Manage Java and Scala dependencies for Apache Spark

Spark applications often depend on third-party Java or Scala libraries. Here are recommended approaches to including these dependencies when you submit a Spark job to a Cloud Dataproc cluster:

  1. When submitting a job from your local machine with the gcloud dataproc jobs submit command, use the --properties spark.jars.packages=[DEPENDENCIES] flag.

    Example:

    gcloud dataproc jobs submit spark 
    --cluster my-cluster
    --properties spark.jars.packages='com.google.cloud:google-cloud-translate:1.35.0,org.apache.bahir:spark-streaming-pubsub_2.11:2.2.0'

  2. When submitting a job directly on your cluster use the spark-submit command with the --packages=[DEPENDENCIES] parameter.

    Example:

    spark-submit --packages='com.google.cloud:google-cloud-translate:1.35.0,org.apache.bahir:spark-streaming-pubsub_2.11:2.2.0'
    

Avoiding dependency conflicts

The above approaches may fail if Spark application dependencies conflict with Hadoop's dependencies. This conflict can arise because Hadoop injects its dependencies into the application's classpath, so its dependencies take precedence over the application's dependencies. When a conflict occurs, NoSuchMethodError or other errors can be generated.

Example:
Guava is the Google core library for Java that is used by many libraries and frameworks, including Hadoop. A dependency conflict can occur if a job or its dependencies require a version of Guava that is newer than the one used by Hadoop.

Hadoop v3.0 resolved this issue , but applications that rely on earlier Hadoop versions require the following two-part workaround to avoid possible dependency conflicts.

  1. Create a single "uber" JAR (aka "fat" JAR), that contains the application's package and all of its dependencies.
  2. Relocate the conflicting dependency packages within the uber JAR to prevent their path names from conflicting with those of Hadoop's dependency packages. Instead of modifying your code, use a plugin (see below) to automatically perform this relocation (aka "shading") as part of the packaging process.

Creating a shaded uber JAR with Maven

Maven is a package management tool for building Java applications. The Maven scala plugin can be used to build applications written in Scala, the language used by Spark applications. The Maven shade plugin can be used to create a shaded JAR.

The following is a sample pom.xml configuration file that shades the Guava library, which is located in the com.google.common package. This configuration instructs Maven to rename the com.google.common package to repackaged.com.google.common and to update all references to the classes from the original package.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

  <properties>
    <maven.compiler.source>1.8</maven.compiler.source>
    <maven.compiler.target>1.8</maven.compiler.target>
  </properties>

  <groupId><!-- YOUR_GROUP_ID --></groupId>
  <artifactId><!-- YOUR_ARTIFACT_ID --></artifactId>
  <version><!-- YOUR_PACKAGE_VERSION --></version>

  <dependencies>

    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.apache.spark</groupId>
      <artifactId>spark-sql_2.11</artifactId>
      <version><!-- YOUR_SPARK_VERSION --></version>
      <scope>provided</scope>
    </dependency>

    <!-- YOUR_DEPENDENCIES -->

  </dependencies>

  <build>
    <plugins>

      <plugin>
        <groupId>net.alchim31.maven</groupId>
        <artifactId>scala-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        <executions>
          <execution>
            <goals>
              <goal>compile</goal>
              <goal>testCompile</goal>
            </goals>
          </execution>
        </executions>
        <configuration>
          <scalaVersion><!-- YOUR_SCALA_VERSION --></scalaVersion>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>

      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-shade-plugin</artifactId>
        <executions>
          <execution>
            <phase>package</phase>
            <goals>
              <goal>shade</goal>
            </goals>
            <configuration>
              <transformers>
                <transformer implementation="org.apache.maven.plugins.shade.resource.ManifestResourceTransformer">
                  <mainClass><!-- YOUR_APPLICATION_MAIN_CLASS --></mainClass>
                </transformer>
              </transformers>
              <filters>
                <filter>
                  <artifact>*:*</artifact>
                  <excludes>
                    <exclude>META-INF/maven/**</exclude>
                    <exclude>META-INF/*.SF</exclude>
                    <exclude>META-INF/*.DSA</exclude>
                    <exclude>META-INF/*.RSA</exclude>
                  </excludes>
                </filter>
              </filters>
              <relocations>
                <relocation>
                  <pattern>com</pattern>
                  <shadedPattern>repackaged.com.google.common</shadedPattern>
                  <includes>
                    <include>com.google.common.**</include>
                  </includes>
                </relocation>
              </relocations>
            </configuration>
          </execution>
        </executions>
      </plugin>

    </plugins>
  </build>

</project>

To run the build:

mvn package

Notes about pom.xml:

  • ManifestResourceTransformer processes attributes in the uber JAR's manifest file (MANIFEST.MF). The manifest can also specify the entry point for your application.
  • Spark's scope is provided, since Spark is installed on Cloud Dataproc.
  • Specify the version of Spark that is installed on your Cloud Dataproc cluster (see Cloud Dataproc Version List). If your application requires a Spark version that is different from the version installed on your Cloud Dataproc cluster, you can write an initialization action or construct a custom image that installs the Spark version used by your application.
  • The <filters> entry exclude signature files from your dependencies' META-INF directories. Without this entry, a java.lang.SecurityException: Invalid signature file digest for Manifest main attributes run-time exception can occur because the signature files are invalid in the context of your uber JAR.
  • You may need to shade multiple libraries. To do so, include multiple paths. The next example shades the Guava and Protobuf libraries.
    <relocation>
      <pattern>com</pattern>
      <shadedPattern>repackaged.com</shadedPattern>
      <includes>
        <include>com.google.protobuf.**</include>
        <include>com.google.common.**</include>
      </includes>
    </relocation>
    

Creating a shaded uber JAR with SBT

SBT is a tool for building Scala applications. To create a shaded JAR with SBT, add the sbt-assembly plugin to your build definition, first by creating a file called assembly.sbt under the project/ directory:

├── src/
└── build.sbt
└── project/
    └── assembly.sbt

... then by adding the following line in assembly.sbt:

addSbtPlugin("com.eed3si9n" % "sbt-assembly" % "0.14.6")

The following is a sample build.sbt configuration file that shades the Guava library, which is located in the com.google.common package:

lazy val commonSettings = Seq(
 organization := "YOUR_GROUP_ID",
 name := "YOUR_ARTIFACT_ID",
 version := "YOUR_PACKAGE_VERSION",
 scalaVersion := "YOUR_SCALA_VERSION",
)

lazy val shaded = (project in file("."))
 .settings(commonSettings)

mainClass in (Compile, packageBin) := Some("YOUR_APPLICATION_MAIN_CLASS")

libraryDependencies ++= Seq(
 "org.apache.spark" % "spark-sql_2.11" % "YOUR_SPARK_VERSION" % "provided",
 // YOUR_DEPENDENCIES
)

assemblyShadeRules in assembly := Seq(
  ShadeRule.rename("com.google.common.**" -> "repackaged.com.google.common.@1").inAll
)

To run the build:

sbt assembly

Notes about build.sbt:

  • The shade rule in the above example may not solve all dependency conflicts because SBT uses strict conflict resolution strategies. Therefore, you may need to provide more granular rules that explicitly merge specific types of conflicting files using MergeStrategy.first, last, concat, filterDistinctLines, rename, or discard strategies. See sbt-assembly's merge strategy for more details.
  • You may need to shade multiple libraries. To do so, include multiple paths. The next example shades the Guava and Protobuf libraries.
    assemblyShadeRules in assembly := Seq(
      ShadeRule.rename("com.google.common.**" -> "repackaged.com.google.common.@1").inAll,
      ShadeRule.rename("com.google.protobuf.**" -> "repackaged.com.google.protobuf.@1").inAll
    )
    

Submitting the uber JAR to Cloud Dataproc

After you have created a shaded uber JAR that contains your Spark applications and its dependencies, you are ready to submit a job to Cloud Dataproc.

What's next

  • See spark-translate, a sample Spark application that contains configuration files for both Maven and SBT.
  • Write and run Spark Scala jobs on Cloud Dataproc. quickstart to learn how to write and run Spark Scala jobs on a Cloud Dataproc cluster.
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