Crittografia lato client con Tink e Cloud KMS

Questo argomento descrive come criptare localmente i dati e caricarli in Cloud Storage con l'SDK crittografico open source di Google, Tink e Cloud Key Management Service (KMS).

Panoramica

La crittografia lato client è qualsiasi crittografia eseguita prima di inviare i tuoi dati al cloud. Quando utilizzi la crittografia lato client, è tua responsabilità creare e gestire le tue chiavi di crittografia e utilizzare i tuoi strumenti per criptare i dati prima di inviarli al cloud.

I dati criptati sul lato client vengono inviati al cloud in stato criptato. Per utilizzare la crittografia lato client, hai a disposizione le seguenti opzioni:

  • usando una chiave di crittografia archiviata in Cloud Key Management Service.
  • Usare una chiave di crittografia archiviata localmente nell'applicazione.

In questo argomento creerai una chiave di crittografia in Cloud Key Management Service e implementerai la crittografia della busta utilizzando l'SDK crittografico open source di Tink.

Prima di iniziare

  1. Crea una chiave di crittografia simmetrica Cloud Key Management Service per la crittografia. Prendi nota dell'URI della chiave, che verrà utilizzato in seguito.
  2. Installa Tink per l'utilizzo con Cloud Key Management Service.
  3. Crea un bucket in Cloud Storage per caricare i tuoi dati criptati.

Crittografia busta con Tink

Nella crittografia delle busta, la chiave Cloud KMS agisce come chiave di crittografia delle chiavi (KEK, Key Encryption Key). Vale a dire che viene utilizzato per criptare le chiavi di crittografia dei dati (DEK, Data Encription Key) che a loro volta vengono utilizzate per criptare i dati effettivi.

Dopo aver creato una KEK in Cloud KMS, per criptare ogni messaggio che devi:

  1. Genera una chiave di crittografia dei dati (DEK) a livello locale.
  2. Utilizza la DEK a livello locale per criptare il messaggio.
  3. Utilizzare Cloud KMS per criptare (avvolgere) la DEK con la KEK.
  4. Archivia i dati criptati e la DEK aggregata.

Anziché implementare i passaggi precedenti per la crittografia della busta da zero, utilizzerai Tink.

Per criptare i dati con la crittografia busta di Tink, fornisci a Tink un URI di chiave che rimandi alla tua KEK in Cloud KMS e le credenziali che consentono a Tink di utilizzare la KEK. Tink genera la DEK, cripta i dati, aggrega il DEK e restituisce un singolo testo di crittografia con i dati criptati e il DEK aggregato.

Tink supporta la crittografia delle buste in Python, Java, C++ e Go utilizzando la crittografia autenticata con dati associati (AEAD).

Connetti Tink e Cloud KMS

Per criptare le DEK generate da Tink con la tua KEK in Cloud KMS, devi ottenere l'URI di KEK's. In Cloud KMS, l'URI KEK ha il formato:

gcp-kms://projects/<PROJECT>/locations/<LOCATION>/keyRings/ <KEY RING>/cryptoKeys/<KEY NAME>/cryptoKeyVersions/<VERSION>

Per informazioni dettagliate su come recuperare il percorso della tua chiave, vedi Ottenere un ID risorsa di Cloud KMS.

Per fornire l'accesso alla chiave in Cloud KMS, devi concedere l'account di servizio utilizzato dall'applicazione con il ruolo cloudkms.cryptoKeyEncrypterDecrypter. Per ulteriori informazioni sui ruoli, consulta Autorizzazioni e ruoli. In gcloud, utilizza il seguente comando:

gcloud kms keys add-iam-policy-binding key \
    --keyring key-ring \
    --location location \
    --member serviceAccount:service-account-name@example.domain.com \
    --role roles/cloudkms.cryptoKeyEncrypterDecrypter

Inizializza Tink e cripta i dati

Tink utilizza primitive, componenti di base crittografici che gestiscono i dettagli dei relativi algoritmi sottostanti, in modo che gli utenti possano eseguire attività in sicurezza. Ogni primitiva offre un'API che gestisce un'attività specifica. Ora utilizziamo AEAD, quindi utilizzeremo la primitiva AEAD Tink.

Python

Python

Per informazioni su come installare e utilizzare la libreria client per Cloud KMS, consulta la sezione Librerie client di Cloud KMS.

"""A command-line utility for performing file encryption using GCS.

It is inteded for use with small files, utilizes envelope encryption and
facilitates ciphertexts stored in GCS.
"""

from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function

from absl import app
from absl import flags
from absl import logging
from google.cloud import storage

import tink
from tink import aead
from tink.integration import gcpkms

FLAGS = flags.FLAGS

flags.DEFINE_enum('mode', None, ['encrypt', 'decrypt'],
                  'The operation to perform.')
flags.DEFINE_string('kek_uri', None,
                    'The Cloud KMS URI of the key encryption key.')
flags.DEFINE_string('gcp_credential_path', None,
                    'Path to the GCP credentials JSON file.')
flags.DEFINE_string('gcp_project_id', None,
                    'The ID of the GCP project hosting the GCS blobs.')
flags.DEFINE_string('local_path', None, 'Path to the local file.')
flags.DEFINE_string('gcs_blob_path', None, 'Path to the GCS blob.')

_GCS_PATH_PREFIX = 'gs://'

def main(argv):
  del argv  # Unused.

  # Initialise Tink
  try:
    aead.register()
  except tink.TinkError as e:
    logging.exception('Error initialising Tink: %s', e)
    return 1

  # Read the GCP credentials and setup client
  try:
    gcpkms.GcpKmsClient.register_client(
        FLAGS.kek_uri, FLAGS.gcp_credential_path)
  except tink.TinkError as e:
    logging.exception('Error initializing GCP client: %s', e)
    return 1

  # Create envelope AEAD primitive using AES256 GCM for encrypting the data
  try:
    template = aead.aead_key_templates.create_kms_envelope_aead_key_template(
        kek_uri=FLAGS.kek_uri,
        dek_template=aead.aead_key_templates.AES256_GCM)
    handle = tink.KeysetHandle.generate_new(template)
    env_aead = handle.primitive(aead.Aead)
  except tink.TinkError as e:
    logging.exception('Error creating primitive: %s', e)
    return 1

  storage_client = storage.Client.from_service_account_json(
      FLAGS.gcp_credential_path)

  try:
    bucket_name, object_name = _get_bucket_and_object(FLAGS.gcs_blob_path)
  except ValueError as e:
    logging.exception('Error parsing GCS blob path: %s', e)
    return 1
  bucket = storage_client.bucket(bucket_name)
  blob = bucket.blob(object_name)
  associated_data = FLAGS.gcs_blob_path.encode('utf-8')

  if FLAGS.mode == 'encrypt':
    with open(FLAGS.local_path, 'rb') as input_file:
      output_data = env_aead.encrypt(input_file.read(), associated_data)
    blob.upload_from_string(output_data)

  elif FLAGS.mode == 'decrypt':
    ciphertext = blob.download_as_bytes()
    with open(FLAGS.local_path, 'wb') as output_file:
      output_file.write(env_aead.decrypt(ciphertext, associated_data))

  else:
    logging.error(
        'Error mode not supported. Please choose "encrypt" or "decrypt".')
    return 1

def _get_bucket_and_object(gcs_blob_path):
  """Extract bucket and object name from a GCS blob path.

  Args:
    gcs_blob_path: path to a GCS blob

  Returns:
    The bucket and object name of the GCS blob

  Raises:
    ValueError: If gcs_blob_path parsing fails.
  """
  if not gcs_blob_path.startswith(_GCS_PATH_PREFIX):
    raise ValueError(
        f'GCS blob paths must start with gs://, got {gcs_blob_path}')
  path = gcs_blob_path[len(_GCS_PATH_PREFIX):]
  parts = path.split('/', 1)
  if len(parts) < 2:
    raise ValueError(
        'GCS blob paths must be in format gs://bucket-name/object-name, '
        f'got {gcs_blob_path}')
  return parts[0], parts[1]

if __name__ == '__main__':
  flags.mark_flags_as_required([
      'mode', 'kek_uri', 'gcp_credential_path', 'gcp_project_id', 'local_path',
      'gcs_blob_path'])
  app.run(main)

Java

Java

Per informazioni su come installare e utilizzare la libreria client per Cloud KMS, consulta la sezione Librerie client di Cloud KMS.

package gcs;

import static java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets.UTF_8;

import com.google.auth.oauth2.GoogleCredentials;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobId;
import com.google.cloud.storage.BlobInfo;
import com.google.cloud.storage.Storage;
import com.google.cloud.storage.StorageOptions;
import com.google.crypto.tink.Aead;
import com.google.crypto.tink.KeyTemplates;
import com.google.crypto.tink.KeysetHandle;
import com.google.crypto.tink.aead.AeadConfig;
import com.google.crypto.tink.aead.KmsEnvelopeAeadKeyManager;
import com.google.crypto.tink.integration.gcpkms.GcpKmsClient;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Optional;

/**
 * A command-line utility for encrypting small files with envelope encryption and uploading the
 * results to GCS.
 *
 * <p>The CLI takes the following required arguments:
 *
 * <ul>
 *   <li>mode: "encrypt" or "decrypt" to indicate if you want to encrypt or decrypt.
 *   <li>kek-uri: The URI for the Cloud KMS key to be used for envelope encryption.
 *   <li>gcp-credential-file: Name of the file with the GCP credentials (in JSON format) that can
 *       access the Cloud KMS key and the GCS input/output blobs.
 *   <li>gcp-project-id: The ID of the GCP project hosting the GCS blobs that you want to encrypt or
 *       decrypt.
 * </ul>
 *
 * <p>When mode is "encrypt", it takes the following additional arguments:
 *
 * <ul>
 *   <li>local-input-file: Read the plaintext from this local file.
 *   <li>gcs-output-blob: Write the encryption result to this blob in GCS. The encryption result is
 *       bound to the location of this blob. That is, if you rename or move it to a different
 *       bucket, decryption will fail.
 * </ul>
 *
 * <p>When mode is "decrypt", it takes the following additional arguments:
 *
 * <ul>
 *   <li>gcs-input-blob: Read the ciphertext from this blob in GCS.
 *   <li>local-output-file: Write the decryption result to this local file.
 */
public final class GcsEnvelopeAeadExample {
  private static final String MODE_ENCRYPT = "encrypt";
  private static final String MODE_DECRYPT = "decrypt";
  private static final String GCS_PATH_PREFIX = "gs://";

  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    if (args.length != 6) {
      System.err.printf("Expected 6 parameters, got %d\n", args.length);
      System.err.println(
          "Usage: java GcsEnvelopeAeadExample encrypt/decrypt kek-uri gcp-credential-file"
              + " gcp-project-id input-file output-file");
      System.exit(1);
    }
    String mode = args[0];
    String kekUri = args[1];
    String gcpCredentialFilename = args[2];
    String gcpProjectId = args[3];

    // Initialise Tink: register all AEAD key types with the Tink runtime
    AeadConfig.register();

    // Read the GCP credentials and set up client
    try {
      GcpKmsClient.register(Optional.of(kekUri), Optional.of(gcpCredentialFilename));
    } catch (GeneralSecurityException ex) {
      System.err.println("Error initializing GCP client: " + ex);
      System.exit(1);
    }

    // Create envelope AEAD primitive using AES256 GCM for encrypting the data
    Aead aead = null;
    try {
      KeysetHandle handle =
          KeysetHandle.generateNew(
              KmsEnvelopeAeadKeyManager.createKeyTemplate(kekUri, KeyTemplates.get("AES256_GCM")));
      aead = handle.getPrimitive(Aead.class);
    } catch (GeneralSecurityException ex) {
      System.err.println("Error creating primitive: %s " + ex);
      System.exit(1);
    }

    GoogleCredentials credentials =
        GoogleCredentials.fromStream(new FileInputStream(gcpCredentialFilename))
            .createScoped(Arrays.asList("https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform"));
    Storage storage =
        StorageOptions.newBuilder()
            .setProjectId(gcpProjectId)
            .setCredentials(credentials)
            .build()
            .getService();

    // Use the primitive to encrypt/decrypt files.
    if (MODE_ENCRYPT.equals(mode)) {
      // Encrypt the local file
      byte[] input = Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get(args[4]));
      String gcsBlobPath = args[5];
      // This will bind the encryption to the location of the GCS blob. That if, if you rename or
      // move the blob to a different bucket, decryption will fail.
      // See https://developers.google.com/tink/aead#associated_data.
      byte[] associatedData = gcsBlobPath.getBytes(UTF_8);
      byte[] ciphertext = aead.encrypt(input, associatedData);

      // Upload to GCS
      String bucketName = getBucketName(gcsBlobPath);
      String objectName = getObjectName(gcsBlobPath);
      BlobId blobId = BlobId.of(bucketName, objectName);
      BlobInfo blobInfo = BlobInfo.newBuilder(blobId).build();
      storage.create(blobInfo, ciphertext);
    } else if (MODE_DECRYPT.equals(mode)) {
      // Download the GCS blob
      String gcsBlobPath = args[4];
      String bucketName = getBucketName(gcsBlobPath);
      String objectName = getObjectName(gcsBlobPath);
      byte[] input = storage.readAllBytes(bucketName, objectName);

      // Decrypt to a local file
      byte[] associatedData = gcsBlobPath.getBytes(UTF_8);
      byte[] plaintext = aead.decrypt(input, associatedData);
      File outputFile = new File(args[5]);
      try (FileOutputStream stream = new FileOutputStream(outputFile)) {
        stream.write(plaintext);
      }
    } else {
      System.err.println("The first argument must be either encrypt or decrypt, got: " + mode);
      System.exit(1);
    }

    System.exit(0);
  }

  private static String getBucketName(String gcsBlobPath) {
    if (!gcsBlobPath.startsWith(GCS_PATH_PREFIX)) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(
          "GCS blob paths must start with gs://, got " + gcsBlobPath);
    }

    String bucketAndObjectName = gcsBlobPath.substring(GCS_PATH_PREFIX.length());
    int firstSlash = bucketAndObjectName.indexOf("/");
    if (firstSlash == -1) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(
          "GCS blob paths must have format gs://my-bucket-name/my-object-name, got " + gcsBlobPath);
    }
    return bucketAndObjectName.substring(0, firstSlash);
  }

  private static String getObjectName(String gcsBlobPath) {
    if (!gcsBlobPath.startsWith(GCS_PATH_PREFIX)) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(
          "GCS blob paths must start with gs://, got " + gcsBlobPath);
    }

    String bucketAndObjectName = gcsBlobPath.substring(GCS_PATH_PREFIX.length());
    int firstSlash = bucketAndObjectName.indexOf("/");
    if (firstSlash == -1) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException(
          "GCS blob paths must have format gs://my-bucket-name/my-object-name, got " + gcsBlobPath);
    }
    return bucketAndObjectName.substring(firstSlash + 1);
  }

  private GcsEnvelopeAeadExample() {}
}

Per ulteriori informazioni sulle primitive supportate e sulle relative interfacce, consulta Come funziona Tink.

Passaggi successivi