Set up Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing with Shared VPC

Stay organized with collections Save and categorize content based on your preferences.

This document shows you two sample configurations for setting up Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing in a Shared VPC environment:

  • The first example creates all the load balancer components and backends in the service project.
  • The second example creates the load balancer's frontend components and URL map in a service project, while the load balancer's backend service and backends are created in a different service project. This type of deployment, where the URL map references a backend service in another project, is referred to as Cross-project service referencing.

Both examples require the same upfront configuration to grant permissions and set up Shared VPC before you can start creating load balancers.

These are not the only Shared VPC configurations supported by Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing. For other valid Shared VPC architectures, see Shared VPC architectures.

If you don't want to use a Shared VPC network, see Setting up Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing.

Before you begin

  1. Read Shared VPC overview.
  2. Read Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing overview, including the Shared VPC architectures section.

Permissions required

Setting up an internal HTTP(S) load balancer for Shared VPC requires some up-front setup and provisioning by an administrator. After the initial setup, a service project owner can do one of the following:

  • Deploy all the load balancer's components and its backends in a service project.
  • Deploy the load balancer's backend components (backend service and backends) in service projects that can be referenced by a URL map in another service or host project.

This section summarizes the permissions required to follow this guide to set up an internal HTTP(S) load balancer on a Shared VPC network.

Set up Shared VPC

The following roles are required for the following tasks:

  1. Perform one-off administrative tasks such as setting up the Shared VPC and enabling a host project.
  2. Perform administrative tasks that must be repeated every time you want to onboard a new service project. This includes attaching the service project, provisioning and configuring networking resources, and granting access to the service project administrator.

These tasks must be performed in the Shared VPC host project. We recommend that the Shared VPC Admin also be the owner of the Shared VPC host project. This automatically grants the Network Admin and Security Admin roles.

Task Required role
Set up Shared VPC, enable host project, and grant access to service project administrators Shared VPC Admin
Create subnets in the Shared VPC host project and grant access to service project administrators Network Admin
Add and remove firewall rules Security Admin

After the subnets have been provisioned, the host project owner must grant the Network User role in the host project to anyone (typically service project administrators, developers, or service accounts) who needs to use these resources.

Task Required role
Use VPC networks and subnets belonging to the host project Network User

This role can be granted on the project level or for individual subnets. We recommend that you grant the role on individual subnets. Granting the role on the project provides access to all current and future subnets in the VPC network of the host project.

Deploy load balancer and backends

Service project administrators need the following roles in the service project to create load balancing resources and backends. These permissions are granted automatically to the service project owner or editor.

Roles granted in the service project
Task Required role
Create load balancer components Network Admin
Create instances Instance Admin
Create and modify SSL certificates Security Admin

Reference cross-project backend services

If your load balancer needs to reference backend services from other service projects, also known as cross-project service referencing, load balancer administrators will require the following role in the service project where the backend service is created.

Roles granted in the service project
Task Required role
Permissions to use services in other projects Load Balancer Services User

This role can be granted either at the project level or for individual backend services. For instructions about how to grant this role, see the cross-project service referencing example on this page.

For more information about IAM, see the following guides:

Prerequisites

The steps in this section do not need to be performed every time you want to create a new load balancer. However, you must ensure that you have access to the resources described here before you proceed to creating the load balancer.

Set up Shared VPC with a host and service project

  1. Set up Shared VPC.
  2. Enable a host project.
  3. Attach a service project.

The rest of these instructions assume that you have already set up Shared VPC. This involves setting up IAM policies for your organization, and designating the host and service projects.

Do not proceed until you have set up Shared VPC and enabled the host and service projects.

Configure the network and subnets in the host project

You need a Shared VPC network with two subnets: one for the load balancer's frontend and backends, and the other for the load balancer's proxies.

This example uses the following network, region, and subnets:

  • Network. The network is named lb-network.

  • Subnet for load balancer frontend and backends. A subnet named lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet in the us-west1 region uses 10.1.2.0/24 for its primary IP range.

  • Subnet for proxies. A subnet named proxy-only-subnet in the us-west1 region uses 10.129.0.0/23 for its primary IP range.

Configure the subnet for the load balancer's frontend and backends

This step does not need to be performed every time you want to create a new load balancer. You only need to ensure that the service project has access to a subnet in the Shared VPC network (in addition to the proxy-only subnet).

All the steps in this section must be performed in the host project.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the VPC networks page.

    Go to VPC networks

  2. Click Create VPC network.
  3. For the Name, enter lb-network.
  4. In the Subnets section:
    1. Set the Subnet creation mode to Custom.
    2. In the New subnet section, enter the following information:
      • Name: lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet
      • Region: us-west1
      • IP address range: 10.1.2.0/24
    3. Click Done.
  5. Click Create.

gcloud

  1. Create a VPC network with the gcloud compute networks create command:

    gcloud compute networks create lb-network --subnet-mode=custom
    
  2. Create a subnet in the lb-network network in the us-west1 region:

    gcloud compute networks subnets create lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet \
        --network=lb-network \
        --range=10.1.2.0/24 \
        --region=us-west1
    

Terraform

  1. Create a VPC network.

    # Shared VPC network
    resource "google_compute_network" "lb_network" {
      name                    = "lb-network"
      provider                = google-beta
      project                 = "my-host-project-id"
      auto_create_subnetworks = false
    }

  2. Create a subnet in the us-west1 region:

    # Shared VPC network - backend subnet
    resource "google_compute_subnetwork" "lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet" {
      name          = "lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet"
      provider      = google-beta
      project       = "my-host-project-id"
      region        = "us-west1"
      ip_cidr_range = "10.1.2.0/24"
      role          = "ACTIVE"
      network       = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
    }

Configure the proxy-only subnet

The proxy-only subnet is used by all regional Envoy-based load balancers in the us-west1 region, in the lb-network VPC network. There can only be one active proxy-only subnet per region, per network.

Do not perform this step if there is already a proxy-only subnet reserved in the us-west1 region in this network.

All the steps in this section must be performed in the host project.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the VPC networks page.

    Go to VPC networks

  2. Click the name of the Shared VPC network: lb-network.
  3. Click Add subnet.
  4. For the Name, enter proxy-only-subnet.
  5. For the Region, select us-west1.
  6. Set Purpose to Regional Managed Proxy.
  7. For the IP address range, enter 10.129.0.0/23.
  8. Click Add.

gcloud

Create the proxy-only subnet with the gcloud compute networks subnets create command.

gcloud compute networks subnets create proxy-only-subnet \
  --purpose=REGIONAL_MANAGED_PROXY \
  --role=ACTIVE \
  --region=us-west1 \
  --network=lb-network \
  --range=10.129.0.0/23

Terraform

Create the proxy-only subnet.

# Shared VPC network - proxy-only subnet
resource "google_compute_subnetwork" "proxy_only_subnet" {
  name          = "proxy-only-subnet"
  provider      = google-beta
  project       = "my-host-project-id"
  region        = "us-west1"
  ip_cidr_range = "10.129.0.0/23"
  role          = "ACTIVE"
  purpose       = "REGIONAL_MANAGED_PROXY"
  network       = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
}

Give service project admins access to the backend subnet

Service project administrators require access to the lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet subnet so they can provision the load balancer's backends.

A Shared VPC Admin must grant access to the backend subnet to service project administrators (or developers who will deploy resources and backends that use the subnet). For instructions, see Service project admins for some subnets.

Configure firewall rules in the host project

This example uses the following firewall rules:

  • fw-allow-ssh. An ingress rule, applicable to the instances being load balanced, that allows incoming SSH connectivity on TCP port 22 from any address. You can choose a more restrictive source IP range for this rule; for example, you can specify just the IP ranges of the system from which you initiate SSH sessions. This example uses the target tag allow-ssh to identify the virtual machines (VMs) to which the firewall rule applies.

  • fw-allow-health-check. An ingress rule, applicable to the instances being load balanced, that allows all TCP traffic from the Google Cloud health checking systems (in 130.211.0.0/22 and 35.191.0.0/16). This example uses the target tag load-balanced-backend to identify the instances to which it should apply.

  • fw-allow-proxies. An ingress rule, applicable to the instances being load balanced, that allows TCP traffic on ports 80, 443, and 8080 from the internal HTTP(S) load balancer's managed proxies. This example uses the target tag load-balanced-backend to identify the instances to which it should apply.

Without these firewall rules, the default deny ingress rule blocks incoming traffic to the backend instances.

All the steps in this section must be performed in the host project.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Firewall rules page.

    Go to Firewall rules

  2. Click Create firewall rule to create the rule to allow incoming SSH connections:
    • Name: fw-allow-ssh
    • Network: lb-network
    • Direction of traffic: ingress
    • Action on match: allow
    • Targets: Specified target tags
    • Target tags: allow-ssh
    • Source filter: IPv4 ranges
    • Source IPv4 ranges: 0.0.0.0/0
    • Protocols and ports:
      • Choose Specified protocols and ports.
      • Check tcp and type 22 for the port number.
  3. Click Create.
  4. Click Create firewall rule to create the rule to allow Google Cloud health checks:
    • Name: fw-allow-health-check
    • Network: lb-network
    • Direction of traffic: ingress
    • Action on match: allow
    • Targets: Specified target tags
    • Target tags: load-balanced-backend
    • Source filter: IPv4 ranges
    • Source IPv4 ranges: 130.211.0.0/22 and 35.191.0.0/16
    • Protocols and ports:
      • Choose Specified protocols and ports.
      • Check tcp and enter 80.
        As a best practice, limit this rule to just the protocols and ports that match those used by your health check. If you use tcp:80 for the protocol and port, Google Cloud can use HTTP on port 80 to contact your VMs, but it cannot use HTTPS on port 443 to contact them.
  5. Click Create.
  6. Click Create firewall rule to create the rule to allow the load balancer's proxy-only subnet to connect to the backends:
    • Name: fw-allow-proxies
    • Network: lb-network
    • Direction of traffic: ingress
    • Action on match: allow
    • Targets: Specified target tags
    • Target tags: load-balanced-backend
    • Source filter: IPv4 ranges
    • Source IPv4 ranges: 10.129.0.0/23
    • Protocols and ports:
      • Choose Specified protocols and ports.
      • Check tcp and type 80, 443, 8080 for the port numbers.
  7. Click Create.

gcloud

  1. Create the fw-allow-ssh firewall rule to allow SSH connectivity to VMs with the network tag allow-ssh. When you omit source-ranges, Google Cloud interprets the rule to mean any source.

    gcloud compute firewall-rules create fw-allow-ssh \
        --network=lb-network \
        --action=allow \
        --direction=ingress \
        --target-tags=allow-ssh \
        --rules=tcp:22
    
  2. Create the fw-allow-health-check firewall rule to allow Google Cloud health checks. This example allows all TCP traffic from health check probers; however, you can configure a narrower set of ports to meet your needs.

    gcloud compute firewall-rules create fw-allow-health-check 
    --network=lb-network
    --action=allow
    --direction=ingress
    --source-ranges=130.211.0.0/22,35.191.0.0/16
    --target-tags=load-balanced-backend
    --rules=tcp

  3. Create the fw-allow-proxies firewall rule to allow traffic from the Envoy proxy-only subnet to reach your backends.

    gcloud compute firewall-rules create fw-allow-proxies \
      --network=lb-network \
      --action=allow \
      --direction=ingress \
      --source-ranges=10.129.0.0/23 \
      --target-tags=load-balanced-backend \
      --rules=tcp:80,tcp:443,tcp:8080
    

Terraform

  1. Create a firewall rule to allow SSH connectivity to VMs with the network tag allow-ssh.

    resource "google_compute_firewall" "fw_allow_ssh" {
      name          = "fw-allow-ssh"
      provider      = google-beta
      project       = "my-host-project-id"
      direction     = "INGRESS"
      network       = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
      source_ranges = ["0.0.0.0/0"]
      allow {
        protocol = "tcp"
        ports    = ["22"]
      }
      target_tags = ["allow-ssh"]
    }

  2. Create a firewall rule to allow Google Cloud health checks.

    resource "google_compute_firewall" "fw_allow_health_check" {
      name          = "fw-allow-health-check"
      provider      = google-beta
      project       = "my-host-project-id"
      direction     = "INGRESS"
      network       = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
      source_ranges = ["130.211.0.0/22", "35.191.0.0/16"]
      allow {
        protocol = "tcp"
      }
      target_tags = ["load-balanced-backend"]
    }

  3. Create a firewall rule to allow traffic from the Envoy proxy-only subnet to reach your backends.

    resource "google_compute_firewall" "fw_allow_proxies" {
      name          = "fw-allow-proxies"
      provider      = google-beta
      project       = "my-host-project-id"
      direction     = "INGRESS"
      network       = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
      source_ranges = ["10.129.0.0/23"]
      allow {
        protocol = "tcp"
        ports    = ["80", "443", "8080"]
      }
      target_tags = ["load-balanced-backend"]
    }

Configure a load balancer in the service project

This example creates an internal HTTP(S) load balancer where all the load balancing components (forwarding rule, target proxy, URL map, and backend service) and backends are created in the service project.

The internal HTTP(S) load balancer's networking resources such as the proxy-only subnet and the subnet for the backend instances are created in the host project. The firewall rules for the backend instances are also created in the host project.

Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing on Shared VPC
Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing on Shared VPC

This section shows you how to set up the load balancer and backends. These steps should be carried out by the service project administrator (or a developer operating within the service project) and do not require involvement from the host project administrator. The steps in this section are largely similar to the standard steps to set up Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing.

The example on this page explicitly sets a reserved internal IP address for the internal HTTP(S) load balancer's forwarding rule, rather than allowing an ephemeral internal IP address to be allocated. As a best practice, we recommend reserving IP addresses for forwarding rules.

Create the managed instance group backend

This section shows how to create a template and a managed instance group. The managed instance group provides VM instances running the backend servers of an example internal HTTP(S) load balancer. Traffic from clients is load balanced to these backend servers. For demonstration purposes, backends serve their own hostnames.

Console

  1. Create an instance template. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Instance templates page.

    Go to Instance templates

    1. Click Create instance template.
    2. For Name, enter l7-ilb-backend-template.
    3. Ensure that the Boot disk is set to a Debian image, such as Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster). These instructions use commands that are only available on Debian, such as apt-get. If you need to change the Boot disk, click Change.
      1. For Operating System, select Debian.
      2. For Version, select one of the available Debian images such as Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster).
      3. Click Select.
    4. Click Advanced options, and then click Networking.
    5. Enter the following Network tags: allow-ssh,load-balanced-backend.
    6. In the Network interfaces section, select Networks shared with me (from host project: HOST_PROJECT_ID).
    7. Select the lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet subnet from the lb-network network.
    8. Click Management. For Management, insert the following script into the Startup script field.
       #! /bin/bash
       sudo apt-get update
       sudo apt-get install apache2 -y
       sudo a2ensite default-ssl
       sudo a2enmod ssl
       vm_hostname="$(curl -H "Metadata-Flavor:Google" 
      http://metadata.google.internal/computeMetadata/v1/instance/name)" sudo echo "Page served from: $vm_hostname" |
      tee /var/www/html/index.html sudo systemctl restart apache2
    9. Click Create.
  2. Create a managed instance group. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Instance groups page.

    Go to Instance groups

    1. Click Create instance group.
    2. Choose New managed instance group (stateless). For more information, see Stateless or stateful MIGs.
    3. For Name, enter l7-ilb-backend-example.
    4. For Location, select Single zone.
    5. For Region, select us-west1.
    6. For Zone, select us-west1-a.
    7. For Instance template, select l7-ilb-backend-template.
    8. Specify the number of instances that you want to create in the group.

      For this example, specify the following options for Autoscaling:

      • For Autoscaling mode, select Off:do not autoscale.
      • For Maximum number of instances, enter 2.

      Optionally, in the Autoscaling section of the UI, you can configure the instance group to automatically add or remove instances based on instance CPU usage.

    9. Click Create.

gcloud

The gcloud instructions in this guide assume that you are using Cloud Shell or another environment with bash installed.

  1. Create a VM instance template with an HTTP server with the gcloud compute instance-templates create command.

    gcloud compute instance-templates create l7-ilb-backend-template \
    --region=us-west1 \
    --network=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/global/networks/lb-network \
    --subnet=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/regions/us-west1/subnetworks/lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet \
    --tags=allow-ssh,load-balanced-backend \
    --image-family=debian-10 \
    --image-project=debian-cloud \
    --metadata=startup-script='#! /bin/bash
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install apache2 -y
    sudo a2ensite default-ssl
    sudo a2enmod ssl
    vm_hostname="$(curl -H "Metadata-Flavor:Google" \
    http://metadata.google.internal/computeMetadata/v1/instance/name)"
    sudo echo "Page served from: $vm_hostname" | \
    tee /var/www/html/index.html
    sudo systemctl restart apache2' \
    --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    
  2. Create a managed instance group in the zone with the gcloud compute instance-groups managed create command.

    gcloud compute instance-groups managed create l7-ilb-backend-example \
        --zone=us-west1-a \
        --size=2 \
        --template=l7-ilb-backend-template \
        --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    

Terraform

  1. Create a VM instance template.

    # Instance template
    resource "google_compute_instance_template" "default" {
      name     = "l7-ilb-backend-template"
      provider = google-beta
      project  = "my-service-project-id"
      region   = "us-west1"
      # For machine type, using small. For more options check https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/machine-types
      machine_type = "e2-small"
      tags         = ["allow-ssh", "load-balanced-backend"]
      network_interface {
        network    = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
        subnetwork = google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet.id
        access_config {
          # add external ip to fetch packages like apache2, ssl
        }
      }
      disk {
        source_image = "debian-cloud/debian-10"
        auto_delete  = true
        boot         = true
      }
    
      # install apache2 and serve a simple web page
      metadata = {
        startup-script = <<EOF
        #! /bin/bash
        sudo apt-get update
        sudo apt-get install apache2 -y
        sudo a2ensite default-ssl
        sudo a2enmod ssl
        vm_hostname="$(curl -H "Metadata-Flavor:Google" \
        http://metadata.google.internal/computeMetadata/v1/instance/name)"
        sudo echo "Page served from: $vm_hostname" | \
        tee /var/www/html/index.html
        sudo systemctl restart apache2
        EOF
      }
    }
  2. Create a managed instance group.

    For HTTP:

    # MIG
    resource "google_compute_instance_group_manager" "default" {
      name               = "l7-ilb-backend-example"
      provider           = google-beta
      project            = "my-service-project-id"
      zone               = "us-west1-a"
      base_instance_name = "vm"
      target_size        = 2
      version {
        instance_template = google_compute_instance_template.default.id
        name              = "primary"
      }
      named_port {
        name = "http"
        port = 80
      }
    }

    For HTTPS:

    # MIG
    resource "google_compute_instance_group_manager" "default" {
      name               = "l7-ilb-backend-example"
      provider           = google-beta
      project            = "my-service-project-id"
      zone               = "us-west1-a"
      base_instance_name = "vm"
      target_size        = 2
      version {
        instance_template = google_compute_instance_template.default.id
        name              = "primary"
      }
      named_port {
        name = "https"
        port = 443
      }
    }

Configure the load balancer

This section shows you how to create the internal HTTP(S) load balancer resources:

  • HTTP health check
  • Backend service with a managed instance group as the backend
  • A URL map
  • SSL certificate (required only for HTTPS)
  • Target proxy
  • Forwarding rule

Proxy availability

Depending on the number of service projects that are using the same Shared VPC network, you might reach quotas or limits more quickly than in the network deployment model where each Google Cloud project hosts its own network.

For example, sometimes Google Cloud regions don't have enough proxy capacity for a new internal HTTP(S) load balancer. If this happens, the Google Cloud console provides a proxy availability warning message when you are creating your load balancer. To resolve this issue, you can do one of the following:

  • Wait for the capacity issue to be resolved.
  • Contact your Google Cloud sales team to increase these limits.

Console

Switch context to the service project

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Dashboard page.

    Go to Dashboard

  2. Click the Select from list at the top of the page. In the Select from window that appears, select the service project where you want to create the load balancer.

Select a load balancer type

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Load balancing page.

    Go to Load balancing

  2. For HTTP(S) Load Balancing, click Start configuration.

  3. For Internet facing or internal only, select Only between my VMs. This setting means that the load balancer is internal.

  4. Click Continue.

Prepare the load balancer

  1. For the Name of the load balancer, enter l7-ilb-shared-vpc.
  2. For the Region, select us-west1.
  3. For the Network, select lb-network (from Project: HOST_PROJECT_ID).

    If you see a Proxy-only subnet required in Shared VPC network warning, confirm that the host project admin has created the proxy-only-subnet in the us-west1 region in the lb-network Shared VPC network. Load balancer creation succeeds even if you do not have permission to view the proxy-only subnet on this page.

  4. Keep the window open to continue.

Configure the backend

  1. Click Backend configuration.
  2. From the Create or select backend services menu, select Create a backend service.
  3. Set the Name of the backend service to l7-ilb-backend-service.
  4. Set the Backend type to Instance groups.
  5. In the New backend section:
    1. Set the Instance group to l7-ilb-backend-example.
    2. Set the Port numbers to 80.
    3. Set the Balancing mode to Utilization.
    4. Click Done.
  6. In the Health check section, choose Create a health check with the following parameters:
    1. Name: l7-ilb-basic-check
    2. Protocol: HTTP
    3. Port: 80
  7. Click Save and Continue.
  8. Click Create.

Configure the routing rules

  • Click Routing rules. Ensure that the l7-ilb-backend-service is the only backend service for any unmatched host and any unmatched path.

For information about traffic management, see Setting up traffic management.

Configure the frontend

For HTTP:

  1. Click Frontend configuration.
  2. Set the Name to l7-ilb-forwarding-rule.
  3. Set the Protocol to HTTP.
  4. Set the Subnetwork to lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet. Don't select the proxy-only subnet for the frontend even if it is an option in the list.
  5. Set the Port to 80.
  6. Click the IP address menu, and then click Create IP address.
  7. In the Reserve a static internal IP address panel, provide the following details:
    1. For the Name, enter ip-address-shared-vpc.
    2. For Static IP address, click Let me choose. For Custom IP address, enter 10.1.2.99.
    3. (Optional) If you want to share this IP address with different frontends, for set Purpose to Shared.
  8. Click Done.

For HTTPS:

If you are using HTTPS between the client and the load balancer, you need one or more SSL certificate resources to configure the proxy. For information about how to create SSL certificate resources, see SSL certificates. Google-managed certificates aren't currently supported with internal HTTP(S) load balancers.

  1. Click Frontend configuration.
  2. In the Name field, enter l7-ilb-forwarding-rule.
  3. In the Protocol field, select HTTPS (includes HTTP/2).
  4. Set the Subnetwork to lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet. Don't select the proxy-only subnet for the frontend even if it is an option in the list.
  5. Ensure that the Port is set to 443 to allow HTTPS traffic.
  6. Click the IP address menu, and then click Create IP address.
  7. In the Reserve a static internal IP address panel, provide the following details:
    1. For the Name, enter ip-address-shared-vpc.
    2. For Static IP address, click Let me choose. For Custom IP address, enter 10.1.2.99.
    3. (Optional) If you want to share this IP address with different frontends, for set Purpose to Shared.
  8. Click the Certificate list.
    1. If you already have a self-managed SSL certificate resource that you want to use as the primary SSL certificate, select it from the menu.
    2. Otherwise, select Create a new certificate.
      1. Fill in a Name of l7-ilb-cert.
      2. In the appropriate fields, upload your PEM-formatted files:
        • Public key certificate
        • Certificate chain
        • Private key
      3. Click Create.
  9. To add certificate resources in addition to the primary SSL certificate resource:
    1. Click Add certificate.
    2. Select a certificate from the Certificates list or click Create a new certificate and follow the previous instructions.
  10. Click Done.

Review and finalize the configuration

  • Click Create.

gcloud

  1. Define the HTTP health check with the gcloud compute health-checks create http command.

    gcloud compute health-checks create http l7-ilb-basic-check \
       --region=us-west1 \
       --use-serving-port \
       --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    
  2. Define the backend service with the gcloud compute backend-services create command.

    gcloud compute backend-services create l7-ilb-backend-service \
      --load-balancing-scheme=INTERNAL_MANAGED \
      --protocol=HTTP \
      --health-checks=l7-ilb-basic-check \
      --health-checks-region=us-west1 \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    
  3. Add backends to the backend service with the gcloud compute backend-services add-backend command.

    gcloud compute backend-services add-backend l7-ilb-backend-service \
      --balancing-mode=UTILIZATION \
      --instance-group=l7-ilb-backend-example \
      --instance-group-zone=us-west1-a \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    
  4. Create the URL map with the gcloud compute url-maps create command.

    gcloud compute url-maps create l7-ilb-map \
      --default-service=l7-ilb-backend-service \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    
  5. Create the target proxy.

    For HTTP:

    For an internal HTTP load balancer, create the target proxy with the gcloud compute target-http-proxies create command.

    gcloud compute target-http-proxies create l7-ilb-proxy \
      --url-map=l7-ilb-map \
      --url-map-region=us-west1 \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    

    For HTTPS:

    For information about how to create SSL certificate resources, see SSL certificates. Google-managed certificates aren't currently supported with internal HTTP(S) load balancers.

    Assign your filepaths to variable names.

    export LB_CERT=path to PEM-formatted file
    
    export LB_PRIVATE_KEY=path to PEM-formatted file
    

    Create a regional SSL certificate using the gcloud compute ssl-certificates create command.

    gcloud compute ssl-certificates create l7-ilb-cert \
      --certificate=$LB_CERT \
      --private-key=$LB_PRIVATE_KEY \
      --region=us-west1
    

    Use the regional SSL certificate to create a target proxy with the gcloud compute target-https-proxies create command.

    gcloud compute target-https-proxies create l7-ilb-proxy \
      --url-map=l7-ilb-map \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --ssl-certificates=l7-ilb-cert \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    
  6. Create the forwarding rule.

    For custom networks, you must reference the subnet in the forwarding rule.

    For the forwarding rule's IP address, use the lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet. If you try to use the proxy-only subnet, forwarding rule creation fails.

    For HTTP:

    Use the gcloud compute forwarding-rules create command with the correct flags.

    gcloud compute forwarding-rules create l7-ilb-forwarding-rule \
      --load-balancing-scheme=INTERNAL_MANAGED \
      --network=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/global/networks/lb-network \
      --subnet=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/regions/us-west1/subnetworks/lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet \
      --address=IP_ADDRESS_NAME \
      --ports=80 \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --target-http-proxy=l7-ilb-proxy \
      --target-http-proxy-region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    

    For HTTPS:

    Use the gcloud compute forwarding-rules create command with the correct flags.

    gcloud compute forwarding-rules create l7-ilb-forwarding-rule \
      --load-balancing-scheme=INTERNAL_MANAGED \
      --network=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/global/networks/lb-network \
      --subnet=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/regions/us-west1/subnetworks/lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet \
      --address=IP_ADDRESS_NAME \
      --ports=443 \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --target-https-proxy=l7-ilb-proxy \
      --target-https-proxy-region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID
    

Terraform

  1. Define the HTTP health check.

    For HTTP:

    # health check
    resource "google_compute_health_check" "default" {
      name               = "l7-ilb-basic-check"
      provider           = google-beta
      project            = "my-service-project-id"
      timeout_sec        = 1
      check_interval_sec = 1
      http_health_check {
        port = "80"
      }
    }

    For HTTPS:

    # health check
    resource "google_compute_health_check" "default" {
      name               = "l7-ilb-basic-check"
      provider           = google-beta
      project            = "my-service-project-id"
      timeout_sec        = 1
      check_interval_sec = 1
      https_health_check {
        port = "443"
      }
    }

  2. Define the backend service.

    # backend service
    resource "google_compute_region_backend_service" "default" {
      name                  = "l7-ilb-backend-service"
      provider              = google-beta
      project               = "my-service-project-id"
      region                = "us-west1"
      protocol              = "HTTP"
      load_balancing_scheme = "INTERNAL_MANAGED"
      timeout_sec           = 10
      health_checks         = [google_compute_health_check.default.id]
      backend {
        group           = google_compute_instance_group_manager.default.instance_group
        balancing_mode  = "UTILIZATION"
        capacity_scaler = 1.0
      }
    }
  3. Create the URL map.

    # URL map
    resource "google_compute_region_url_map" "default" {
      name            = "l7-ilb-map"
      provider        = google-beta
      project         = "my-service-project-id"
      region          = "us-west1"
      default_service = google_compute_region_backend_service.default.id
    }
  4. Create the target proxy.

    For HTTP:

    # HTTP target proxy
    resource "google_compute_region_target_http_proxy" "default" {
      name     = "l7-ilb-proxy"
      provider = google-beta
      project  = "my-service-project-id"
      region   = "us-west1"
      url_map  = google_compute_region_url_map.default.id
    }

    For HTTPS: Create a regional SSL certificate

    For information about how to create SSL certificate resources, see SSL certificates. Google-managed certificates aren't currently supported with internal HTTP(S) load balancers.

    # Use self-signed SSL certificate
    resource "google_compute_region_ssl_certificate" "default" {
      name        = "l7-ilb-cert"
      provider    = google-beta
      project     = "my-service-project-id"
      region      = "us-west1"
      private_key = file("sample-private.key") # path to PEM-formatted file
      certificate = file("sample-server.cert") # path to PEM-formatted file
    }

    Use the regional SSL certificate to create a target proxy

    # HTTPS target proxy
    resource "google_compute_region_target_https_proxy" "default" {
      name             = "l7-ilb-proxy"
      provider         = google-beta
      project          = "my-service-project-id"
      region           = "us-west1"
      url_map          = google_compute_region_url_map.default.id
      ssl_certificates = [google_compute_region_ssl_certificate.default.id]
    }
  5. Create the forwarding rule.

    For custom networks, you must reference the subnet in the forwarding rule.

    For HTTP:

    # Forwarding rule
    resource "google_compute_forwarding_rule" "default" {
      name                  = "l7-ilb-forwarding-rule"
      provider              = google-beta
      project               = "my-service-project-id"
      region                = "us-west1"
      ip_protocol           = "TCP"
      port_range            = "80"
      load_balancing_scheme = "INTERNAL_MANAGED"
      target                = google_compute_region_target_http_proxy.default.id
      network               = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
      subnetwork            = google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet.id
      network_tier          = "PREMIUM"
      depends_on            = [google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet]
    }

    For HTTPS:

    # Forwarding rule
    resource "google_compute_forwarding_rule" "default" {
      name                  = "l7-ilb-forwarding-rule"
      provider              = google-beta
      project               = "my-service-project-id"
      region                = "us-west1"
      ip_protocol           = "TCP"
      port_range            = "443"
      load_balancing_scheme = "INTERNAL_MANAGED"
      target                = google_compute_region_target_https_proxy.default.id
      network               = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
      subnetwork            = google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet.id
      network_tier          = "PREMIUM"
      depends_on            = [google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet]
    }

Test the load balancer

To test the load balancer, first create a sample client VM. Then establish an SSH session with the VM and send traffic from this VM to the load balancer.

Create a test VM instance

Clients can be located in either the host project or any connected service project. In this example, you test that the load balancer is working by deploying a client VM in a service project. The client must use the same Shared VPC network and be in the same region as the load balancer.

Console

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the VM instances page.

    Go to VM instances

  2. Click Create instance.

  3. Set the Name to client-vm.

  4. Set the Zone to us-west1-a.

  5. Click Advanced options, and then click Networking.

  6. Enter the following Network tags: allow-ssh,load-balanced-backend.

  7. In the Network interfaces section, select Networks shared with me (from host project: HOST_PROJECT_ID).

  8. Select the lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet subnet from the lb-network network.

  9. Click Create.

gcloud

Create a test VM instance.

gcloud compute instances create client-vm \
    --image-family=debian-10 \
    --image-project=debian-cloud \
    --subnet=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/regions/us-west1/subnetworks/lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet \
    --zone=us-west1-a \
    --tags=allow-ssh \
    --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_ID

Terraform

Create a test VM instance.

resource "google_compute_instance" "vm_test" {
  name         = "client-vm"
  provider     = google-beta
  project      = "my-service-project-id"
  zone         = "us-west1-a"
  machine_type = "e2-small"
  tags         = ["allow-ssh"]
  network_interface {
    network    = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
    subnetwork = google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet.id
  }
  boot_disk {
    initialize_params {
      image = "debian-cloud/debian-10"
    }
  }
  lifecycle {
    ignore_changes = [
      metadata["ssh-keys"]
    ]
  }
}

Send traffic to the load balancer

Use SSH to connect to the instance that you just created and test that HTTP(S) services on the backends are reachable through the internal HTTP(S) load balancer's forwarding rule IP address and that traffic is being load balanced across the backend instances.

  1. Connect to the client instance with SSH.

    gcloud compute ssh client-vm \
       --zone=us-west1-a
    
  2. Verify that the IP address is serving its hostname. Replace LB_IP_ADDRESS with the load balancer's IP address.

    curl LB_IP_ADDRESS
    

    For HTTPS testing, replace curl with the following:

    curl -k -s 'https://LB_IP_ADDRESS:443'
    

    The -k flag causes curl to skip certificate validation.

Configure a load balancer with a cross-project backend service

The previous example on this page shows you how to set up a Shared VPC deployment where all the load balancer components and its backends are created in the service project.

Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing also lets you configure Shared VPC deployments where a URL map in one host or service project can reference backend services (and backends) located across multiple service projects in Shared VPC environments. This is referred to as cross-project service referencing.

You can use the steps in this section as a reference to configure any of the supported combinations listed here:

  • Forwarding rule, target proxy and URL map in the host project, and backend service in a service project
  • Forwarding rule, target proxy and URL map in a service project, and backend service in another service project

Set up requirements

This example configures a sample load balancer with its frontend and backend in two different service projects.

If you haven't already done so, you must complete all of the prerequisite steps to set up Shared VPC and configure the network, subnets, and firewall rules required for this example. For instructions, see the following:

Load balancer frontend and backend in different service projects
Load balancer frontend and backend in different service projects

Create the backends and backend service in service project B

All the steps in this section must be performed in service project B.

Console

  1. Create an instance template. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Instance templates page.

    Go to Instance templates

    1. Click Create instance template.
    2. Enter a Name for the instance template: cross-ref-backend-template.
    3. Ensure that the Boot disk is set to a Debian image, such as Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster). These instructions use commands that are only available on Debian, such as apt-get. If you need to change the Boot disk, click Change.
      1. For Operating System, select Debian.
      2. For Version, select one of the available Debian images such as Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster).
      3. Click Select.
    4. Click Advanced options, and then click Networking.
    5. Enter the following Network tags: allow-ssh,load-balanced-backend.
    6. In the Network interfaces section, select Networks shared with me (from host project: HOST_PROJECT_ID).
    7. Select the lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet subnet from the lb-network network.
    8. Click Management. For Management, insert the following script into the Startup script field.
      #! /bin/bash
      sudo apt-get update
      sudo apt-get install apache2 -y
      sudo a2ensite default-ssl
      sudo a2enmod ssl
      sudo vm_hostname="$(curl -H "Metadata-Flavor:Google" 
      http://169.254.169.254/computeMetadata/v1/instance/name)" sudo echo "Page served from: $vm_hostname" |
      tee /var/www/html/index.html sudo systemctl restart apache2
    9. Click Create.
  2. Create a managed instance group. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Instance groups page.

    Go to Instance groups

    1. Click Create instance group.
    2. Choose New managed instance group (stateless). For more information, see Stateless or stateful MIGs.
    3. Enter a Name for the instance group: cross-ref-ig-backend.
    4. For Location, select Single zone.
    5. For Region, select us-west1.
    6. For Zone, select us-west1-a.
    7. For Instance template, select cross-ref-backend-template.
    8. Specify the number of instances that you want to create in the group.

      For this example, specify the following options for Autoscaling:

      • For Autoscaling mode, select Off:do not autoscale.
      • For Maximum number of instances, enter 2.

      Optionally, in the Autoscaling section of the UI, you can configure the instance group to automatically add or remove instances based on instance CPU usage.

    9. Click Create.

  3. Create a regional backend service. As a part of this step we'll also create the health check and add backends to the backend service. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Backends page.

    Go to Backends

    1. Click Create regional backend service.
    2. Enter a Name for the backend service: cross-ref-backend-service.
    3. For Region, select us-west1.
    4. For Load balancer type, select Regional Internal HTTP(S) Load Balancing (INTERNAL_MANAGED)
    5. Set Backend type to Instance groups.
    6. In the Backends section, set Network to lb-network.
    7. Click Add backend and set the following fields:
      1. Set Instance group to cross-ref-ig-backend.
      2. Enter the Port numbers: 80.
      3. Set Balancing mode to Utilization.
      4. Click Done.
    8. In the Health check section, choose Create a health check with the following parameters:
      1. Name: cross-ref-http-health-check
      2. Protocol: HTTP
      3. Port: 80
      4. Click Save.
    9. Click Continue.
    10. Optional: In the Add permissions section, enter the IAM principals (typically an email address) of Load Balancer Admins from other projects so that they can use this backend service for load balancers in their own projects. Without this permission, you cannot use cross-project service referencing.

      If you don't have permission to set access control policies for backend services in this project, you can still create the backend service now, and an authorized user can perform this step later as described in the section, Grant permissions to the Load Balancer Admin to use the backend service. That section also describes how to grant access to all the backend services in this project, so that you don't have to grant access every time you create a new backend service.

    11. Click Create.

gcloud

  1. Create a VM instance template with an HTTP server with the gcloud compute instance-templates create command.

    gcloud compute instance-templates create BACKEND_IG_TEMPLATE \
        --region=us-west1 \
        --network=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/global/networks/lb-network \
        --subnet=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/regions/us-west1/subnetworks/lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet \
        --tags=allow-ssh,load-balanced-backend \
        --image-family=debian-10 \
        --image-project=debian-cloud \
        --metadata=startup-script='#! /bin/bash
        apt-get update
        apt-get install apache2 -y
        a2ensite default-ssl
        a2enmod ssl
        vm_hostname="$(curl -H "Metadata-Flavor:Google" \
        http://169.254.169.254/computeMetadata/v1/instance/name)"
        echo "Page served from: $vm_hostname" | \
        tee /var/www/html/index.html
        systemctl restart apache2' \
        --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • BACKEND_IG_TEMPLATE: the name for the instance group template.
    • SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID: the project ID for service project B, where the load balancer's backends and the backend service are being created.
    • HOST_PROJECT_ID: the project ID for the Shared VPC host project.
  2. Create a managed instance group in the zone with the gcloud compute instance-groups managed create command.

    gcloud compute instance-groups managed create BACKEND_MIG \
        --zone=us-west1-a \
        --size=2 \
        --template=BACKEND_IG_TEMPLATE \
        --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • BACKEND_MIG: the name for the backend instance group.
  3. Define the HTTP health check with the gcloud compute health-checks create http command.

    gcloud compute health-checks create http HTTP_HEALTH_CHECK_NAME \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --use-serving-port \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • HTTP_HEALTH_CHECK_NAME: the name for the HTTP health check.
  4. Define the backend service with the gcloud compute backend-services create command.

    gcloud compute backend-services create BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME \
      --load-balancing-scheme=INTERNAL_MANAGED \
      --protocol=HTTP \
      --health-checks=HTTP_HEALTH_CHECK_NAME \
      --health-checks-region=us-west1 \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME: the name for the backend service created in service project B.
  5. Add backends to the backend service with the gcloud compute backend-services add-backend command.

    gcloud compute backend-services add-backend BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME \
      --balancing-mode=UTILIZATION \
      --instance-group=BACKEND_MIG \
      --instance-group-zone=us-west1-a \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID
    

Terraform

  1. Create an instance template.

    # Instance template
    resource "google_compute_instance_template" "default" {
      name     = "l7-ilb-backend-template"
      provider = google-beta
      project  = "my-service-project-b-id"
      region   = "us-west1"
      # For machine type, using small. For more options check https://cloud.google.com/compute/docs/machine-types
      machine_type = "e2-small"
      tags         = ["allow-ssh", "load-balanced-backend"]
      network_interface {
        network    = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
        subnetwork = google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet.id
        access_config {
          # add external ip to fetch packages like apache2, ssl
        }
      }
      disk {
        source_image = "debian-cloud/debian-10"
        auto_delete  = true
        boot         = true
      }
    
      # install apache2 and serve a simple web page
      metadata = {
        startup-script = <<EOF
        #! /bin/bash
        sudo apt-get update
        sudo apt-get install apache2 -y
        sudo a2ensite default-ssl
        sudo a2enmod ssl
        vm_hostname="$(curl -H "Metadata-Flavor:Google" \
        http://metadata.google.internal/computeMetadata/v1/instance/name)"
        sudo echo "Page served from: $vm_hostname" | \
        tee /var/www/html/index.html
        sudo systemctl restart apache2
        EOF
      }
    }
  2. Create a managed instance group.

    For HTTP

    # MIG
    resource "google_compute_instance_group_manager" "default" {
      name               = "l7-ilb-backend-example"
      provider           = google-beta
      project            = "my-service-project-b-id"
      zone               = "us-west1-a"
      base_instance_name = "vm"
      target_size        = 2
      version {
        instance_template = google_compute_instance_template.default.id
        name              = "primary"
      }
      named_port {
        name = "http"
        port = 80
      }
    }

    For HTTPS

    # MIG
    resource "google_compute_instance_group_manager" "default" {
      name               = "l7-ilb-backend-example"
      provider           = google-beta
      project            = "my-service-project-b-id"
      zone               = "us-west1-a"
      base_instance_name = "vm"
      target_size        = 2
      version {
        instance_template = google_compute_instance_template.default.id
        name              = "primary"
      }
      named_port {
        name = "https"
        port = 443
      }
    }
  3. Create a health check for backend.

    For HTTP

    # health check
    resource "google_compute_health_check" "default" {
      name               = "l7-ilb-basic-check"
      provider           = google-beta
      project            = "my-service-project-b-id"
      timeout_sec        = 1
      check_interval_sec = 1
      http_health_check {
        port = "80"
      }
    }

    For HTTPS

    # health check
    resource "google_compute_health_check" "default" {
      name               = "l7-ilb-basic-check"
      provider           = google-beta
      project            = "my-service-project-b-id"
      timeout_sec        = 1
      check_interval_sec = 1
      https_health_check {
        port = "443"
      }
    }
  4. Create a regional backend service.

    # backend service
    resource "google_compute_region_backend_service" "default" {
      name                  = "l7-ilb-backend-service"
      provider              = google-beta
      project               = "my-service-project-b-id"
      region                = "us-west1"
      protocol              = "HTTP"
      load_balancing_scheme = "INTERNAL_MANAGED"
      timeout_sec           = 10
      health_checks         = [google_compute_health_check.default.id]
      backend {
        group           = google_compute_instance_group_manager.default.instance_group
        balancing_mode  = "UTILIZATION"
        capacity_scaler = 1.0
      }
    }

Create the load balancer frontend and URL map in service project A

All the steps in this section must be performed in service project A.

Console

Select a load balancer type

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Load balancing page.

    Go to Load balancing

  2. For HTTP(S) Load Balancing, click Start configuration.

  3. For Internet facing or internal only, select Only between my VMs. This setting means that the load balancer is internal.

  4. Click Continue.

Prepare the load balancer

  1. Enter a Name for the load balancer.
  2. For the Region, select us-west1.
  3. For the Network, select lb-network (from Project: HOST_PROJECT_NAME).

    If you see a Proxy-only subnet required in Shared VPC network warning, confirm that the host project admin has created the proxy-only-subnet in the us-west1 region in the lb-network Shared VPC network. Load balancer creation succeeds even if you do not have permission to view the proxy-only subnet on this page.

  4. Keep the window open to continue.

Configure the backend

  1. Click Backend configuration.
  2. Click Cross-project backend services.
  3. For Project ID, enter the project ID for service project B.
  4. For Backend service name, enter the name of the backend service from service project B that you want to use. For this example, it's cross-ref-backend-service.
  5. Click Add backend service.

Configure the routing rules

  • Click Routing rules. Ensure that the cross-ref-backend-service is the only backend service for any unmatched host and any unmatched path.

For information about traffic management, see Setting up traffic management.

Configure the frontend

For cross-project service referencing to work, the frontend must use the same network (lb-network) from the Shared VPC host project that was used to create the backend service.

For HTTP:

  1. Click Frontend configuration.
  2. Enter a Name for the forwarding rule: cross-ref-http-forwarding-rule.
  3. Set the Protocol to HTTP.
  4. Set the Subnetwork to lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet. Don't select the proxy-only subnet for the frontend even if it is an option in the list.
  5. Set the Port to 80.
  6. Click the IP address menu, and then click Create IP address.
  7. In the Reserve a static internal IP address panel, provide the following details:
    1. For the Name, enter cross-ref-ip-address.
    2. For Static IP address, click Let me choose. For Custom IP address, enter 10.1.2.98.
    3. (Optional) If you want to share this IP address with different frontends, for set Purpose to Shared.
  8. Click Done.

For HTTPS:

If you are using HTTPS between the client and the load balancer, you need one or more SSL certificate resources to configure the proxy. For information about how to create SSL certificate resources, see SSL certificates. Google-managed certificates aren't currently supported with internal HTTP(S) load balancers.

  1. Click Frontend configuration.
  2. Enter a Name for the forwarding rule: cross-ref-https-forwarding-rule.
  3. In the Protocol field, select HTTPS (includes HTTP/2).
  4. Set the Subnetwork to lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet. Don't select the proxy-only subnet for the frontend even if it is an option in the list.
  5. Ensure that the Port is set to 443 to allow HTTPS traffic.
  6. Click the IP address menu, and then click Create IP address.
  7. In the Reserve a static internal IP address panel, provide the following details:
    1. For the Name, enter cross-ref-ip-address.
    2. For Static IP address, click Let me choose. For Custom IP address, enter 10.1.2.98.
    3. (Optional) If you want to share this IP address with different frontends, for set Purpose to Shared.
  8. Click the Certificate list.
    1. If you already have a self-managed SSL certificate resource you want to use as the primary SSL certificate, select it from the menu.
    2. Otherwise, select Create a new certificate.
      1. Enter a Name for the SSL certificate.
      2. In the appropriate fields, upload your PEM-formatted files:
        • Public key certificate
        • Certificate chain
        • Private key
      3. Click Create.
  9. To add certificate resources in addition to the primary SSL certificate resource:
    1. Click Add certificate.
    2. Select a certificate from the Certificates list or click Create a new certificate and follow the previous instructions.
  10. Click Done.

Review and finalize the configuration

  • Click Create.

Test the load balancer

After the load balancer is created, test the load balancer by using the steps described in Test the load balancer.

gcloud

  1. Create the URL map and set the default service to the backend service created in service project B.

    gcloud compute url-maps create URL_MAP_NAME \
        --default-service=projects/SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID/regions/us-west1/backendServices/BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME \
        --region=us-west1 \
        --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_A_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • URL_MAP_NAME: the name for the URL map.
    • BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME: the name for the backend service created in service project B.
    • SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID: the project ID for service project B, where the load balancer's backends and the backend service are created.
    • SERVICE_PROJECT_A_ID: the project ID for service project A, where the load balancer's frontend is being created.

    URL map creation fails if you don't have the compute.backendServices.use permission for the backend service in service project B.

  2. Create the target proxy.

    For HTTP:

    gcloud compute target-http-proxies create HTTP_TARGET_PROXY_NAME \
      --url-map=URL_MAP_NAME \
      --url-map-region=us-west1 \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_A_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • HTTP_TARGET_PROXY_NAME: the name for the target HTTP proxy.

    For HTTPS:

    Create a regional SSL certificate using the gcloud compute ssl-certificates create command.

    gcloud compute ssl-certificates create SSL_CERTIFICATE_NAME \
      --certificate=PATH_TO_CERTIFICATE \
      --private-key=PATH_TO_PRIVATE_KEY \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_A_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • SSL_CERTIFICATE_NAME: the name for the SSL certificate resource.
    • PATH_TO_CERTIFICATE: the path to the local SSL certificate file in PEM format.
    • PATH_TO_PRIVATE_KEY: the path to the local SSL certificate private key in PEM format.

    Use the regional SSL certificate to create a target proxy with the gcloud compute target-https-proxies create command.

    gcloud compute target-https-proxies create HTTPS_TARGET_PROXY_NAME \
      --url-map=URL_MAP_NAME \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --ssl-certificates=SSL_CERTIFICATE_NAME \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_A_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • HTTPS_TARGET_PROXY_NAME: the name for the target HTTPS proxy.
  3. Create the forwarding rule. For cross-project service referencing to work, the forwarding rule must use the same network (lb-network) from the Shared VPC host project that was used to create the backend service.

    For HTTP:

    gcloud compute forwarding-rules create HTTP_FORWARDING_RULE_NAME \
      --load-balancing-scheme=INTERNAL_MANAGED \
      --network=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/global/networks/lb-network \
      --subnet=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/regions/us-west1/subnetworks/lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet \
      --address=IP_ADDRESS_CROSS_REF \
      --ports=80 \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --target-http-proxy=HTTP_TARGET_PROXY_NAME \
      --target-http-proxy-region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_A_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • HTTP_FORWARDING_RULE_NAME: the name for the forwarding rule that is used to handle HTTP traffic.

    For HTTPS:

    gcloud compute forwarding-rules create HTTPS_FORWARDING_RULE_NAME \
      --load-balancing-scheme=INTERNAL_MANAGED \
      --network=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/global/networks/lb-network \
      --subnet=projects/HOST_PROJECT_ID/regions/us-west1/subnetworks/lb-frontend-and-backend-subnet \
      --address=IP_ADDRESS_CROSS_REF \
      --ports=443 \
      --region=us-west1 \
      --target-https-proxy=HTTPS_TARGET_PROXY_NAME \
      --target-https-proxy-region=us-west1 \
      --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_A_ID
    

    Replace the following:

    • HTTPS_FORWARDING_RULE_NAME: the name for the forwarding rule that is used to handle HTTPS traffic.
  4. To test the load balancer, use the steps described in Test the load balancer.

Terraform

  1. Create the URL map.

    # URL map
    resource "google_compute_region_url_map" "default" {
      name            = "l7-ilb-map"
      provider        = google-beta
      project         = "my-service-project-a-id"
      region          = "us-west1"
      default_service = google_compute_region_backend_service.default.id
    }
  2. Create the target proxy.

    For HTTP

    # HTTP target proxy
    resource "google_compute_region_target_http_proxy" "default" {
      name     = "l7-ilb-proxy"
      provider = google-beta
      project  = "my-service-project-a-id"
      region   = "us-west1"
      url_map  = google_compute_region_url_map.default.id
    }

    For HTTPS

    Create a regional SSL certificate

    # Use self-signed SSL certificate
    resource "google_compute_region_ssl_certificate" "default" {
      name        = "l7-ilb-cert"
      provider    = google-beta
      project     = "my-service-project-a-id"
      region      = "us-west1"
      private_key = file("sample-private.key") # path to PEM-formatted file
      certificate = file("sample-server.cert") # path to PEM-formatted file
    }

    Use the regional SSL certificate to create a target proxy

    # HTTPS target proxy
    resource "google_compute_region_target_https_proxy" "default" {
      name             = "l7-ilb-proxy"
      provider         = google-beta
      project          = "my-service-project-a-id"
      region           = "us-west1"
      url_map          = google_compute_region_url_map.default.id
      ssl_certificates = [google_compute_region_ssl_certificate.default.id]
    }
  3. Create the forwarding rule.

    For HTTP

    # Forwarding rule
    resource "google_compute_forwarding_rule" "default" {
      name                  = "l7-ilb-forwarding-rule"
      provider              = google-beta
      project               = "my-service-project-a-id"
      region                = "us-west1"
      ip_protocol           = "TCP"
      port_range            = "80"
      load_balancing_scheme = "INTERNAL_MANAGED"
      target                = google_compute_region_target_http_proxy.default.id
      network               = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
      subnetwork            = google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet.id
      network_tier          = "PREMIUM"
      depends_on            = [google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet]
    }

    For HTTPS

    # Forwarding rule
    resource "google_compute_forwarding_rule" "default" {
      name                  = "l7-ilb-forwarding-rule"
      provider              = google-beta
      project               = "my-service-project-a-id"
      region                = "us-west1"
      ip_protocol           = "TCP"
      port_range            = "443"
      load_balancing_scheme = "INTERNAL_MANAGED"
      target                = google_compute_region_target_https_proxy.default.id
      network               = google_compute_network.lb_network.id
      subnetwork            = google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet.id
      network_tier          = "PREMIUM"
      depends_on            = [google_compute_subnetwork.lb_frontend_and_backend_subnet]
    }
  4. To test the load balancer, use the steps described in Test the load balancer.

Grant permissions to the Load Balancer Admin to use the backend service

If you want load balancers to reference backend services in other service projects, the Load Balancer Admin must have the compute.backendServices.use permission. To grant this permission, you can use the predefined IAM role called compute.loadBalancerServiceUser. This role must be granted by the Service Project Admin and can be applied at the project level or at the individual backend service level.

This step is not required if you've already granted the required permissions at the backend service level while creating the backend service. You can either skip this section or continue reading to learn how to grant access to all the backend services in this project, so that you don't have to grant access every time you create a new backend service.

In this example, a Service Project Admin from service project B must run one of the following commands to grant the compute.backendServices.use permission to a Load Balancer Admin from service project A. This can be done either at the project level (for all backend services in the project) or per backend service.

Console

Project-level permissions

Use the following steps to grant permissions to all backend services in your project. You require the compute.regionBackendServices.setIamPolicy and the resourcemanager.projects.setIamPolicy permissions to complete this step.

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Shared load balancing services page.

    Go to Shared load balancing services

  2. In the All backend service permissions (project-level permissions) section, select your project.

  3. If the permissions panel is not visible, click Show permissions panel. The Project level permissions panel opens on the right.

  4. Click Add principal.

  5. For New principals, enter the principal's email address or other identifier.

  6. For Role, select the Compute Load Balancer Services User role from the drop-down list.

  7. Optional: Add a condition to the role.

  8. Click Save.

Resource-level permissions for individual backend services

Use the following steps to grant permissions to individual backend services in your project. You require the compute.regionBackendServices.setIamPolicy permission to complete this step.

  1. In the Google Cloud console, go to the Shared load balancing services page.

    Go to Shared load balancing services

  2. In the Individual backend service permissions (resource-level permissions) section, select the backend service that you want to grant access to.

  3. Click Add principal.

  4. For New principals, enter the principal's email address or other identifier.

  5. For Role, select the Compute Load Balancer Services User role from the drop-down list.

  6. Click Save.

gcloud

Project-level permissions

Use the following steps to grant permissions to all backend services in your project. You require the compute.regionBackendServices.setIamPolicy and the resourcemanager.projects.setIamPolicy permissions to complete this step.

gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID \
    --member="user:LOAD_BALANCER_ADMIN" \
    --role="roles/compute.loadBalancerServiceUser"

Resource-level permissions for individual backend services

At the backend service level, Service Project Admins can use either of the following commands to grant the loadBalancerServiceUser role. You require the compute.regionBackendServices.setIamPolicy permission to complete this step.

gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID \
    --member="user:LOAD_BALANCER_ADMIN" \
    --role="roles/compute.loadBalancerServiceUser" \
    --condition='expression=resource.name=="projects/SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID/regions/us-west1/backend-services/BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME",title=Shared VPC condition'

or

gcloud compute backend-services add-iam-policy-binding BACKEND_SERVICE_NAME
    --member="user:LOAD_BALANCER_ADMIN" \
    --role="roles/compute.loadBalancerServiceUser" \
    --project=SERVICE_PROJECT_B_ID \
    --region=us-west1

To use these commands, replace LOAD_BALANCER_ADMIN with the user's principal. For example, test-user@gmail.com.

You can also configure IAM permissions so that they only apply to a subset of regional backend services by using conditions and specifying condition attributes.

What's next