create an endpoint, the following DNS configurations are created:

  • A Service Directory private DNS zone is created for p.googleapis.com

  • DNS records are created in p.googleapis.com for some commonly used Google APIs and services that are available using Private Service Connect and have default DNS names that end in googleapis.com.

    See creating DNS records for instructions to create DNS records for APIs and services that do not have a DNS record in p.googleapis.com.

The available services vary depending on whether you select the all-apis or vpc-sc API bundle.

One Service Directory DNS zone is created for each VPC network that contains an endpoint.

The DNS names for an endpoint are accessible in all regions in your VPC network.

Supported APIs

When you create an endpoint to access Google APIs and services, you choose which bundle of APIs you need access to—All APIs (all-apis) or VPC-SC (vpc-sc):

The API bundles support only HTTP-based protocols over TCP (HTTP, HTTPS, and HTTP/2). All other protocols, including MQTT and ICMP are not supported.

API bundle Supported services Example usage
all-apis

Enables API access to most Google APIs and services regardless of whether they are supported by VPC Service Controls. Includes API access to Google Maps, Google Ads, Google Cloud, and most other Google APIs, including the lists below. Does not support Google Workspace web applications such as Gmail and Google Docs. Does not support any interactive websites.

Domain names that match:

  • accounts.google.com (only the paths needed for OAuth authentication)
  • *.aiplatform-notebook.cloud.google.com
  • *.aiplatform-notebook.googleusercontent.com
  • appengine.google.com
  • *.appspot.com
  • *.backupdr.cloud.google.com
  • backupdr.cloud.google.com
  • *.backupdr.googleusercontent.com
  • backupdr.googleusercontent.com
  • *.cloudfunctions.net
  • *.cloudproxy.app
  • *.composer.cloud.google.com
  • *.composer.googleusercontent.com
  • *.datafusion.cloud.google.com
  • *.datafusion.googleusercontent.com
  • *.dataproc.cloud.google.com
  • dataproc.cloud.google.com
  • *.dataproc.googleusercontent.com
  • dataproc.googleusercontent.com
  • dl.google.com
  • gcr.io or *.gcr.io
  • *.googleapis.com
  • *.gstatic.com
  • *.ltsapis.goog
  • *.notebooks.cloud.google.com
  • *.notebooks.googleusercontent.com
  • packages.cloud.google.com
  • pkg.dev or *.pkg.dev
  • pki.goog or *.pki.goog
  • *.run.app
  • source.developers.google.com

Choose all-apis under these circumstances:

  • You don't use VPC Service Controls.
  • You do use VPC Service Controls, but you also need to access Google APIs and services that are not supported by VPC Service Controls. 1

vpc-sc

Enables API access to Google APIs and services that are supported by VPC Service Controls.

Blocks access to Google APIs and services that do not support VPC Service Controls. Does not support Google Workspace APIs or Google Workspace web applications such as Gmail and Google Docs.

Choose vpc-sc when you only need access to Google APIs and services that are supported by VPC Service Controls. The vpc-sc bundle does not permit access to Google APIs and services that do not support VPC Service Controls. 1

1 If you need to restrict users to just the Google APIs and services that support VPC Service Controls, use vpc-sc. Although VPC Service Controls are enforced for compatible and configured services, regardless of the bundle you use, vpc-sc provides additional risk mitigation for data exfiltration. Using vpc-sc denies access to Google APIs and services that are not supported by VPC Service Controls. See Setting up private connectivity in the VPC Service Controls documentation for more details.

IP address requirements

When you configure Private Service Connect on a VPC network, you provide an IP address to use for the endpoint.

The address counts toward the project's quota for global internal IP addresses.

The IP address must meet the following specifications:

  • It must be a single IP address and not an address range.

  • It must be a valid IPv4 address. It can be an RFC 1918 address or a non-RFC 1918 address. IPv6 addresses are not supported for Private Service Connect.

  • It cannot be within the range of subnets configured in the VPC network.

  • It cannot be within a primary or secondary IP address range of any subnet in the VPC network or a network connected to the VPC network using VPC Network Peering.

  • It cannot overlap with a /32 custom static route in the local VPC network. For example, if the VPC network has a custom static route for 10.10.10.10/32, you cannot reserve address 10.10.10.10 for Private Service Connect.

  • It cannot overlap with a /32 peering custom static route if you've configured the peered network to export custom routes and you've configured your VPC network to import custom routes.

  • It cannot be within any of the auto-mode IP ranges (in 10.128.0.0/9) if the local VPC network is an auto mode network or if it is peered with an auto mode network.

  • It cannot be within an allocated IP range in the local VPC network. However, it can be within an allocated IP range in a peered VPC network.

  • If an endpoint overlaps with a custom dynamic route whose destination is the same /32, the endpoint takes priority.

  • If an endpoint IP address is located within the destination range of a custom static route, custom dynamic route, or peering custom route, and that route has a subnet mask shorter than /32, the endpoint has higher priority.

Use cases

You can create multiple endpoints in the same VPC network. There is no limit on total bandwidth sent to a particular endpoint. Because endpoints use global internal IP addresses, they can be used by any resource in your VPC network or an on-premises network connected using Cloud VPN tunnels or Cloud Interconnect attachments.

With multiple endpoints, you can specify different network paths using Cloud Router and firewall rules.

  • You can create firewall rules to prevent some VMs from accessing Google APIs through an endpoint, while allowing other VMs to have access.

  • You can have a firewall rule on a VM instance that disallows all traffic to the internet; traffic sent to Private Service Connect endpoints still reaches Google.

  • If you have on-premises hosts that are connected to a VPC using a Cloud VPN tunnel or a VLAN attachment, you can send some requests through the tunnel or VLAN while sending other requests over the public internet. This configuration lets you bypass the tunnel or VLAN for services such as Google Books that are not supported by Private Google Access.

    To create this configuration, create a Private Service Connect endpoint, advertise the endpoint IP addresses using Cloud Router custom route advertisements, and enable a Cloud DNS inbound forwarding policy. The application can send some requests through the Cloud VPN tunnel or VLAN attachment by using the name of the endpoint, and it can send other requests over the internet by using the default DNS name.

  • If you connect your on-premises network to your VPC network using multiple VLAN attachments, you can send some traffic from on-premises over one VLAN and the rest over others, as shown in figure 2. This lets you use your own wide-area networking instead of Google's, and to control data movement to meet geographic requirements.

    To create this configuration, create two endpoints. Create a custom route advertisement for the first endpoint on the BGP session of the Cloud Router managing the first VLAN, and create a different custom route advertisement for the second endpoint on the BGP session of the Cloud Router managing the second VLAN. On-premises hosts that are configured to use the endpoint name send traffic over the corresponding VLAN attachment.

  • You can also use multiple VLAN attachments in an active/active topology. If you advertise the same endpoint IP address using custom route advertisements for the BGP sessions on the Cloud Routers managing the VLANs, packets sent from on-premises systems to the endpoints are routed across the VLANs using ECMP.

    Figure 2. By configuring Private Service Connect, Cloud Router, and on-premises hosts, you can control which VLAN attachment is used to send traffic to Google APIs.

Pricing

Pricing for Private Service Connect is described in the VPC pricing page.

Quotas

The number of Private Service Connect endpoints that you can create for accessing Google APIs is controlled by the PSC Google APIs Forwarding Rules per VPC Network quota. For more information, see quotas.

Organization policy constraints

An Organization Policy Administrator can use the constraints/compute.disablePrivateServiceConnectCreationForConsumers constraint to define the set of endpoint types for which users cannot create forwarding rules.

For information about creating an organization policy that uses this constraint, see Block consumers from deploying endpoints by connection type.

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